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DICTIONARY OF 
FILM MAKERS 



This One 

niiiiii 

TJW0-BJ1-N8AD 




TRANSLATED, EDITED, AND UPDATED BY 



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA PRESS 
BERKELEY AND LOS ANGELES 



University of California Press 
Berkeley and Los Angeles 
© 1972 by The Regents of the University of California 
Translated with the permission of Editions du Seuil, 
Paris. Originally published as Dictionnaire des 
Cinéastes, 1965. 
Designed by W. H. Snyder 
Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 78-136028 
ISBN: 0-520-01864-8 (cloth) 
0-520-02151-7 (paper) 



Copyrighted material 



BY GEORGES SADOUL 



For this Dictionary we used the definition of "Film Maker" given by 
Louis Delluc in 1922, to include "Organizers, directors, artists, industri- 
alists who have contributed something to the artistic industry of the 
cinema." 

The present volume contains a thousand entries devoted to directors, 
scriptwriters, cinematographers, art directors, composers, producers, inven- 
tors—but not actors and actresses. At least 10,000 entries would be nec- 
essary—not for an international Who's Who which would require at 
least 100,000 names, but just in order to include all those who have con- 
tributed to the rapid worldwide development of the art of the cinema since 
1895. This Dictionary does not pretend to be "exhaustive." In order to be 
accessible to everyone, both in format and in price, it could not attempt 
to emulate the monumental Italian Filmlexicon degli Autori whose seven 
volumes contain well over 50,000 entries, including actors. 

The necessity of making a selection has led us to choose, sometimes 
arbitrarily, one film maker over another of equal importance; but we have 
attempted to include here the representatives of 60 countries without limit- 
ing ourselves to the best-known film industries. Twenty-five years devoted to 
film history, numerous study travels in four continents, devoted collabora- 
tors and excellent French and foreign reference works have not prevented 
errors and gaps in a volume which contains about 20,000 dates and film 
titles. Certain omissions (rightly or wrongly) are deliberate. Others not. If 
one attempted to bring to the public only à perfect work one would never 
be able to print the manuscript Publication is the best means of provoking 
corrections and additional information. We appeal to readers to send us 
these so that one day a revised and corrected edition can be published. 
Our predecessors proceeded no differently. 

Here is the method we have followed. The date of a film is in principle 
that of the first public screening, not of its conception, beginning or end 
of production, or private screening. In this we have followed the historians 



Copyrighted material 



of literature who use the date of the first edition, of a book's release to the 
public, as the identifying one. 

Each of our entries (apart from those of a few lines) is comprised of a 
critical appraisal, followed by a filmography. All have been abridged and 
many do not list all the films of a prolific film maker. 

The director's filmographies are the key to this Dictionary. For other film 
makers we cite only film titles with their directors, whose entries should be 
referred to for additional information. This part has been retained to 
facilitate consultation but it does not signify that we have pretended to 
settle the old question about the "author" of a film. In certain cases, the 
principal "author" might be less the credited director than a star (such as 
Douglas Fairbanks), a producer (such as Zanuck), a scriptwriter (such as 
Zavattini), or even a writer whose literary work has been adapted (such as 
Victor Hugo). A film is almost always a collective creation and each col- 
laborator, from the least technician to the most famous star, in small part 
or large, is one of the authors. Moreover, certain major comedians can be 
considered as the principal authors of films which they themselves did not 
always "direct." Thus, we have included brief entries for Buster Keaton, 
Max Under, Harold Lloyd, and others. 

In the entries for important directors we have quite often quoted from 
interviews, statements, or critical articles. Sometimes we have had to para- 
phrase these while respecting the spirit. In the filmographies we have given 
(whenever possible) original-language titles and the French titles which are 
not often a literal translation but the title chosen, for good or ill, by the dis- 
tributor. A thousand important films have been given only by title, followed 
by an asterisk, indicating that this work is described in more detail in our 
complementary Dictionary of Films. 

In order to be able to publish a volume for wide distribution it was nec- 
essary to accept limitations on the number of entries and therefore to 
eliminate some categories of film makers. We have not included technicians 
though we know that they are of major importance (editors, sound engi- 
neers, and camera operators). We have cited few producers and no ex- 
hibitors, distributors, or exporters. 

It is our hope that this present volume, such as it is, will be of assistance 
to cinéphiles — that elite of spectators who now count themselves in mil- 
lions around the world. 



vi 



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TO THE ENGLISH EDITION 
BY PETER MORRIS 

I am pleased to have had the opportunity of bringing Georges Sadoul's val- 
uable Dictionary of Film Makers to English-speaking readers. In preparing 
this edition I have taken advantage of his invitation to revise and correct 
factual information in the original. In particular many of the filmographies 
have been expanded and additional biographical information has been in- 
cluded in many of the entries. 

More recent development of certain film makers' work has led me to revise 
completely several of the entries. I have also added many new entries, no- 
tably for directors who established their reputations in the sixties (e.g., 
Bertolucci, Form an, Skolimowski) but also for certain cameramen, writers, 
and composers whose work seemed to me to merit inclusion. In each case 
entries authored by me are indicated by an asterisk. In some cases I have 
added additional information or a critical appraisal of the film maker's re- 
cent work; these are indicated in the text by square brackets [ ]. In all, the 
Dictionary has been expanded by some 15%. 

The original format has been retained with minor revisions. The film 
maker's name is followed by an indication (in parentheses) of his original 
name or other names under which he worked (also = also known as). 
The arrangement is entirely alphabetical by letter. "Mc" and "Mac" are 
interfiled as "Mac" as is now common practice though, of course, the 
correct spelling has been retained. Certain names have been cross-refer- 
enced for convenience and to avoid confusion over surname prefixes (e.g., 
Philippe de Broca is entered under "Broca" but cross-referenced from "de 
Broca," and similarly with Erich von Stroheim, and others). 

The filmographies for many entries have been expanded and in every 
case up-dated; for some directors the filmographies have been completed. 
Filmographies which are not complete have been indicated by the use of 
"notably" preceding the filmography, to indicate that a selection has been 
made. Original-language film titles have been used in directors' filmogra- 

vii 



Uopy riQhtod mstcnsl 



phies wherever possible but not for other film makers where a cross reference 
to the director is possible. For reasons of space, titles in common languages 
(French, German, Italian) have not been translated when the English 
release title is merely a translation of the original; it has usually been given 
when it substantially differs. For other languages (Russian, Swedish, 
Japanese, etc.) an English title is given even though this may only be a 
literal translation and not a release title. 

Film dates, given in parentheses after the title and without the "19," do 
not include the country of origin except where this is not the same as that 
in which the film maker normally worked. For film makers who worked on 
a group of films in one country and later in another country, the films' 
country of origin is given only at the beginning and end of each series of 
films (e.g., Lubitsch). In any case, the films' nationality is often indicated 
by the language of the tides. 

As Sadoul points out, publication is a means of provoking emendations 
and I join with him in welcoming corrections or additional information for 
inclusion in a later edition. 

Inevitably not everyone will agree with Sadoul's assessment of certain 
film makers, nor with mine. But the particular merit of the original over 
other dictionaries is its critical and historical appraisals rather than its being 
only an assemblage of facts. It is this quality which I hope I have retained 
in this edition. I am indebted to the Canadian Film Institute's Film Study 
Center and the British Film Institute's Information Department, without 
access to which the preparation of this volume would have been impossible. 



viii 



Copyrighted material 



ALSO 


Also known as 


ED 


Editor 


ANIM 


Animator 


MUS 


Composer 


ART DIR 


Art Director/Production 


PHOTOG 


Director of Photography 




Designer 


PROD 


Producer/Executive 


ASSIST 


Assistant 




Producer 


CHOREOG 


Choreographer/Dance 


PSEUD 


Pseudonym 




Director 


Q.V. 


See 


DIR 


Director 


SCEN 


Scenarist/Script-writer 



Film makers are listed under their professional names. Actual or alternate 
names follow in parentheses. 

An asterisk following a title indicates a film described in the companion 
Dictionary of Films. An asterisk preceding an entry indicates that the entry 
was added or significantly expanded by the translator. 



COUNTRY ABBREVIATIONS USED IN FILMOGRAPHIES 



Aust 


Austria 


Gr 


Greece 


Austral 


Australia 


Hung 


Hungary 


Belg 


Belgium 


It 


Italy 


Brit 


Britain 


Mex 


Mexico 


Bulg 


Bulgaria 


Neth 


Netherlands 


Czech 


Czechoslovakia 


Nor 


Norway 


Den 


Denmark 


Pol 


Poland 


Fin 


Finland 


Rum 


Rumania/Romania 


Fr 


France 


Sp 


Spain 


Ger 


Germany 


Swed 


Sweden 


GDR 


German Democratic Republic/ 


Switz 


Switzerland 




East Germany 


Yugos 


Yugoslovia 


GFR 


German Federal Republic/ 







West Germany 



Copyrighted material 



AAES, Erik (also, In France, Eric Aèss) ART 

DiR Denmark. (Nordby April 27, 1899- 
) One of the best art directors of in- 
ternational stature, as exemplified by his 
work with Dreyer (q.v.) on Ordet* and 
Vredens dag* with Marcel L'Herbier 
(q.v.) on Feu Mathias Pascal*, with 
Cavalcanti (q.v.) on Yvette, En rade*, 
and Le Capitaine Fracasse, and with 
Renoir (q.v.) on La Petite marchande 
d'allumettes*. Since 1929, he has largely 
confined his activities to the Danish 
cinema, with the exception of Caval- 
canti's H err Puntila und sein Knecht 
Matti* (55), and André de Toth's Hid- 
den Fear (57). 

ABBAS, Khwaja Ahmad DIR/SCEN/PROD In- 
dia. (Panipat June 7, 1914- ) A pow- 
erful force in the Indian cinema, both 
as film maker and journalist. Began his 
film career as scriptwriter and later 
directed his own films. Creator of two 
key Indian films: Dharti Ke Lai /Chil- 
dren of the Earth* (46), rural poverty 
and dispossessed peasantry in Bengal; 
Shehar aur Sapna/The City and the 
Dream (63), produced on a shoestring 
budget and filmed in the slums and on 
the roads. [Also notably, 
scen: Nay a Sansar, A warn*, Shri 420. 
dir: Munna* (54), much influenced by 
neorealism and the first Hindi film pro- 
duced without songs and dances, Par- 
desi/The Traveller (SI) (co-production 
with USSR, V. M. Pronin co-dir), The 
Celestial Palace (66).] 

ABULADZE, T.nghis DIR USSR. (Koutaissi, 

Georgia Jan 31, 1924- ) Young 
Georgian director who has directed a 
number of documentaries and made his 
first feature as co-director with Chkheidze 
[q.v.) on Lurdzha Magdany/Magdana's 
Donkey* (55), awarded a prize at 



Cannes, a compassionate and expressive 
film in the realist tradition. Also, Some- 
body Else's Children (59) (co-dir: 
Djaparidze), Me, Grandmother, Iliko, 
and lllarion (63), The Prayer (68). 

ABU SAIF, Salah DIR Egypt. (April 12, 

1915- ) With the younger Youssef 
Shahine (q.v.), he is the best director 
of the modern Egyptian cinema. An ex- 
pression of popular life and a feeling 
for human truths characterize his best 
films: The Monster, A Woman's Youth, 
and The Beginning and the End. He be- 
gan his career in films as an editor and 
became a director after the war. 
dir: Daiman Fi Kalbi/ Always in My 
Heart (47), El Muntakem/The Avenger 
(47), Mughammarat Antar wa Abla/ 
The Adventures of Antar and Abla (48), 
Shariah el Bahlawane / Street of the Pup- 
pet Show (49), El Sakr/The Falcon 
(50), Laka Yom Ya Zalem/Your Day 
Will Come (51), El Hub Bahdala/Love 
is a Scanda' (51), El Osta H assent Fore- 
man Hassan (52), Raya and Sekina 
(53), El Wahsh/The Monster* (54), 
Chabab Emraa/A Woman's Youth (56), 
El Fatawa/The Tough (56), El Wessada 
el Khalia/The Empty Pillow (57), La 
Anam/No Tomorrow (57), Mugarem 
Fi Ijaza/Thief on Holiday (58), El 
Tarik el Masdud/The Barred Road 
(58), Ana Hurra/ I'm Free (59), Bint 
Sabatashar/A Girl of Seventeen (59), 
Bayn el Samoa wa el Ard/ Between 
Heaven and Earth (59), Lawet el Hub/ 
Agony of Love (59), Bedaya wa Ne- 
hayat/The Beginning and the End (60), 
La Tutfi el Shems/The Sun Will Never 
Set (61), Ressalah min emraa Ma- 
ghoola/ Letter from an Unknown Woman 
(62), Cairo 30 (66), El Zawga el Saniaf 
The Second Wife (67), El Cadia 68/ 
Case 68 (68), Awdit el Roh/The Return 
of the Spirit (69). 



i 



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achard, Marcol scen/dir France. (Sainte- 
Foy-lès-Lyon July 5, 1900- ) Member 
of French Academy. With an appealing 
sense of fantasy, he revived the comédie 
boulevardière after 1925 and created a 
new tradition for it. 

scen (notably): Jean de la lune (31) 
(dir: Jean Choux), Mayerling (36) 
(dir: Anatole Litvak), Alibi (37) (dir: 
Pierre Chenal), Gribouille (37) (dir: 
Marc Allégret), Orage (38) (dir: Marc 
Allégret), Félicie Nanteuil (42) (dir: 
Marc Allégret), Madame de* (53) (dir: 
Ophiils), La Femme et le Pantin (59) 
(dir: Julien Duvivier). 
dir (notably): Jean de la lune (49) 
(remake), La Valse de Paris (50). 

ACHAREKAR M. R. ART dir India. (Bom- 
bay Nov 14, 1905- ) One of the best 
Indian designers. He has collaborated 
with Mehboob Khan (q.v.) on Aan* 
and with Raj Kapoor (q.v.) on Shri 
420 /Mister 420, Awara*, and Jagte 
Raho*. 

*adam, Kon art dir Britain. (Berlin 
1921- ) Moved to Britain from Ger- 
many before the war and has been in 
films since 1947. Most noted for his 
stylish designs for the James Bond se- 
ries: Dr. No* (62), Goldfinger* (64), 
Thunderball* (65), You Only Live 
Twice* (67). Other notable films in- 
clude Queen of Spades (48), Around 
the World in Eighty Days (56) (Euro- 
pean scenes), Night of the Demon* (58), 
The Ipcress File (65), Funeral in Berlin 
(66), Chitty Chitty Bang Bang (68). 

•ADIER, Buddy (Maurice Adler) PROD USA. 
(USA June 22 1906-July 12 1960) One 
of the most notable Hollywood pro- 
ducers. With Columbia from 1947-54. 
Joined 20th-century Fox in 1954 and 
became head of the studio in 1956. 
Died while preparing Cleopatra*. Main 
films: Salome (53), From Here to Eter- 
nity* (53), Love is a Many Splendored 
Thing (55), Bus Stop* (56), Anastasia 
(56), Heaven Knows, Mr. Allison (57), 
South Pacific (58), Inn of the Sixth 
Happiness (58). 

ADRIAN (Gilbert Adrian) COSTUMES USA. 
(Naugatuk, USA 1903-1959) One of 
the best Hollywood costume designers 
and set decorators in the early sound 
period. With MGM for many years, his 
precise, luxurious, sophisticated approach 



found its best outlet in the period films 
of Greta Garbo and George Cukor. Best 
work: for Edmund Goulding Love (27), 
for Lubitsch The Merry Widow* (34), 
for Mamoulian Queen Christina (33), 
for Clarence Brown Anna Karenina 
(35), Conquest (38), for George Cukor 
David Copperfield (35), Camille (36), 
for Robert Z. Leonard The Great Zieg- 
field (36). 

AÈSS, Eric See AXES, ERIK 

AGOSTINI, Philippe photog/dir France. 
(Paris August 11, 1910- ) As director 
of photography for Bresson (q.v.), Da- 
quin (q.v.), Carné (q.v.), Grémillon 
(q.v.), and Ophiils (q.v.), he contrib- 
uted much to the typical French visual 
style of the Forties and early Fifties. In 
1958 began to direct his own films. As- 
sist Photog on Quai des brumes*. 
photog (notably): for Duvivier Carnet 
de Bal* (37), for Benoit-Lévy Itto (34), 
for Autant Lara Lettres d'amour (42), 
Douce* (43), for Bresson Les Anges 
du péché* (43), Les Dames du bois de 
Boulogne* (45), for Carné Les Portes 
de la nuit* (46), for Ophiils Le Plaisir* 
(51), for Jules Dassin Du rififi chez les 
hommes* (55). 

dir: Le Naïf aux quarante enfants (58), 
Le Dialogue des Carmélites (59), Ren- 
contres (62), La Soupe aux poulets (63). 

AGRADOOT pseud collective dir/scen/ 
prod Nishith Bannerjee Agragami 
(1924- ) photog Bibhuti Lata (1915- 
) Among the best Bengali directors, 
humanistic and concerned with both 
emotion and contemporary life. Most 
notable films include Santralpa (49), 
Sagarika (50), Sree Jagannath (50), 
and Sahajatri (51), Babla (51), Kar 
Papay (52), Andi (52), Agni Pariksha 

(54) , Anupama (55), Sabar Oparay 

(55) , Shilpi (57). 

AKAT, lutfa dir Turkey. (Istanbul 1916- 
) The most prolific and well-known 
Turkish director with two or three fea- 
tures a year since 1952. 
dir (notably): Unutlan sir (47), Damga 
(47), Vurun kahpeye (48), Ingiliz Ke- 
rnal Lawrens'e karsi (49), Kaatil (53), 
Beyaz mendil (55), Ak altin (57). 

ALDO, G. R. (Aldo Graxiati) PHOTOG Italy/ 
France. (Scorze Jan 1, 1902-Albara di 
Painiga Nov 14, 1953) The greatest 



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postwar Italian cinematographer, noted 
for his excellent sense of black and 
white and his talent for composition. 
After being a studio photographer in 
France, he became famous for his pho- 
tography for Visconti (q.v.) on La 

Terra trema*. He collaborated also 
with Orson Welles (q.v.) on Othello* 
and with De Sica (q.v.) on Miracle in 
Milan* and Umberto D*. He died in 
an automobile accident during the pro- 
duction of Senso*. 

ALDRICH, Robert B. Dm USA. (Cranston, 
Rhode Island August 9, 1918- ) 
[Joined RKO in 1943 as production 
clerk, then became second assistant di- 
rector. From 1946 to 1948 was assistant 
director, unit production manager, writer 
at Enterprises Studios. Continued as as- 
sociate producer and assistant until 1952 
when he directed 17 of the NBC TV 
series The Doctor and four of the China 
Smith series. During his years as assis- 
tant (see below) he worked with Re- 
noir (<7.v.), Losey (q.v.), Wcllman 
(q.v.) t and Chaplin (q.v.). He directed 
his first feature in 1953 and received 
major recognition with Apache in 1954.] 
His style is powerful, persuasive, and a 
little hysterical. He often dealt with so- 
cial themes in his early films, notably 
in Apache, Attack, The Big Knife and 
that marvelous reversal of the conven- 
tional thriller, Kiss Me Deadly. He has 
said of himself: "I portray heroic char- 
acters. I am opposed to the idea of 
fatalism. Everyone must take his own 
actions even if he is broken. Voluntary 
sacrifice is the acme of moral integrity. 
Suicide is a gesture of revolt: it is neces- 
sary to pay the price of strife ... I 
loath showing despicable characters who 
are merely black; this is a question less 
of finding excuses than explanations . . • 
I have a weakness for flowery language 
but during rehearsals I become aware 
of what could be excessive and I make 
it more humane . . . Love with a cap- 
ital L has never been depicted in my 
films. It is the basis of life, of mankind, 
but the attachment which a man can 
have to a way of life or a cause is per- 
haps more durable than the attachment 
to a woman." 

[assist: for Renoir The Southerner* 
(45), for Leslie Fenton Pardon My Past 

(45) , for Wellman The Story of G.I. Joe 

(46) , for Lewis Milestone The Strange 
Love of Martha Vickers (46), Arch of 



Triumph (48), The Red Pony (49), for 
Albert Lewin The Private Affairs of Bel 
Ami (47), for Robert Rossen Body and 
Soul (47), for Abraham Polonsky Force 
of Evil (48), for Richard Fleischer So 
This is New York (48), for Richard 
Wallace A Kiss for Corliss (49), for 
Ted Tetzlaff The White Tower (50), for 
Irving Reis Of Men and Music (50), 
New Mexico (50), for Joseph Losey 
M* (51), The Prowler (51), for Charles 
La mont Abbott and Costello Meet Cap- 
tain Kidd (52), for Charles Chaplin 
Limelight* (52). Also associate pro- 
ducer on The First Time (51), Ten 
Tall Men (51), When I Grow Up (51).] 
Dm: The Big Leaguer (53), World for 
Ransom (54), Apache* (54), Vera 
Cruz (54), Kiss Me Deadly* (55), The 
Big Knife* (55), Autumn Leaves (56), 
Attack* (56), The Garment Center/ 
The Garment Jungle (57) (Aldrich re- 
placed as director by Vincent Sherman 
(who received credit) when production 
almost completed), Ten Seconds to Hell 
(58), The Angry Hills (59), The Last 
Sunset (61), Sodoma e Gomorral Sodom 
and Gomorrah (It62), Whatever Hap- 
pened to Baby Jane? (62), Four for 
Texas (63), Hush . . . Hush, Sweet 
Charlotte (64), The Flight of the Phoe- 
nix (66), The Dirty Dozen (67), The 
Legend of Lylah Clare (68), The Killing 
of Sister George (68), Whatever Hap- 
pened to Aunt Alice? (68), Too Late 
the Hero (69), The Grissom Gang (70). 
Has produced many of his later films 
and was co-scriptwriter on Ten Seconds 
to Hell. 

•ALEA, To mai Guttiorrtx DR Cuba. ( 1928— 

) Trained at the Centro Sperimentale 
di Cinema in Rome. Organizer of the 
cinema section of the cultural division 
of the rebel army and later a founder 
member of ICAIC (Instituto Cubano 
del Arte e Indus tria Cinematograficos). 
Made several documentaries, Esta Tierra 
Nuestra (59), Asamblea General (59), 
Muerte al Invasor (61) (with Santiago 
Alvarez); directed the first post- Revo- 
lution feature, Historias de la Revolu- 
cion (60), three episodes of the Rev- 
olution presented in a semidocumentary 
style. In 1968 his Memories of Under- 
development was the first Cuban feature 
to make an international critical impact 
dir: Historias de la Revolucion (60), 
Las Doce Sillas (62), Cumbite (64) (a 
visually powerful peasant drama set in 



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Haiti), Muer te de un Burocrata (66), 
Memorias del Desarrolîo (68). Pro- 
jected, La Tierra Prometida (71), about 
the Inquisition. 

alekan, Henri PHOTOG France. (Paris 
Feb 10, 1909- ) Trained by Schiifftan 
(q.v.) this cinematographer was a great 
postwar revelation, as much at home 
with the documentary approach of La 
Bataille du rail as with the stylized La 
Belle et la bête. In more recent years he 
has specialized in color. Assistant, with 
Agostini (q.v.) and Page (q.v.), to 
Schiifftan (q.v.) on Quai des brumes*. 
photog (notably): for Clément, La 
Bataille du rail* (45), Les Maudits* 
(47); for Carné, La Marie du port 

(50) , Juliette ou la Clef des songes 

(51) ; for Cocteau, La Belle et la bête* 
(46); for Duvivier, Anna Karenina 
(Brit48); for Yves Allégret, Une si jolie 
petite plage* (48); for Gance, (co-pho- 
tog) Austerlitz (60); for Delanoy, La 
Princesse de Clèves; for Gatti, The Other 
Cristobal (Cuba63). Also Topkapi (64), 
Triple Cross (66), Mayer ling (68), 
Figures in a Landscape (70). 

ALEXANDROV, Grigori V. (Grigori Mormo- 
nenko) dir USSR. (Yekaterinburg Feb 
23, 1903- ) Originally Eisenstein's 
(q.v.) right-hand man and collaborator, 
he made his own name famous with 
Jazz Comedy (34). Drawing on Amer- 
ican burlesque, serials, musicals, and 
even animated cartoons, but with an 
original, very Russian style of its own, 
it was a worldwide success. He followed 
this up with the less successful Circus 
and Volga-Volga and, after the war, 
Spring, featuring his wife Lyuba Orlova. 
He returned to contemporary problems 
with Meeting on the Elbe in 1949 and 
in 1952, directed a biographical film on 
the composer, Glinka. His entertaining 
earthy approach and verve have earned 
him a place among film makers of in- 
ternational caliber. 

co-dir/co-scen (with Eisenstein): Oc- 
tober*, The General Line*, Que Viva 

Mexico*. 

dpr: Romance sentimentale (Fr31), 
Women's Crusade /Woman's Weal, Wom- 
an's Woe (Switz31), Internationale (33) 
(both these are experimental documen- 
taries), Vesyolye Rebyata/Jazz Com- 
edy* (34), Cirk /Circus* (36), Report 
of Comrade Stalin on Proposed Consti- 
tution of the USSR to the Eighth Ex- 



traordinary Congress of the Soviets (37), 
/ Maja/May 1st (38) (both documen- 
taries), Volga-Volga (38), Svetlyi Put/ 
Bright Pat h /Tanya (40), Film Report 
on the War No. 4 (41), Odna Semja/ 
One Family (43), Kapiskie Liudi /Those 
From the Caspian (44), Vesna/ Spring* 
(47), Vstrecha na Elbe/Meeting on the 
Elbe (49) (photog: Tisse, mus: Shosta- 
kovich), Kompozitor Glinka/Glinka 
(52) (photog: Tisse), Chelovieku che- 
loviek/From Man to Man (58) (docu- 
mentary), Russki Suvenir/ Russian Sou- 
venirs (60), Lenin v Shveitzarii/ Lenin 
in Switzerland (66), October, revised 
version of original (67). 

ALEXEIEFF, Alexandre am m France. (Ka- 
zan, Russia August 5, 1901- ) The 
complete work of this great French 
animator lasts barely two hours on the 
screen but represents more than thirty 
years of continuing experiments with 
plastic techniques. Originally a talented 
engraver and illustrator, he developed af- 
ter 1930 the pin-screen method of illu- 
minating thousands of pins, set at various 
levels in a screen, to produce depth and 
design. In Une nuit sur le mont Chauve 
(33) set to Mussorgsky's music he used 
this method to create the effect of ani- 
mated engravings, full of strange beauty 
and fantastic details. His prewar short 
commercials are supreme examples of 
the form - plastic poems of shapes, light, 
movement, and color. During the war in 
Canada he returned to the pin-screen 
with his collaborator Claire Parker and 
made the beautiful En Passant set to 
French-Canadian folk music. Back in 
France after the war, he had again 
to concentrate on commercials before 
making for Orson Welles the remarkable 
pin-screen prologue for The Trial and 
the short film Le Nez based on the Go- 
gol story. If only for his invention of the 
revolutionary pin-screen technique with 
its limitless possibilities, he would merit 
a place in film history. But he is also 
as great an artist as his peers in the 
"eighth art": Emile Reynaud, Emile 
Cohl, Norman McLaren, Karel Zeman, 
Jiri Trnka (all q.v.). 

anim: Une nuit sur le mont Chauve* 
(33), La Belle au bois dormant (35) 
(puppets); Commercials: Lingner Werke 
(35), L'Orchestre automatique (35), 
Parade des chapeaux (36), Le Trône 
de France (36), Franck Aroma (37-39), 
Crème Simon, Les Vêtements Sigrand, 



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Huilor, L'Eau eCEvian, Les Fonderies 
Martin, Les Oranges de Jaffa, Les Ciga- 
rettes Bastos, Les Gaines Roussel, Ceupa 
(37-39), En Passant (Can43), Fumées 
(51), Masques (52), Nocturnes (54), 
Pure Beauté (54), Rimes (54), Le 
Buisson ardent (55), Sève de la terre 
(55), Bain d'X (56), Osram (56), Quatre 
temps (57), Cent pour Cent (57), Con- 
stance (58), Anonyme (58); titles for 
Cocinor (57), titles and prologue, for 
The Trial* (62); Le Nez (63). 

algar, James dir/scen USA. (Modesto, 
USA 1914- ) Best known as specialist 
in Walt Disney's true-life adventure se- 
ries, which used trick montages of ani- 
mal life: Beaver Valley (50), The Living 
Desert* (53), The Vanishing Prairie 
(54), Secrets of Life (57), White Wil- 
derness (57). Also produced The In- 
credible Journey (63), The Gnome- 
Mobile (67). 

ALLEGRET, Marc MR France. (Bale, Swit- 
zerland Dec 22, 1900- ) Began with 
a documentary when he traveled with 
André Gide to the Congo, then during 
the Thirties directed a number of pol- 
ished films, notably Mam'zelle Nitouche 
(with Raimu), Le Lac-aux-dames, Sous 
les yeux d'Occident (based on Joseph 
Conrad's novel), Orage (with Jean-Louis 
Barrault, Michèle Morgan, Charles 
Boyer), and Entrée des artistes. His 
work since the war has been less inter- 
esting but usually effective. A great dis- 
coverer of talent, he gave their first real 
. chances to, among others, Simone Simon, 
Jean-Pierre Aumont (both in Les beaux 
fours), Michèle Morgan (in Gribouille), 
Danièle Delorme, Gérard Philipe (both 
in Les Petites du quai aux fleurs), and 
Brigitte Bardot (in Futures vedettes). 
Brother of Yves AUégret, 
dir: Voyage au Congo (27) (documen- 
tary), Pap oui (29), La Meilleure bo- 
bonne (30), J'ai quelque chose à vous 
dire (30), Mam'zelle Nitouche (31), La 
Petite chocolatière (31), Les Amants de 
minuit (31), Le Blanc et le Noir (31) 
(co-dir: Florey), Attaque nocturne (31), 
Fanny (32), Le Lac-aux-dames (34), 
L'Hôtel du libre échange (34), Us 
Beaux jours (35), Sous les yeux d'Occi- 
dent (36), Les Amants terribles (36), 
Aventure à Paris (36), Sans famille (36), 
La Dame de Malacca (37), Gribouille 
(37), Razumoff (37), Orage (38), En- 
trée des artistes (38), La Corsaire (39), 



Parade en sept nuits (41), Felicie Nan- 
teuil (42), La Belle aventure (42), V Ar- 
tésienne (42), Les Petites du quai aux 
fleurs (43), Lunegarde (44), Pétrus (46), 
Blanche Fury (Brit47), Maria Chap- 
delaine/The Naked Heart (Brit50), 
La Demoiselle et son revenant (51), 
Blackmailed (Brit51), Avec André Gide 

(51) (documentary), L'Occultisme et 
la Magie (52) (documentary), Jean Co- 
ton (53) (documentary), Julietta (53), 
L'Amante di Paride (It54), Femmina 
(It54), Futures vedettes (55), L'Amant 
de Lady Chatterley (55), En effeuillant 
la marguerite (56), L'Amour est en jeu 
(57), Sois belle et tais-toi (58), Un drôle 
de dimanche (58), Les Affreux (59), 
Les Démons de Minuit (61) (co-dir: 
Charles Gérard), Les Parisiennes (62) 
(one episode), L'Abominable Homme 
des douanes (63), Lumière (66) (docu- 
mentary), Expo 1900 (66) (documen- 
tary), Le Bal du comte d'Orgel (69). 

ALLEGRET, Yvm DIR France. (Paris Oct 
13, 1907- ) Brother of Marc Allégret 
Although >»e directed several prewar 
films and worked as an assistant to Jean 
Renoir (q.v.), be only succeeded in es- 
tablishing himself after the war when 
he became recognized as a specialist in 
the film noir with Une si jolie petite 
plage, Dédée d'Anvers, and Manèges. 
His abilities and humanism were later 
revealed in Les Miracles n'ont lieu qu'une 
fois, Les Orgueilleux, and La Meilleure 
Part. 

Dre: Ténériffe (32) (short), Prix et Profit 
(32), Le Gagnant (35), Vous n'avez 
rien à déclarer? (36) (co-dir: Léo Joan- 
non), Jeune fille de France (38), Les 
Deux timides (42) (under name Y. Cham- 
plain), La Boîte aux rives (44), Les 
Démons d l'Aube (46), Dédée d'Anvers 
(47), Une si jolie petite plage* (48), 
Manèges (50), Les Miracles n'ont lieu 
qu'une fols (51), Les Septs péchés capi- 
taux (51) (one episode), Nez-de-cutr 

(52) , La Jeune folle (52), Les Orgeuil- 
leux (53), Mam'zelle Nitouche (53), 
Oasis (54), La Meilleure Part (56), 
Méfiez-vous fillettes (57), La Fille de 
Hambourg (58), Quand la femme s'en 
mêle (58), L'Ambitieuse (59), Le Chien 
de pique (61), Germinal (Hung 63), 
Johnny Banco (66), L'Invasion (70). 

ALOV, Alexander DIR USSR. (Kharkov 
1923- ) One of the best of the younger 
generation of Soviet film makers who 



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always works in collaboration with Vla- 
dimir Naumov. Trained at the All- 
Union State Institute of Cinematography 
(VGIK) in Moscow under Savchenko 
(q.v.), began as assistant to Savchenko 
on Taras Schevchenko and completed it 
when Savchenko died during produc- 
tion. Concentrates on fast-paced, dra- 
matic action films largely dealing with 
the Russian Civil War and the Second 
World War. 

dir (all with Naumov): Trevozhnaya 
molodost/ Turbulent Youth (55), Pavel 
Korchagin* (57), Veter/The Wind (59), 
Mir vkhodyashchemu/ Peace to the New- 
comer (61), Moneta/The Coin (63) 
(for TV), Skvenei anekdot/An Ugly 
Story (65). 

amador I, Luis Cesar dir Argentina. (Pes- 
cara, Italy May 28, 1902- ) Prolific 
Argentinian director, at the height of his 
renown during the Peron regime. 
dir (notably): Puerto Nuevo (36), Na- 
poleon (41), Carmen (43), Madame 
Sans Gêne (45), Mosquita muerta (46), 
Albeniz (47), Una mujer sin cabeza 
(48), Don Juan Tenorio (49), Pescado 
(Mex51), La Pasion desnuda (52), La 
Bella Fioraia (It/Sp58). 

•AMBROSIO, Arturo prod/dir Italy. (Turin 
1869-Rome 1960) A pioneer of the 
Italian cinema who produced in Turin 
many of the first Italian costume spec- 
taculars: The Last Days of Pompeii 
(1908), The Slave of Carthage (1910), 
Dante e Beatrice (1912) and the 1924 
version of Quo Vadis*. He also pro- 
duced the famous Robinet comedies with 
Marcel Fabré. Also directed among 
others Theodora (21) from the play by 
Victorien Sardou and Cenere (16) with 
Eleonara Duse and Febo Mari. 

*amidei, Sergio scen Italy. (Trieste Oct 
30, 1904- ) Made his name with his 
script for Rome, Open City which he 
wrote in secret with Rossellini (q.v.) 
and became one of the best neorealist 
scriptwriters. Has worked for (always 
in collaboration with other writers) De 
Sica (q.v.), Zampa (q.v.), Lizzani {q.v.). 
scen (notably): for Rossellini, Rome, 
Open City*, Paisa*, Il Générale delta 
Rove re, Viva I'll alia, Stromboli, Angst/ 
La Peura, Era notte a Roma, La Ma- 
china ammazzacattivi; for Castellani, 
Sotto il sole di Roma; for De Sica Sciu- 
scia*; for Luigi Zampa, Anni difficili; 



for Carlo Lizzani, Cronache di poveri 
amanti*, II Processo di Verona. 

ANDERSON, Lindsay dir Britain. (Banga- 
lore, India April 17, 1923- ) Critic, 
writer, theater director and film maker, 
and the principal driving force behind 
the free cinema movement of the mid- 
Fifties. [His articles in Sight and Sound 
(notably, Stand Up! Stand Up!) de- 
manded a new sense of commitment in 
the cinema. A manifesto by the founders 
of free cinema stressed their common 
"belief in freedom, in the importance of 
the individual and in the significance of 
the everyday"] and Anderson himself 
expressed this in his poetic impression 
of Covent Garden Every Day Except 
Christmas and in his first feature This 
Sporting Life, still one of the best from 
the "kitchen sink" period of British 
films. [If ... , too, is a speculation on 
the nature of individualism. His time 
between films is devoted to the theater, 
where he is equally renowned as a di- 
rector at the National Theater. Co- 
founder in 1947 of the film magazine 
Sequence and frequently a critic for 
Sight and Sound, New Statesman, The 
Times, etc.] 

dir (shorts): Meet the Pioneers (48), 
Idlers that Work (50), Three Installa- 
tions (52), Wakefield Express (53), O 
Dreamland (54), Trunk Conveyor (54), 
Green and Pleasant Land (54), Henry 
(54), The Children Upstairs (54), 
Thursday's Children (54) (co-dir: Guy 
Brenton), £20 a Ton (55), Foot and 
Mouth (55), Every Day Except Christ- 
mas (57), five episodes of the Robin 
Hood TV Series: Secret Mission, The 
Imposters, Isabella, The Haunted Hill, 
Ambush (56-57), March to Aldermas- 
ton (59) (co-scriptwriter with several 
others), Raz, Dwa, Trzy/The Singing 
Lesson (Pol67), The White Bus (67) 
(originally intended as a episode in a 
feature). Also supervised editing of To- 
gether (55) (dir: Lorenza Mazetti) and 
was production manager of James 
Broughton's The Pleasure Garden (53). 
Also directed several TV commercials. 
Walter Lasally (q.v.) photographed 
many of the documentaries. 
dir (features): This Sporting Life* (63), 
//...♦ (68). 

*anger, Kenneth Dm USA. (Santa Mon- 
ica, California 1932- ) With Maya 
Deren (<7.v.) the most important name 



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in the development of the New American 
Cinema. Fascinated by magic, myth, 
and ritual, he began film-making at an 
early age and made his first significant 
contribution with Fireworks (47), a 
brilliant portrait of homosexuality. After 
several evocative works in Europe he 
created the obsessive Scorpio Rising (63), 
a societal poem. 

dir: Who Has Been Rocking My Dream 
Boat? (41), Tinsel Tree (42), Prisoner 
of Mars (42), The Nest (43), Escape 
Episode (44), Drastic Demise (45), Es- 
cape Episode (46) (re-edited sound ver- 
sion), Fireworks (47), Puce Moment 

(49) , La Lune des lapins (Fr50), Eaux 
d'Artifice (It53), Inauguration of the 
Pleasure Dome/Lord Shiva's Dream 
(54), Thelema Abbey (It55), Scorpio 
Rising* (63), Kustom Kar Kommando 
(64), Invocation of My Demon Brother 
(Brit69). 

ANKERSTJERNE, Johan PHOTOO Denmark. 
(Randers Jan 17, 1886- ) The best 
cameraman during the early (1911-20) 
period of the Danish cinema. Photo- 
graphed many of August Blom's (q. v.) 
films from 1911-16 and worked with 
Benjamin Christensen (q.v.), for whom 
he created the unforgettable images of 
Hàxan*. 

ANNENKOV, George* COSTUMES France. 

(Petropavlovsk, Russia 1901- ) Arrived 
in France with Chagall and Pougny af- 
ter having directed in the Soviet Union 
the mass pantomime The Capture of the 
Winter Palace. He developed into a 
skillful and polished designer whose ap- 
proach suited Max Ophtils during his 
last French period: La Ronde*, Le 
Plaisir*, Lola Montés*. 

Anouilh, J»an scen France. (Bordeaux 
June 23, 1910- ) Leading French dra- 
matist of the Second World War and 
postwar period (whose work ranges 
from romantic fatalism in his Pièces 
noires to savage tragicomedy in the 
Pièces grinçantes and to gentle delicacy 
in his Pièces roses) has also written sev- 
eral film scripts since 1936. 
scen (notably): Les Dégourdis de la 
Onzième (36) (dir: Christian-Jaque), 
Monsieur Vincent (47) (dir: Maurice 
Cloche), Anna Karenina (Brit47) (dir: 
Julien Duvivier), Pattes blanches (48) 
(dir: Jean Grémillon), Caroline chérie 

(50) (dir: R. Pottier), Le Chevalier de 



la nuit (53), La Ronde* (64) (dir: 
Roger Vadim). 

Dm: Le Voyageur sans bagage (43) 
(based on his own play), Deux sous le 

violette (52). 

Several of his plays have been filmed, 
notably, Waltz of the Toreadors (62) 
(dir: John Guillermin) and Becket (64) 
(dir: Peter Grenville). 

ANSCHUTZ, ottomcr inventor Germany. 
(Lissa, Poland May 16, 1846-Berlin 
30, 1907) One of the inventors of the 
film camera. In the period after 1882 
he took successive photos of men and 
animals in movement, which he later set 
in motion in his Elektrotachyscope, pat- 
ented in 1887, perfected in 1890. 

•ANSTEY, Edgar dir Britain. (Watford 
1907- ) One of the founders, with 
John Grierson (q.v.), of the British doc- 
umentary school of the Thirties, to which 
he contributed many notable films, in- 
cluding G ronton Trawler (34), Housing 
Problems (35) (co-dir: Arthur Elton), 
Enough to Eat (36). He was head of 
production at the Shell Film Unit during 
the war. In 1949, he established the film 
unit of the British Transport Commis- 
sion (now British Transport Films) and 
there has produced many notable docu- 
mentaries, including Terminus, Snow, 
and others. 

ANTHEIL, George mus USA. (Trenton, 
USA June 8, 1900-1961) An avant- 
garde musician who was a pupil of Stra- 
vinsky in Paris. Made his debut in the 
cinema with a bruitiste sound track for 
Léger's Ballet mécanique*. In Holly- 
wood after 1940, he created only con- 
ventional scores, especially for the films 
of Cecil B. DeMille (q.v.) and Stanley 
Kramer (q.v.). 

ANTOINE, André Dm France. (Limoges 
Jan 31, 1858-Le Pouliguen Oct 19, 1943) 
This influential theater director and man- 
ager came to film too late (at 60 years 
old) in his career to exercise the same 
kind of influence on the still adolescent 
cinema. However many films he directed 
he was usually restricted to adaptations 
of well-known authors and had his 
L'Alouette et la Mésange (from his own 
script, using nonprofessional actors) re- 
fused distribution. The striking vision of 
Paris at war he created in Le Coupable 
and the lyricism of La Terre would lead 



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one to think that his Les Frères Corses, 
Les Travailleurs de la mer (from Victor 
Hugo), and Mademoiselle de La Sei- 
glière might be significant films, but 
they have unfortunately disappeared. 
The best French film makers of the 
Twenties did not understand how much 
the founder of the Théâtre Libre and 
one of the proponents of the "new nat- 
uralism" anticipated the future of the 
cinema and particularly Italian neo- 
realism. But before his final retirement 
from the film studios, he wrote: "People 
have been mistaken, from the beginnings 
of the cinema, in adopting theatrical 
methods for an art which is nothing like 
it . . . The kingdom of tomorrow will 
belong to plastic artists more than liter- 
ary ones ... On the stage, the view 
is fixed. In the cinema, it is perpetually 
in motion . . . The most valuable im- 
provement that could be made would 
be to avoid using studios, even, and es- 
pecially for interiors . . . Then we 
would be able to note the difference pos- 
sible between the cinema, which is living, 
outdoor creation, and the theater, whose 
principle, on the other hand, is the imi- 
tation of nature." Retired as director of 
the Odéon in 1916. From 1930-1940 
he was film critic for Journal. His son, 
André-Paul Antoine, has written scripts 
for Du vivier, Christian- Jaque, Pierre 
Chenal, Raymond Bernard (all q.v.), 
and others. 

Dm: Les Frères Corses (16), Le Cou- 
pable* (17), Les Travailleurs de la mer 
(18), Israel (18), Mademoiselle de La 
Seiglière (20), La Terre* (21 ), L'Alouette 
et la Mésange (22), V Artésienne (22) 
(based on the play by Alphonse Daudet). 

ANTONIONI, Michelangelo Dm Italy. (Fer- 
rera Sept 29, 1912- ) One of the most 
important film makers of the second half 
of this century. Passionately involved 
with his themes, his best work is char- 
acterized by an avoidance of traditional 
narrative structure in favor of character 
studies in depth and analyses of the 
anguish and unease of the modern world. 
Born among the middle-class and know- 
ing these people best, his films have 
been almost entirely set in the bourgeois 
milieu, with the notable exception of II 
Grido, the hopeless odyssey of a worker 
in the northern plains of Italy. Always, 
the environment of his characters plays 
a major role in the themes of his films. 
He developed an early interest in the 



cinema and theater, contributed in the 
late Thirties to Cinema, and continued 
writing as a film critic until 1949. His 
first film experience was as a script- 
writer during the gestation period of neo- 
realism and his first films were docu- 
mentaries. In films like Gente del Po, 
N.U., and U Amoroso Menzogna hints 
of his vision of the world and even his 
obsessions are already present. His first 
features are largely exploratory, but he 
established himself with Le Amiche in 
1955 from a story by Cesare Pavese. In 
relation to this he said: "My profession 
is making films, but this is also the pro- 
fession of living, of relating to my fel- 
low-men, having experiences." L'Avven- 
tura, his first major international success, 
made him famous and he followed this 
with L'Eclisse and La Notte, the second 
and third parts of a trilogy focusing on 
women in modem society. He has de- 
scribed, at various times, his themes and 
approach: "My opinions, my mistakes, 
that which is most personal in my ex- 
periences will convey my message if I 
am sincere. To be sincere implies making 
something that is somewhat autobio- 
graphical. The experience that mainly 
contributed to make me a director is the 
bourgeois background from which I 
came ... In the first place and above 
all I like women. Perhaps this is because 

I understand them better. I was raised 
among women and in their environment. 
I have been criticized for observing 
everything from a distance. This is not 
at all deliberate, only my method of tell- 
ing the story. This 'distancing' is perhaps 
also modesty. I manage to imagine a 
moving scene but I cannot direct it. Per- 
haps this is because I am moved before 
others. Perhaps it is also because I am 
from the north, from Ferrara, a town 
where the people hide their emotions 
entirely ... I am very concerned dur- 
ing shooting to follow the character until 
I sense the necessity of slackening my 
grip. The acting becomes good through 
the images, which is a plastic fact Gray 
tones and threatening skies are often 
characteristic of my films ... In trying 
to explain to the actor what he must do, 
one risks making his acting mechanical 
or turning him into a second director. 
. . . I attach great importance to the 
sound-track, to natural sounds and noises 
more than to music. . . . Our drama is 
incommunicability which isolates us one 
from the other. Its permanence misleads 



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us and prevents us from resolving our 
problems. I am not a moralist. I neither 
have, nor pretend to have, a solution. 
But perhaps the critics are right and 
not the artist You and not L Because 
who ever knows what he himself is 
saying?" 

assist: Carné's Les Visiteurs du soir* 
(42), Fukhignoni's / Due Foscari (42). 
co-scen: Fulchignoni's / Due Foscari 
(42), Rossellini's Un Pilota ritorna (42), 
de Santis' Caccia Tragica* (47), Fellini's 
Lo Sceicco Bianco (52) and all his own 
films. 

Dm (shorts): Gente del Po (43-47), 
N.U./Nettezza Urbana (48), L'Amorosa 
Menzogna (48-49), Superstîzione (49), 
Sette Canne, un Vestito (50), La Villa 
dei Mostrl (50), la Funivia del Faloria 
(50). 

dir (features): Cronaca di un Amore 
(50), / Vinti (52), La Signora Senza 
Camelie (53), L Amore in Citta* (53) 
(one episode), Le Amiche* (55), // 
Grido* (57), L'Avventura* (60), La 
Notte* (60), L'Eclisse* (62), Deserto 
Rosso* (64), / Tre Volti (65) (one epi- 
sode, not released, negative destroyed 
by producer), Blow-Up* (Brit 66), Za- 
briskie Point (USA69). 
Has also worked as a theater director, 
was 2nd Unit Dir for Lattuada's La 
1 empesta (58) and completed Ne I Segno 
di Roma after the director, Guido Bri- 
gnone, died in the final stages of pro- 
duction. 

arakelian, Hogop make-up France. (Eka- 
terinodar, Russia Oct 9, 1894- ) 
Trained by the great Shakhatuni, he be- 
come renowned as the best French make- 
up artist after his film in the Thirties. 
He created Jean Marais' monstrous face 
in Cocteau's La Belle et la bête* and in 
some respects created Brigitte Bardot 
since he was responsible for her make-up 
on her first successes, including Vadim's 
Et Dieu créa la femme*. Also founded 
the IDHEC make-up department in 1946. 

ARCADY, Jinn (A. Bracholinoff) ANIM 

France. (Sofia, Bulgaria Jan 12, 1912- 
) Exceptional animator and special 
effects technician who has contributed 
much to French cartoons and films on 
art: [Kapok, ï esquimau (43), Astre et 
disastre (45), Leonardo da Vinci (52), 
Légendes cruelles (52), Prélude pour 
voix, orchestre et caméra (60), Savoir 
choisir (61), L'Ondomane (61), Mar- 



quet (62). He has also worked as tech- 
nical and music collaborator on over 
40 films.] 

•ARNOLD, jack dir/prod USA. (New 
Haven, USA Oct 14, 1912- ) Began 
his career as a Broadway actor, joined 
Universal in 1952 and made his name 
with a series of science-fiction films, 
during the Fifties. He has also produced 
and directed thrillers, westerns, and com- 
edies and now concentrates on produc- 
tion, especially in TV {If s About Time, 
Gilligan's Island). 

Dm (notably): // Came From Outer 
Space (53), The Glass Webb (53), The 
Creature from the Black Lagoon (54), 
Revenge of the Creature (55), The Man 
From Bitter Ridge (55), Tarantula (55), 
The Vampire (57), The Incredible 
Shrinking Man (57), No Name on the 
Bullet (59), The Mouse that Roared 
(Brit59), A Global Affair (63), Hello, 
Down There (68). 

ARNSTAM, Leo DR USSR. (Dneprope- 
trovsk 1905- ) A trained musician 
whose first film work was in 1931 as 
director of sound for Alone*. In 1932 
he co-wrote Counterplan*; in 1936 he 
directed his first film, Podrugi/Girl 
Friends*; and in 1944 the equally no- 
table Zoya. Also (notably) : Glinka (46), 
Romeo and Juliet (55) from the Prokof- 
iev ballet. 

ARRATO, Uboldo PHOTOO Italy. (Ovada 
March 23, 1897-Rome Dec 1947). Ital- 
ian cameraman, trained 1918-1930, 
worked with Max Ophiils on La Si- 
gnora di Tutti (34) and Rossellini, no- 
tably on Rome, Open City*. 

arzner, Dorothy dr/ed USA. (San Fran- 
cisco Jan 3, 1900- ) Editor during the 
Twenties on, e.g., Blood and Sand (22) 
and The Covered Wagon* (23) and be- 
came Hollywood's only woman director 
of the Thirties, notably on Nana/Lady 

of the Boulevards* (34), Craig's Wife 
(35), The Bride Wore Red (37), Dance, 
Girl, Dance (40), First Comes Courage 
(43). Films in the Twenties include 
Fashions for Women (27), Ten Modern 
Commandments (27), and Get Your 
Man (27). 

ASQUITH, Anthony DR Britain. (London 
Nov 9, 1902-Feb 1968) With Alfred 
Hitchcock (q.v.) the strongest force in 



Uopy riQhtod mstcnsl 



the British cinema of the Thirties and 
one of the most important British di- 
rectors. Passionately devoted to the cin- 
ema, tasteful and intelligent, he has 
varied between quasi-documentary por- 
traits of English life and theatrical adap- 
tations, but his style has always been 
part of his attempt to avoid the Korda 
(q.v.) "international" approach and find 
an authentic English character. The son 
of Lord Asquith, he went to Hollywood 
in 1926 to study film-making and in 
1928 in Britain was assistant to Sinclair 
Hall on Boadicea. His first feature, 
Shooting Stars (28), a burlesque, used 
revolutionary effects. He continued his 
experiments in audio-visual counterpoint 
and the portrayal of English life with A 
Cottage on Dartmoor (29); in Tell En- 
gland (30) he depicted the Gallipoli ex- 
pedition during the First World War. He 
became internationally famous as a mas- 
ter of stage adaptations with Pygmalion 
(38) from Shaw's play. He made what 
is certainly his masterpiece, The Way 
to the Stars, at the end of the war. 
Thereafter, the evolution of the cinema 
somewhat stranded him in the two 
genres that appealed to him, but he con- 
tinued to make civilized, entertaining 
films until his death. 

Dm: Shooting Stars (28) (co-dir: A. V. 
Bramble), Underground (29), The Run* 
away Princess (29), A Cottage on Dart' 
moor (29), Tell England (30) (co-dir: 
Geoffrey Barkas), Dance, Pretty Lady 
(32), The Lucky Number (33), Forever 
England (35), Moscow Nights (36), 
Pygmalion* (38) (co-dir: Leslie How- 
ard), French Without Tears (39), Free- 
dom Radio (40), Quiet Wedding (41), 
Cottage to Let (41), Uncensored (42), 
We Dive at Dawn (43), The Demi-Par- 
adise (43), Welcome to Britain (43) 
(co-dir: B. Meredith), Fanny by Gas* 
light (44), The Way to the Stars* (45), 
While the Sun Shines (47), The Winslow 
Boy (48), The Woman in Question/ 
Five Angles on Murder (50), The 
Browning Version (51), The Importance 
of Being Earnest (52), The Net (53), 
The Final Test (53), Carrington, V.C.I 
Court Martial (54), The Young Lovers 
(54), Orders to Kill (58), Libel (59), 
The Doctor's Dilemma (59), The Mil- 
lionairess (60), Guns of Darkness (62), 
Two Living, One Dead (62), An Eve- 
ning with the Royal Ballet (63) (co-dir), 
The VJf.'s (63), The Yellow Rolls 
Roy ce (64). Also production supervi- 



sion on English version of Unfinished 
Symphony (34); script for Marry Me 
(32) and Letting in the Sunshine (33); 
and director of shorts, Guide Dogs for 
the Blind (39), Channel Incident (40), 
Rush Hour (40), Two Fathers (44), On 
Such a Night (56). 

ASTRUC, Alexandre Dm France. (Paris July 
13, 1923- ) A stylist with a deep in- 
sight into the elaboration of visual imag- 
ery as a means of elucidating human 
relationships. He established a consid- 
erable reputation as a film critic and 
journalist for Combat and L'Ecran Fran- 
çaise and renewed interest in the Ger- 
man silent cinema and the work of 
Murnau. Evolved the idea of "caméra- 
stylo" in 1948: "By it I mean the cin- 
ema will gradually break free from the 
tyranny of the visual, from the image 
for its own sake, from the immediate 
and concrete demands of the narrative, 
to become a means of writing as supple 
and subtle as written language . . . With 
the development of 16mm and television, 
the day is not far off when everyone 
will possess a projector, will go to the 
local shop and rent films written on any 
subject, of any form . . . The funda- 
mental problem of the cinema is how 
to express thought The creation of this 
language has preoccupied all the theore- 
ticians and writers in the history of 
cinema, from Eisenstein down to the 
scriptwriters and adaptors of the sound 
cinema." 

He worked on two 16mm shorts as as- 
sistant to Marc Allégret (q.v.) and Mar- 
cel Achard (q.v.) and collaborated on 
two scripts before making his first pro- 
fessional film, Le Rideau cramoisi, in 
1952. This and his first feature, Les 
Mauvaises rencontres, 1955, are in some 
ways precursors of the nouvelle vague. 
Apart from his early films, most of his 
films are from imposed subjects and 
adapted from existing works. Few have 
had any real commercial success. It is 
ironic that the man who so passionately 
attacked the filming of famous novels 
and plays should himself have had to 
use the "caméra-stylo" in just this way. 
assist: Marc Allégret's Blanche Fury 
(Brit47), Marcel Achard's Jean de la 
lune (49). 

co-scen: La P . . . respecteuse (52) 
(dir: Pagliero), Luther (unfilmed). 
dir (shorts): Aller et Retour (48) in 
16 mm, Ulysse ou les Mauvaises ren- 

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contres (49) in 16 mm, Le Rideau cra- 
moisi* (52), Les Puits et le Pendule 
(63) for TV, Evariste Galois (64). 
Dm (features): Les Mauvaises rencon- 
tres* (55), Une Vie* (58), La Proie 
pour Vombre* (60), L'Education senti- 
mentale 61 (61) (freely based on 
Flaubert), La Longue marche (66), 
Flammes sur t 'Adriatique (68). 

aubert, louii prod France. (Mayenne 
1879-Les Sables d'Olonne May 17, 1944) 
A pioneer of the French film industry 
who as exhibitor, distributor, and pro- 
ducer always followed his own motto: 
•The cinema is very simple — two col- 
umns, one for receipts, the other for 



AUDIARD, Michel scen France. (Paris 
May 15, 1920- ) Brilliant French di- 
alogue writer in the boulevardier man- 
ner who since 1950 has followed in the 
footsteps of Henri Je an son (q.v.). He 
has worked with Jean Delannoy (q.v.), 
Denys de la Patellière (q.v.), André 
Hunebelle, etc. 

au dry, Jacqueline Dm France. (Orange 
Sept 25, 1908- ) One of the few 
French female directors, noted for her 
tasteful and delicate Colette adaptations. 
Almost all her features have been 
scripted by her husband, Pierre Laroche 
(<7-v.). 

Dm (notably): Les Chevaux du Vercors 
(43) (documentary), Les Malheurs de 
Sophie (45), Sombre dimanche (48), 
Gigi (48), Minne l'ingénue libertine 
(50), Olivia (51), Huis clos (54) (from 
Sartre), Mitsou (56) (from Colette), 
La Garçonne (57), L'Ecole de cocottes 
(57), Le Sécret du chevalier d'Eon (60), 
Cadavres en vacances (61), Les Petits 
Matins (61), Soledad (66), Le Us de 
mer (70). 

AUGUST, JoMph photoo USA (1890- 
1947) Trained with Thomas Ince (q.v.) 
and W. S. Hart. From 1925 to 1945 he 
was the usual cameraman for John Ford, 
for whom he created the memorable 
images of The Informer* (35). [Also, 
notably, Man's Castle* (33), Twentieth 
Century* (34), The Plough and the 
Stars (37), Gunga Din (39), The Hunch- 
back of Notre Dame (40), All That 
Money Can Buy (41), They Were Ex- 
pendable (45).] 



aurenche, Jean scen France (Pierrelatte 
Sept 11, 1904- ) Usually collaborates 
with Pierre Bost (q.v.), with whom he 
has written many of the best postwar 
French films, notably those of Claude 
Autant-Lara (q.v.), which are mostly 
adaptations of novels. 
scen (notably): for Carné Hotel du 
Nord (38); for Autant-Lara, Lettres 
d'amour (42), Le Mariage de Chiffon 
(42), Journal d'une femme en blanc 
(65); with Pierre Bost, Douce* (43), 
Sylvie et la fantôme (45), Le Diable 
au corps* (47), Occupe-toi dAmélie* 
(49), L'Auberge rouge* (51), Le Blé 
en herbe/ Ripening Seed (54), Le Rouge 
et le noir (54), Marguerite de la nuit 
(55), En cas de malheur* (58), Le 
Jouer (58), Non Uccidere* (61), for 
Christian-Jaque, Les Dégourdis de la 
onzième (36) (co-scen: Jean Anouilh), 
Madame Sans-Gêne (62); for Jean 
Delannoy, La Symphonie pastorale (46), 
Dieu a besoin des hommes (50); for 
René Clément, Au-delà des grilles (48), 
Jeux interdits* (52). 

AURIC, Georges MUS France/Britain. 
(Lodève Feb 15, 1899- ) The most 
famous French composer, representative 
of the best romantic tradition in sym- 
phonic film music. A member of the 
Groupe des Six and the author of sev- 
eral orchestral compositions and ballet 
scores. Contributed much to films by 
Cocteau, Clair, Vadim, Ophiils, Caval- 
canti, and to several British films. Later 
became director of the Paris Opéra. 
Notable films: Le Sang d'un poète* 

(30) (dir: Cocteau), A nous la liberté* 

(31) (dir: Clair), Lac aux dames (34) 
(dir: Marc Allégret), Orage (38) (dir: 
M. Allégret), Entrée des artistes (38) 
(dir: M. Allégret), L'Alibi (37) (dir: 
Pierre Chénal), L'Éternel retour* (43) 
(dir: Delannoy), Dead of Night* (45) 
(dir: Cavalcanti), Caesar and Cleopatra* 
(45) (dir: Gabriel Pascal), La Belle et 
la bête* (46) (dir: Cocteau), It Always 
Rains on Sunday* (47) (dir: Robert 
Hamer), Hue and Cry* (47) (dir: 
Charles Crichton), Les Parents terribles* 
(48) (dir: Cocteau), Orphée (51) (dir: 
Cocteau), Lavender Hill Mob* (51) 
(dir: Charles Crichton), Moulin Rouge* 

(52) (dir: Huston), Roman Holiday* 

(53) (dir: Wyler), Le Salaire de la 
peur* (53) (dir: Clouzot), Du rififi chez 
les hommes* (55) (dir: Dassin), Lola 
Montés* (55) (dir: Ophiils), Le Mys- 



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tère Picasso* (56) (dir: Clouzot), Les 
Bijoutiers du clair de lune (58) (dir: 
Vadim), Celui qui doit mourir* (57) 
(dir: Dassin), Bonjour Tristesse (57) 
(dir: Preminger), La Chambre ardente 
(62) (dir: Duvivier), The Innocents 
(61) (dir: Jack Clayton), Thomas l'Im- 
posteur (65) (dir: Franju). 

AUTANT-LARA, Claud* Dm France. (Lu- 
zarches Aug 5, 1903- ) Became active 
in the cinema from the age of sixteen, 
designed sets and costumes for Marcel 
L'Herbier (q.v.) and later for Jean 
Renoir (q.v.) and Jacque Catelain; was 
also assistant to René Clair (q.v.). He 
directed an avant-garde short, Fait divers, 
in 1923, then a documentary, Vit tel 
(26), and Construire un feu (27-28), 
an early wide-screen experiment from a 
Jack London story. From 1930 to 1932 
he directed French versions of American 
films in Hollywood and, after his return 
to France, directed a number of shorts. 
His pre- 1942 features were commissioned 
and did not at all appeal to him but 
he had to accept them in order to make 
a living until Le Diable au corps (47) 
brought him international fame. It is 
perhaps not surprising that he has said: 
The director must consider himself sur- 
rounded by enemies. What I mean by 
this is that, in a business where the taste 
of one man must prevail, he is sur- 
rounded by people who want to do 
nothing but impose their own tastes." 
The war gave him the chance to emerge 
from the shadows, and after the charm- 
ing, outdated Le Mariage de Chiffon 
and Lettres d'amour in 1942, his satire 
of the bourgeoisie in Douce/Love Story 
(43) seemed especially astringent dur- 
ing the Pétainist period. Waspish satiri- 
cal views of conventional morality char- 
acterize his films in the first postwar 
decade. An attack on the recent war 
through a portrait of an earlier one is 
the key to Le Diable au corps, still his 
best film. He dissected the ridiculous 
characters of "la Belle époque" in Oc~ 
cupe-toi d'Amélie, brought violent Vol- 
t ai re an satire to L'Auberge rouge, and 
depicted the bitter occupation years in 
La Traversée de Paris. His films, how- 
ever, are not all equally successful. He 
has tended to concentrate on staging 
well-written adaptations of classic novels 
and plays. This may perhaps be because 
the cover of a well-known work allows 
him to say more without interference 



from the censor (whom he has perpetu- 
ally attacked). In order to make Non 
Uccidere, a film close to his heart for 
ten years, he had to accept many com- 
mercial films. 

art dir: for L'Herbier, Le Carnaval des 
vérités (19), L'Homme du large (20), 
Villa Destin (21), Don Juan et Faust 

(22) , L'Inhumaine* (23), Le Diable au 
coeur (27); for Jean Renoir, Nana* 
(26); for Jacque Catelain, Le Marchard 
de plaisir m). 

assist: to René Clair on Paris qui dort* 

(23) , Le Voyage imaginaire (25). 

dir (shorts): Fait divers (23), Vlttel 
(26), Construire en jeu (27-28), Le 
Gendarme est sans pitié, Un client 
sérieux, Monsieur le duc, La Peur des 
coups, Invite Monsieur à dîner (ail 
32-33). 

Dre (features): Ciboulette (33), My 
Partner Master Davis/The Mysterious 
Mr. Davis (Brit36), L'Affair du Cour- 
rier de Lyon (37), Le Ruisseau (38), 
Fric-frac (39), Le Mariage de Chiffon 

(42) , Lettres d'amour (42), Douce* 

(43) , Sylvie et le fantôme (45), Le 
Diable au corps* 47), Occupe-toi d'Amé- 
lie* (49), L'Auberge rouge* (51), Les 
Sept péchés capitaux (52) (one epi- 
sode), Le Bon Dieu sans confession 

(53) , Le Blé en herbe /Ripening Seed 

(54) (from Colette), Le Rouge et le 
noir (54) (from Stendhal), Marguerite 
de la nuit (55), La Traversée de Paris 
(56), En cas de malheur* (58), Le 
Jouer (58), Les Régates de San Fran- 
cisco (59), La Jument verte (59), Le 
Bois des amants (60), Non Uccidere* 
(61), Vive Henri IV, Vive l'amour (61), 
Le Comte de Monte Cristo (61), Le 
Meurtrier (63), Le Magot de Joséfa 
(63), Journal d'une femme en blanc/ 
Woman in White (65), Une femme en 
blanc se révolte (66), Le Plus vieux 
métier du monde (67) (one episode), 
Le Franciscain de Bourges (67), Les 
Patates (69). Most post-43 films scen 
Aurenche, Bost art dir Max Douy. 



avery, T»x anim USA. (Dallas, Texas 
1918- ) Began in cartoons with Charles 
Mitz and with Walter Lantz. Before 
1940 he collaborated with Chuck Jones 
(q.v.) at Warner Brothers, where they 
invented Bugs Bunny. He was largely 
responsible for ferociously savage car- 
toons and for the characters "Chilly 
Willy,** "Lucky Ducky,'* and "Droopy.** 

12 



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Although he never abandoned the typi- 
cal Disney animals and graphic design, 
he revolutionized cartoons with his ruth- 
less, violent, anarchic sense of comic 
fantasy, often quasi-surrealistic. His films 
are typically based on a rhythmic chase 
and fight to the death. [Among his best 



films are Kingsize Canary (47) and The 
Cat That Hated People (49). Others in- 
clude: Dumb-Hounded (43), The Shoot- 
ing of Dan McGoo (45), Half -Pint 
Pigmy (47), Bad Luck Blackie (49), 
Car of Tomorrow (52), Deputy Droopy 
(54), Polar Pests (58).] 



13 



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baburao PAINTER dir/prod India. ( Kol- 
hapur 1892- ) Pioneer of the Indian 
cinema. Designer for D. G. Phalke (q.v.) 
from 1913-19. Founded the Maharash- 
tra Film Company in Kolhapur in 1921 
and gave V. Shantaram (q.v.) his first 
chance to direct. Main films from 192 1— 
26 include Sarahandri, Sinhegarh, Sati 
Padmini, Sarkari Praser. Also, Swajara 
Doran (30), Vishwamitra (52). 

BAC, Andre PHOTOG France. (Paris Dec 
14, 1905- ) Excellent French camera- 
man who has worked with Grémillon, 
Le Six juin à l'aube* (45); with Daquin, 
Le Point du jour* (49); with Autant- 
Lara Occupe-toi d'Amélie* (49), L'Au- 
berge rouge* (51); with Yves Robert, 
La Famille Fenouillard (60), La Guerre 
des boutons (62), Bébert et l'Omnibus 
(63). 

BACHELET, Jean photog France. (Azans 
Oct 8, 1894- ) Began his career in 
Russia before 1914 and is especially 
notable for his consistently remarkable 
work with Jean Renoir during his best 
period, from Nana* to La Règle du jeu*. 

BACON, Uoyd Dm USA. (San Jose Jan 16, 
1889-Burbank Nov 15, 1955) Began his 
career as an actor in Chaplin shorts and 
was trained by Mack Sennett. He became 
one of the most prolific Hollywood direc- 
tors, largely under contract to Warners; 
most of his work is competent but rou- 
tine. He directed among others 42nd 
Street*, Footlight Parade (33), Gold 
Diggers of 1937 (36), and Call Me Mis- 
ter (51), whose qualities derive largely 
from Busby Berkeley's (q.v.) choreog- 
raphy. 

BADRAKHAN, Ahmed DIR Egypt. (Sept 18, 
1909- ) One of the pioneers of the 
Egyptian cinema who since 1932 special- 



ized in melodramas and films with songs. 
Since the revolution he has made sev- 
eral patriotic films including: Allah 
Maana/God is on Our Side (54), Mustafa 
Kamel (53). 

BAKY, Jotef von DIR Germany /German 
Federal Republic. (Hungary March 23, 
1902-1966) Prolific German film maker, 
formerly assistant to Geza von Bolvary 
(q.v.); directed first film in 1936. Notable 
for Intermezzo (36), Annelie (41), 
Munchausens Abenteuer* (43), Der 
Trdumende Mund/ Dreaming Lips (52). 

BALCON, (Sir) Michael prod Britain. (Bir- 
mingham May 19, 1896- ) Perhaps the 
most powerful single force in the British 
film industry. Beginning as a distributor 
in 1919, he formed Gainsborough and 
in 1931 became director of production 
at Gaumont British. He gave Hitchcock 
his first chance to direct (The Pleasure 
Garden) and produced his best British 
films. In 1938 he became head of pro- 
duction at Ealing Studios, where he pro- 
duced the famous Ealing comedies and 
dramas and trained the postwar genera- 
tion of British directors: Charles Frend, 
Robert Hamer, Charles Crichton, Mac- 
kendrick, Harry Watt, Henry Cornelius 
(all q.v.), etc. In 1959, he founded 
Bryanston Films; he took over British 
Lion in 1964 and has been connected 
with Woodfall. 

BALM, Gian Virtorio DIR Italy. (Bologna 
Oct 30, 1930- ) Documentary film 
maker who has tried to portray men 
living their lives, "to discover and re- 
produce the beauty that is found in every 
natural gesture and in spontaneous dia- 
logue." Originally a critic. 
dir: // Pian to delle Zi telle (59), Vigilla 
di mezza estate (59), Via dei Cessati 
Spiriti (59), La Casa delle Vedove (60), 

14 



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Luciano (60), Il Bar di Gigi (61), 
L'ltaliane e lAmore (61) (one episode), 
// Corrida di S posa (62), Luciano (62) 
(same material as 60), Le Adolescenti 

(65) (one episode), Riltratto di Pina 

(66) , Fuoco (70). 

* BALLARD, tucitn PHOTOO USA. (1908- ) 

One of the most professional and ac- 
complished of American cinematogra- 
phcrs, his work has ranged from Stern- 
berg's Morocco (1930), through Kubrick's 
The Killing (56), to the recent color 
films, Will Penny, The Wild Bunch, and 
True Grit. He has worked for both Boct- 
ticher (q.v.) and Peckinpah (q.v.). 
photoo (notably): Morocco (30), The 
Devil is a Woman* (35), Crime and 
Punishment (36), The King Steps Out 
(36), Fixed Bayonets (51), The Mag- 
nificent Matador (55), The Killing (56), 
Band of Angels (57), Anna Lucas ta 
(58), Buchanan Rides Alone (58), Ride 
the High Country* (61), Will Penny 

(67) , The Wild Bunch* (68), True Grit 
(69), The Ballad of Cable Hogue (70), 
The Master of the Islands (70). 

BAN, Pn'ayet om Hungary. (Kosicich, 
Hungary 1902- ) Veteran director of 
some forty films from 1939 to date, 
among which is The Soil under Your 
Feet (48), the first major postwar pro- 
duction of the newly nationalized Hun- 
garian film industry and one of the best 
of its early productions. 
[dir (notably): Talpalatanyl fôld/The 
Soil under Your Feet (48), Semmel- 
weis (52), Rakoczi Ladnagya/Rakoczi's 
Lieutenant (53), Szegeny gazdagok/ 
Fatia Negra (59), Budosviz/ Healing 
Water (64).] 

BANOS, Ricardo de dir Spam. (Barcelona 
Aug 27, 1882-Aug 8, 1939) Pioneer di- 
rector of the Spanish cinema. 
dir (notably): Secrets of the Confession 
(06), Don Juan Tenorio (10), The 
Lovers of Teruel (12), The White Gypsy 
(19), Don Juan Tenorio (21), El Reli- 
carto (33). 

BANTON, Trovîs costumes USA. (Texas 
Aug 18, 1894- ) Hollywood designer 
of plush costumes whose work typifies 
the Hollywood period films of 1925-45. 
Worked for Frank Borzage (q.v.), 
Lubitsch (q.v.), Ophiils (q.v.) (on Letter 
From an Unknown Woman), and, nota- 
bly, for Sternberg on the Dietrich films: 



Morocco* (30), Dishonored (31), 
Shanghai Express* (32), The Scarlet 
Empress (34), The Devil is a Woman* 
(35). 

BAR AT 1ER, Jacqw«i Dm France. (Montpellier 
March 8, 1918- ) Originally a drama 
critic, then worked in radio and made 
several shorts, Désordres (49), Paris la 
nuit(55), before making his first feature, 
the poetic Goha in Tunisia in 1957. Ide- 
alistic and devoted to experiment. 
Dm: Goha* (57), La Poupée (62), 
Dragées au poivre (63), L'Or du duc 
(65), Le Désordre à vingt ans (67), La 
Décharge (70). 

bar dem, Juan Antonio Dm Spain. (Ma- 
drid June 2, 1922- ) With his friend 
Berlanga (q.v.) he gave the Spanish 
cinema a new lease on life and an inter- 
national standing. Stylistically vigorous 
and sincere, he has expressed the real- 
ities of his country better than anyone 
(except Bunuel) in Comicos, La Ven- 
ganza and particularly in Death of a 
Cyclist and Calle Mayor. The son of 
actors Rafael Bardem and Mathilde M. 
Sampiero, he was educated in agricul- 
ture, then in 1947 received a diploma 
from the Madrid film school. He made 
his name as a scriptwriter on Berlanga's 
Welcome, Mr. Marshall! in 1952. In 
1955, the young film maker took stock 
of the Spanish cinema: "After 60 years 
the Spanish cinema is politically ineffec- 
tive, socially false, intellectually infirm, 
aesthetically empty, industrially rickety. 
We now want to fight for a national cin- 
ema with love, sincerity, and honor." 
Later he added: "Undoubtedly a film 
maker cannot himself hope to change the 
world. Nonetheless, he must make a con- 
tribution. He must devote all his efforts 
towards a positive, useful cinema that 
will reveal the reality of things so that 
they will change. The Spanish spirit is 
realistic in literature as it is in paint- 
ing. I consider the cinema deeply rooted 
in reality. It is the witness of its time. It 
is necessary to say as much as possible, 
as quietly as possible. Briefly, to shun 
the baroque and return to classicism." 
"An artist cannot transplant his roots; 
I can speak only of that which I know 
well: Spain." 

scen: for Berlanga, Bienvenido, Mr. 
Marshall!* (52), Novio a la vista (53); 
and for all his own films. 
Dm: Paseo sobre una guerra antigua (48) 

15 



Uopy righted material 



(16mm short, co-dir: Berlanga), Bara- 
fas, Aeropuerto International (50) 
(short), Esa pareja feliz (51) (co-dir: 
Berlanga), Comicos (53), Felices Pascuas 
(54), Muerte de un ciclista* (55), Calle 
Mayor* (56), La Venganza (57), Sonatas 
(59), A las Cinco de la Tarde (60), Los 
Innocentes (62), Nunca Posa Nada 
(63), Los Pianos Mecanicos (64), El 
Ultimo Dia de la Guerra/The Last Day 
of the War (69). 

barker, Reginald dir USA. (Scotland 
1886-Hollywood Sept 25, 1937) The 
best director of Thomas Ince (q.v.) pro- 
ductions and one of those who made the 
western an art form. Directed many of 
the William S. Hart classics from 1914 to 
1917, including Heirs Hinges (16) and 
Between Men (15), but did not direct 
The Aryan*, though often credited with 
it Also (notably): The Wrath of the 
Cods (14), The Coward (15), The Iron 
Strain (16), both with Charles Ray, 
Shadows (19), The Hell Cat (18), The 
Storm (22). 

BARKER, William Gtorga PHOTOg/DIR/PROD 

Britain (1867-1951) Pioneer of the Brit- 
ish cinema, excellent cameraman of 
everyday scenes from 1897 to 1912, when 
he became a director of features. He later 
turned exclusively to production. Pho- 
tographed F. R. Benson's Richard III 
(11). pirected, notably, Sixty Years a 
Queen (13) (a dramatized exposition 
of Queen Victoria's reign), East Lynne 

(13) . Produced The German Spy Peril 

(14) , The Road to Ruin (14), Jane 
Shore (15), Rogues of London (15), and 
many others.] 

barnet, Boris V. DiR USSR. (Moscow June 
16, 1902-Riga Jan 1965) The best Soviet 
director of comedies, gentle and lyrical 
in his approach, full of warmth in his 
perceptive observation of behavior. Orig- 
inally a boxer, he trained in films under 
Kuleshov. After his excellent silent films, 
like The House on Trubnaya Square 
(28) and Girl with the Hat-Box (27), 
he created his masterpiece, Okraina in 
1933. In 1959 in a conversation with me 
he said: "I am not a theoretical man, 
but I take the material for my films from 
life. For good or ill, I have always tried 
to show a modern period, men truly 
set in Soviet times. But it is not easy and 
one might in this regard think of a 



Japanese painter. Until he is 40 he 
paints still lifes. Between 40 and 60, 
birds. After 60, herons and ducks. He 
must wait until he is a hundred before 
finding the dignity to take up the sub- 
ject of man. But is one ever sure of 
having sufficient time? Personally I like 
the droll aspects of a drama and the 
tragic elements of comedy. It is a ques- 
tion of proportions, not always easy to 
find." Acted in Kuleshov's The Strange 
Adventure of Mr. West in the Land 
of the Bolsheviks* (24), Otsep's Der 
Lebende Leichnam/A Living Corpse 
(USSR/Germany 29), his own Miss 
Mend. 

DiR (notably): Miss Mend (26) (co-dir: 
Otsep), Devushka s korobkoi/Girl with 
the Hat-Box (27), Doma na Trubnoi/ 
The House on Trubnaya Square* (28) 
Moskva v Octyabr'/ Moscow in October 
(29), Ledolom/Thaw (31), Okraina/ 
Outskirts* (33), U samovo sinevo moryaf 
By the Bluest of Seas (36), Noch v 
SentyabfIA Night in September (39), 
Manhood (41) and A Priceless Head 
(42) (both part of series Fighting Film 
Albums), Podvig razvedchika/The 
Scout's Exploit (47), Liana (55), The 
Poet (57), Anoushka (61). 

BARON, Auguste inventor France. (Paris 
1853-Paris June 1, 1938) Remarkable, 
but unlucky inventor both of the sound 
cinema (1896-1899) and of multiscreen: 
Cincmatorama (1896), Multirama (1912). 

BARONCELLI, Jacquei do DIR France. Boufl- 

largues June 25, 1881-Paris Jan 12 
1951) One of the first Frenchmen to 
take the cinema seriously as an art form. 
Descended from an aristocrat family, he 
was a journalist until he was over- 
whelmed by the cinema after seeing The 
Cheat*. Notable especially as a good 
adapter {Le Père Goriot, Ramuntcho) 
he had also a sense of the open air and 
the sea (Pêcheurs d'Islande). Directed 
more than 80 films from 1915 to 1947, 
including: La Maison de l 'espoir (15) 
(first film), Le Roi de la mer (17), 
Ramuntcho (19), Le Père Goriot (21), 
Nêne (23), Pêcheurs d'Islande (24) 
(from Pierre Loti), La Femme et le 
Pantin (29) (from Pierre Louys), Crain- 
que bille* (33) (from Anatole France), 
Michel Strogoff (37) (from Jules Verne), 
La Duchess de Langeais (42) (from 
Balzac), Rocambole (48) (from Ponson 
Du Terrail). 

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BARRETO, Vitor do Lima DIR Brazil (1905- 
) Met justifiable international fame 
with O Cangaceiro, about bandits of 
honor in the Robin Hood style. 
dir (notably): Painel (50) (short), San- 
tuario (51) (short), O Cangaceiro* (53), 
A Primcira Missa (61). 

BARROS, José Leitao de DIR Portugal. 

(Lisbon 1896- ) His best films, like 
Nazare (28), Maria do Mar (29), and 
Alia Ariba (42), are notable for their 
beautiful images and their use of ex- 
teriors and, occasionally, nonprofession- 
al actors. However, he has had to ac- 
cept many mediocre commissioned films: 
The Dead Queen (45), Camoëns (46), 
etc. 

BARSACQ, Uon art dir France. (Crimea 
Oct 18, 1906-Dec 1969) One of the 
French art directors who knew how best 
to create an "atmosphere," as exempli- 
fied in his work for Renoir, La Mar- 
seillaise*; for Carné, Les Enfants du 
paradis*; for Leenhardt, Les Dernières 
Vacances; for Clément, Le Chateau de 
verre; and for many of Clair's later films, 
Le Silence est d'or*, La Beauté du 
diable*, Les Belles de nuit*, Les Grandes 
Manoeuvres*, Porte des Lilas*. His 
work in the Sixties was of considerably 
less interest. 

bartosch, Berthold ANiM France. (Bo- 
hemia Dec 29, 1893- ) Primarily an 
architect, born in Austro-Hungary, and 
famous in the cinema for one film: 
L'Idée (34), a symbolic interpretation of 
humanity's response to idealism, based 
on woodcuts by Frans Masereel with mu- 
sic by Arthur Honegger (<?.v.). Earlier 
Bartosch had worked with Lotte 
Reiniger (q.v.). L'Idée is revolutionary 
in its use of multiplane animation (before 
Disney). 

* BARU A, Pramathesh Chandra DIR/SCEN In- 
dia. (Gauripur, Assam 1900-Calcutta 
Nov 29, 1951) Son of the Rajah of 
Gauripur and widely traveled abroad, 
where he had observed film production, 
he made several attempts to break into 
films (notably in 1931 by producing 
Debaki Bose's Aparadhi) and eventually 
joined New Theatres in Calcutta. His 
first success, which he directed, adapted, 
and acted in, with Devdas. Thereafter he 
became a powerful influence on the de- 
velopment of Bengali cinema and trained 



Bimal Roy (q.v.), Debaki Bose (q.v.), 
and Nitin Bose (q.v.). Wrote many of 
his own scripts and acted in several of 
his own films. 

DIR (notably): Devdas* (35), Maya/ Illu- 
sion (36), Mukti I Liberation (37), Ad- 
hikar I Authority (38), Zindigi (39), Prija 
Banhabi (40). His work declined rapidly 
in the Forties. 

BARZMAN, Ben scen USA/Britain. (To- 
ronto, Canada Oct 12, 1910- ) One of 
the best of the Hollywood scriptwriters 
who suffered from the Hollywood witch- 
hunts, he continued to work in Europe 
after leaving Hollywood at the same 
time as Losey. Contributed to American 
films under various pseudonyms until 
1963, when he again used his own name. 
[scen (notably): for George Marshall, 
True to Life (42); for Losey, The Boy 
with Green Hair (USA48), Stranger 
on the Prowl (It51), Time Without Pity 
(Brit56), Blind Date* (Brit59); for Ed- 
ward Dmytryk, Give Us This Day (Brit 
49); for Dassin, He Who Must Die* 
(Fr57); for Lawrence Harvey, The Cere- 
mony (Brit63); for Anthony Mann, The 
Fall of the Roman Empire (USA63), 
The Heroes of Telemark (65); for John 
Guillermin, The Blue Max (Brit66).] 

BASS, Saul anim USA (Neden 1920- ) 
Title designer whose work, especially for 
Preminger, often surpasses in art and 
poetry the films for which they are 
ostensibly the prologue. 
Titles for: Around the World in 80 Days, 
West Side Story*, Spartacus, Vertigo*, 
Psycho*, The Big Country, North by 
Northwest*, It's a Mad, Mad, Mad, Mad 
World, Carmen Jones*, Exodus*, The 
Man with the Golden Arm*, Bonjour 
Tristesse, Anatomy of a Murder, Saint 
Joan*, Bunny Lake is Missing, and many 
others. 

dir: The Searching Eye (64), From Here 
to There (64), Why Man Creates (68) 
(all shorts). 

BATCHEIOR, Joy see HALAS, JOHN 

BAUER, Yevgeni dir USSR. (188?-Crimea 
summer, 1917) The first artist in Tsarist 
Russia to devote himself to the cinema 
in a period when there were mainly docile 
directors churning out mediocre films for 
the big Pathé and Drankov companies. 
Originally a painter, he became an art 
director and director for these companies 

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before joining Khanzhonkov, who gave 
his talents almost free rein. In three and 
a half years he directed nearly 60 films. 
Completely enamored of beautifully 
dressed, decadent heroes and heroines in 
splendid sets, he specialized in sophisti- 
cated dramas, many of them featuring 
Ivan Mozhukhin. 

dir (notably): The Secret of Professor 
Insarov's Portrait (13), Volnaya ptitsa/ 
Freed Bird (13) Ditya bolshova goroda/ 
Child of the Big City (14), Siezi /Tears 
(14), Zhizn v smerti/Life in Death (14), 
Pesn torzhcstvuyushchei liubvi/Song of 
Triumphant Love (15), Obozhzhenniue 
kryly a /Singed Wings (15), Korleva 
ekrana/ 'Queen of the Screen (16), Zhizn 
za zhizn /A Life for a Life (16), Grif 
starovo bortza/Griffon of an Old War- 
rior (16), Revolutsioner / Revolutionist 
(17), N abat /The Alarm (17), Korol 
Parizha/The King of Paris (17). 

BECKER, Jacques dir France. (Paris Sept 
15, 1906-Paris Feb 21, 1960) A director 
of integrity who was Renoir's (q.v.) as- 
sistant from 1931 to 1939 and who 
followed the realistic path of his mentor, 
but with an intensely personal and care- 
fully detailed style of his own. He began 
by creating a kind of social tableau of 
France, offering a very careful and rea- 
listic portrait of peasant life in Goupi 
Mains-Rouges, of fashionable Paris in 
Falbalas, of a pair of working-class 
lovers in postwar Paris in Antoine et 
Antoinette, and of the Saint-Germain- 
des-Près youth in Rendez-vous de juillet. 
His most perfectly created visual work 
is Casque d'or, a portrait of Parisian 
apaches at the turn of the century and a 
tribute to the time of Feuillade (q.v.). 
He tried his hand at sophisticated com- 
edies and was forced to accept several 
commissioned films, but acquitted him- 
self well even with these. Then, just be- 
fore his death he regained his true crea- 
tive power with Le Trou, a rigorous but 
totally engrossing film. He has described 
his art and ideas: "The effectiveness of a 
film is dependent on the application of 
a rigorous logic to the development of 
the story. In a true film everything must 
be foreseen, the smallest suspect detail 
destroys the value of the whole." "Causes 
don't interest me as much as a theme. 
The story (the anecdote, the tale) is of 
little importance to me. Only the char- 
acters, who become my characters, obsess 
me to the point where I can't stop think- 



ing about them. They excite me just as 
people I meet by chance during the day 
excite me and about whom I am curious 
to the point of being caught staring at 
strangers." "People have been wrong in 
believing, roughly, that I have tried at 
any price to be 'social.' This impression is 
caused by the fact that in my films they 
become quite involved with the charac- 
ters. That is my somewhat entomological 
side: whatever happens in France, I am 
French, I make films about French peo- 
ple, I look at French people, I am inter- 
ested in French people." Began a feature 
L'Or du Cristobal in 1939 that he was 
not able to complete. He completed his 
first feature after his return from cap- 
tivity in Germany in 1942. 
assist: to Jean Renoir on, e.g., Boudu 
sauvé des eaux*, Chotard et compagnie, 
Madam Bovary, Les Bas Fonds*, Une 
partie de campagne*, La Grande Illu- 
sion*, La Marseillaise*. 
dir: Le Commissaire est bon enfant (34) 
(short, co-dir: Pierre Prévert), Tête de 
turc (35) (5-reel film that Becker refused 
later to acknowledge as his), L'Or du 
Christobal (39) (taken over by Jean 
Stelli, Becker refused to acknowledge it 
as his work), Dernier atout (42), Goupi 
Mains-Rouges* (43), Falbalas (45), 
Antoine et Antoinette* (47), Rendez- 
vous de juillet* (49), Edouard et Caro- 
line (51), Casque d'or* (52), Rue de 
l'Estrapade (53), Touchez pas au grisbi* 
(54), Ali-Baba et les 40 voleurs (54), 
Les Aventures d'Arsène Lupin (56), 
Montparnasse 19 (57) (originally to 
have been made by Ophuls but entirely 
redesigned by Becker), La Trou* (60). 

bek-nazarov, Amo dir USSR. (Armenia 
1892- ) The father of the Armenian 
cinema, which he established after having 
been an actor in Moscow and having 
been director of many films in Georgia. 
dir (notably): U pozernovo stolba/ln 
the Pillory (24), Natella (26), Namus/ 
Honor (26) (first Armenian film), Zare 
(27), Khaz-Push (27), The House on a 
Volcano (28), Pepo (35), Zanguezour 
(38), David-Bek (44), Anait (48), The 
New Residence (55). 

*BELLOCCHIO, Marco DIR Italy. (1940- ) 
Young, deeply political film maker who 
studied at the Centro Sperimentale in 
Rome and has remarkable economy of 
expression, comparable in some ways to 
the approach of the French nouveau 

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roman: I Pugnl in Tasca/Fists m the 
Pocket (65) and La Cina è vicinal 'China 
is Near (66). Although less incisive than 
the earlier film, this latter is a powerful 
psychological and political portrait. Also 
episode in Amore è Rabbia (It/Fr67- 
69) (not in English version), Nel Nome 
del Padre (71). 

beilon, Yannick ont France. (Biarritz 
April 6, 1924- ) Woman documentary 
film maker with an intense, lively, and 
Intelligent perception. Also an editor. 
dir (notably): Goémons (47), Colette 
(50), Varsovie quand même (53), Un 
matin comme les autres (54), Le Second 
souffle (59), Zaa le petit chameau blanc 
(60), Le Bureau des mariages (62). 

benacerraf, Margot dir Venezuela. (Ca- 
racas Aug 14, 1926- ) After making a 
documentary, Reveron, directed in 1958 
the best film ever made in Venezuela, the 
remarkable Araya*. 

BENEDEK, Laslo DIR/SCEN/PHOTOG/ED 

USA/Britain/Germany/France. (Buda- 
pest March 5, 1907- ) Born in Hun- 
gary, he became a cameraman and editor 
in Germany and France in the early 
Thirties and was scriptwriter in England 
1935-37. He moved to the USA in 1937 
and worked in various capacities before 
directing his first film in 1948. Respon- 
sible for two notable Hollywood films 
of the Fifties, The Wild One and Death 
of a Salesman, but his work since has 
been totally without interest. 
DIR (notably): The Kissing Bandit (48), 
Port of New York (49), Death of a 
Salesman* (51), The Wild One* (54), 
Kinder, Mutter, und ein General (Ger55), 
Moment of Danger/ Malaga (Br it 60), 
Recours en grâce (Fr60), Namu, the 
Killer Whale (66), The Daring Game 
(68), The Night Visitor (70). 

BENOIT-LEVY, Jsan dir France. (Paris 
April 25, 1888-Paris Aug 2, 1959) The 
apostle of educational films in France 
(400 shorts 1920-40); worked in USA 
from 1941-46 and for UNESCO in Paris 
from 1946. Gave Jean Epstein his start in 
films and co-directed with Marie Epstein 
several fiction films, of which the most 
famous are: La Maternelle (33), Uto 
(34), La Mort du cygne (37). Also: 
Pasteur (22) (co-dir: Jean Epstein), 
Hélène (36), Altitude 3200 (37). 



BERARD, Christian art dir France. (Paris 
1902-Paris Feb 13, 1949) The greatest 
set designer of the French theater from 
1935-49, he made major contributions 
to three films by his friend, Jean Coc- 
teau: La Belle et la bête*, L'Aigle à deux 
têtes, Les Parents terribles*. 

BERGLUND, Sven INVENTOR Sweden. 

(Stockholm July 20, 1881 -Berlin May 
10, 1937) Would appear to have been, 
with Eugène Lauste (q.v.), the first to 
have recorded sound on film by an op- 
tical process (1906-11). After demon- 
strating the process in Stockholm, 1921, 
and Berlin, 1922, he established Filmfo- 
toton, which was absorbed in 1928 by 
Tobis. Continued his experiments on 
stereoscopic film in Berlin after 1933. 
Committed suicide in 1937, undoubtedly 

toescaDe the Gestapo. 

BERGMAN, Ingmar DIR/SCEN Sweden. 

(Uppsala July 4, 1918- ) The most 
famous contemporary Swedish director. 
Preoccupied with metaphysical musings 
about human relationships, God, and the 
Devil, he has followed in the footsteps of 
his mentors, Sjcstrôm (q.v) and Stiller 
(q.v.), with an unparalleled sense of 
thsme, character, poetic lyricism, atmos- 
phere, and an overwhelming pessimism. 
The son of a pastor to the royal court, he 
was trained in the Swedish theater, was 
assistant at the Swedish Opera from 
1940-42, worked on scripts at Svensk 
Film in dus tri from 1940-44, and wrote 
scripts for Sjôberg (q.v.) and Molander 
(q.v.). His first films as director reflect 
the influence of Marcel Carné and 
French poetic realism. He made his name 
with two almost metaphysical studies of 
the problems of male-female relation- 
ships, Prison (48) and Thirst (49), and 
women play a major role in films such as 
Summer Interlude, Waiting Women, 
Summer with Monika and A Lesson in 
Love. He had already established an 
international reputation when the public 
at large discovered him through Smiles 
of a Summer Night (55), even though 
this acidulous satire was generally con- 
sidered only a charming comedy. He was 
taken seriously after The Seventh Seal, 
despite its somewhat simplistic philos- 
ophy. It doesn't match the profundity of 
Wild Strawberries (perhaps his master- 
piece), in which he portrayed a man 
facing the problems of his past life — a 
theme he had earlier explored in the 

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tragicomedy Sawdust and Tinsel. He be- 
came somewhat uncertain in his forties 
but found a new forcefulness and ap- 
proach in Through a Glass Darkly, Win- 
ter Light, and The Silence, whose sparse, 
intense styles he has further developed in 
his recent films. He has discussed himself 
and his work at various times (somewhat 
paraphrased): "Art lost its basic creative 
drive the moment it was separated from 
worship ... In former days the artist 
remained unknown and his work was to 
the glory of God ... I want to be one 
of the artists in the cathedral on the great 
plain . . . Regardless of whether I be- 
lieve or not, whether I am Christian or 
not, I would play my part in the collec- 
tive building of the cathedral." "When I 
was younger, work was an exciting game 
for me . . . now it has become a bitter 
fight." "If my original ideas have enough 
strength to make a film, I decide to ma- 
terialize it. Then comes something very 
difficult and complicated: the transforma- 
tion of rhythms, moods, atmosphere, ten- 
sions, sequences, tones and scents into 
words, into an understandable script . . . 
I have never had any ambition to be an 
author. I am a film maker not an author." 
"The human face is the starting point for 
our work. The camera must take part 
only like a totally objective observer. The 
actor's most beautiful means of expres- 
sion is his look. Simplicity, concentra- 
tion, an awareness of details, these must 
be the constant factors in each scene 
and each ensemble." "My first command- 
ment is always to be interesting. The 
public has a right to demand from me 
sensation, emotion, joy, rejuvenation. 
Everything is allowed except that which 
leads to failure; the most dangerous roads 
are in the end the only practical ones." 
Bergman has continued to work in the 
theater as a director and playwright and 
also for TV. 

scen: for Sjôberg Hets/Torment* (44), 
Sista Par et ut /Last Pair Out (51), for 
Molander Kvinna utan ansikte/ Woman 
without a Face (47), Eva (48), Fran- 
skild/ Divorced (51), for Alf Kjellin 
Lustgarden / Pleasure Garden (61), and 
all his own films except Music in Dark- 
ness, Thirst, This Can't Happen Here, 
The Virgin Spring. 

dir: Kris /Crisis (46), Det Regnar pa var 
Kiirlek/It Rains on Our Love (46), 
Skcpp till India/and/ A Ship Bound for 
India (47), Musik i M inker /Music in 
Darkness (48), Harnnstadt/Port of Call 



(48), Fdngelse/ Prison (48), Tôrst/ 
Thirst* (49), Till Gladje/To Joy (50), 
Sant Hdnder inte Hdr/This Can't Hap- 
pen Here/ High Tension (50), Sommar- 
lek I Summer Interlude* (51), Kvinnors 
Vantan/ Waiting Women (52) Som- 
maren med Monika/Summer with Mon- 
ika* (52), Gycklarnas Afton/Sawdust 
and Tinsel /The Naked Night* (53), 
En Lektion i Karlck/A Lesson in Love 
(54), Kvinnodrôm/ Journey into Au- 
tumn* (55), Sommarnattens Leendef 
Smiles of a Summer Night* (55), Det 
Sjunde Inseglet/The Seventh Seal* (56), 
Smultronstdllet/Wild Strawberries* (57), 
Nara Livet/So Close to Life/Brink of 
Life (58), Ansiktet/The Face/The Magi- 
cian (58), Jungfrukdllen/The Virgin 
Spring* (60), Djdvulens Oga/The Devil's 
Eye (60), Sasom i en Spegel/ Through a 
Glass Darkly* (61), Nattsvardsgdsterna/ 
Winter Light* (63), Tystnaden/The 
Silence* (63), For atte inte Tola om 
Alia Dessa Kvinnor/Now about All 
These Women (64), Stimulantia (65) 
(one episode, released 67), Persona 
(66), Vargtimmen/Hour of the Wolf* 
(68), Skammen/ Shame (68), Riten/The 
Rite /The Ritual (69) (for TV), En pas- 
sion/A Passion (69), Faro Document 
(70). 

BERKELEY, Busby (William Berkeley Enos) DIR/ 
choreog USA. (Los Angeles Nov 29, 
1895- ) The best American chore- 
ographer of the Thirties. His career began 
on Broadway as choreographer, producer, 
impresario; moved to Hollywood soon 
after the introduction of sound to be 
dance director for the films of Eddie 
Cantor and others. Joined Warner Broth- 
ers in 1933 and developed there the mas- 
terful, cinematic style that became his 
trademark: kaleidoscopic visual stagings 
of chorus girls, using every conceivable 
camera device and angle. He is far 
more the author of such musical master- 
pieces of the Thirties as 42nd Street and 
Gold Diggers of 1933 than their credited 
directors. He has recently returned to 
the Broadway stage. 

[choreog: Whoopee (30), Kiki (31), 
Palmy Days (31), F lying High (31), 
Night World (32), Bird of Paradise (32) 
(dir: King Vidor), The Kid from Spain 

(32) (dir: Leo McCarey), 42nd Street* 

(33) , Gold Diggers of 1933* (33), Foot- 
light Parade (33) (dir: Lloyd Bacon), 
Roman Scandals (33), Wonder Bar (34) 
(dir: Lloyd Bacon), Fashions of 1934 

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(34) (dir: William Dicterle), Twenty 
Million Sweethearts (34), Dames (34), 
Go into Your Dance (35), In Caliente 

(35) (dir: Lloyd Bacon), Stars over 
Broadway (35) (dir: William Keighley), 
Gold Diggers of 1937* (36) (dir: Lloyd 
Bacon), Singing Marine (37) Varsity 
Show (37), Gold Diggers in Paris* (38), 
Ziegfield Girl (41) (dir: Robert Z. 
Leonard), Lady Be Good (41) (dir: 
Norman Z. McLeod), Born to Sing (41), 
Calling All Girls (42) (short), Three 
Cheers for the Girls (43) (short), Girl 
Crazy. (43) (dir: Norman Taurog), Two 
Weeks with Love (50), Call Me Mister 

(51) (dir: Lloyd Bacon), Two Tickets to 
Broadway (51), Million Dollar Mermaid 

(52) (dir: Mervyn LeRoy), Small Town 
Girl (53), and all his own musicals. 

dir: She Had to Say Yes (33), Gold 
Diggers of 1935* (35), Bright Lights 

(35) , / Live for Love (35), Stage Struck 

(36) , The Go Getter (37), Hollywood 
Hotel (37), Men Are Such Fools (38), 
Garden of the Moon (38), Comet Over 
Broadway (38), They Made Me a Crim- 
inal (39), Broadway Serenade (39), 
Babes in Arms (39), Fast and Furious 
(39), Forty Little Mothers (40), Strike 
Up the Band (40), Blonde Inspiration 
(41), Babes on Broadway (41), For Me 
and My Gal (42), The Gang's All Here 
(43), Cinderella Jones (46), Take Me 
out to the Ball Game /Everybody's Cheer- 
ing (49) and as 2nd unit director on 
Easy to Love (53), Rose Marie (54), 
Jumbo (62).] 

BERLANQA, lult Garcia dir Spain. (Valen- 
cia June 12, 1921- ) With his friend, 
Bardem (?.v.), he gave birth to a new 
Spanish cinema with Welcome, Mr. Mar- 
shall! Originally a journalist, like Bardem 
he was trained at the Madrid film school. 
He is a masterful satirist and has fol* 
lowed in his best films (notably Placido) 
the great Spanish picaresque tradition. He 
has said of himself: "L want to show 
only the goodness of men through the 
social order and mankind. As a man, I 
am a liberal, as an individual, a Chris- 
tian. What pleases me is to make films. 
I like to live and be left in peace." This 
latter wish has not always been granted, 
since his films have often fallen afoul of 
the censor. Has scripted all his own 
films. 

dir (notably): Paseo sobre una guerra 
antlgua (48) (16 mm short, co-dir: Bar- 
dem), El Circo (49) (16mm short), Esa 



parefa feliz (51) (co-dir: Bardem), Bien- 
venido, Mr. Marshall!* (52), Calabuch 

(56) , Los Jueves Milagro (57), Placido 

(61) , Les Quatrcs vérités (62) (one epi- 
sode), El Verdugo/The Executioner* 

(62) ,LasPiranas (67). 

BERLIN, Irving (Israel Baline) MUS USA. 

(Russia May 11, 1888- ) The most 
famous American composer of popular 
songs and musicals has contributed to 
numerous Hollywood films. After con- 
tributing songs to a number of early 
sound films, his first major film success 
came with Top Hat* (35) and Follow 
the Fleet (36), both directed by Mark 
Sandrich. [Others, including films based 
on his stage musicals: On the Avenue 
(36), Alexander's Ragtime Band (38), 
Carefree (38), Second Fiddle (39), Lou- 
isiana Purchase (41), Holiday Inn (42), 
This is the Army (43), Blue Skies (46), 
Easter Parade (48), Annie Get Your 
Gun (50), Call Me Madame (52), 
There's No Business Like Show Business 
(54), White Christmas (54), Sayonara 

(57) .] 

BERNARD, Guy mus France. (Chauny May 
19, 1907- ) One of the best French 
film composers, famous especially for his 
score for Guernica, with counterpoint by 
Eluard, Picasso, and Alain Resnais. No- 
table scores include: for Leenhardt, Nais- 
sance du cinéma (46) and Les Dernières 
Vacances* (48); for Marcel Cravenne, 
Danse de mort (46); for Yannick Bellon, 
Goémons (47) and Varsovie quand 
même (53); for Alain Resnais, Guer- 
nica* (50); for Nicole Vcdrès Paris 
1900* (47); for Jean Vidal, Zola (54). 

BERNARD, Raymond dir France. (Paris Oct 
10, 1891- ) The son of Tristan Ber- 
nard, he began his career by adapting 
his father's plays. An honest, conscien- 
tious, and professional director, his best 
films have been his version of Les Misé- 
rables and spectaculars such as Miracle 
des loups. He is also a stage actor. 
dir (notably): Jeanne Doré (17) (with 
Sarah Bernhardt), Le Petit Café (19) 
(from his father's play, with Max Un- 
der), Le Secret de Rosette Lambert (20), 
Le Miracle des loups (24), Le Jouer 
d'échecs (27), Tarakanova (29), Les 
Croix de bois* (32), Les Misérables* 
(34), Tartarin de Tarascon (35), Marthe 
Richard (37), J'étais une aventurière 
(38), Les Otages (39), Un ami viendra 



Uopy riQhtod mstcnsl 



ce soir (46), Maya (49), La Dame aux 
camélias (53), Le Septième Commande- 
ment (57). 

BERNARD-AUBERT, Claude DIR France. 
(Durtal May 26, 1930- ) An extremist, 
but sincere, he expressed his hatred of 
the Indochina War (in which he had 
been involved) in his best film: Pa- 
trouille de choc (57), the diary of a com- 
batant. Also: Les Tripes au soleil (59), 
Match contre la mort (59), Les Lâches 
vivent d'espoir (61), A fleur de peau 
(62), A l'aube du troisième jour (63). 

BERNARD- DES CHAMPS, Dominique DIR 

France. (Bordeaux 1892- ) In the cin- 
ema since 1914, but made his best films 
after 1930: Le Rosiér de Madame H us- 
son (32), M. Coccinelle (38). Collabo- 
rated with Professor Chrétien after 1935 
on the development of his Hypergonar 
lens, the basis of cinemascope. 

BERNHARDT, Curtis (afco, Kurt Bernhardt) DIR 

USA/Germany. (Worms, Germany April 
15, 1899- ) Trained in Berlin, he later 
churned out UFA-style melodramas in 
Paris, London, and particularly Holly- 
wood. [His The Last Company in Ger- 
many with Conrad Veidt and Emil Jan- 
nings seemed to indicate talent, but his 
French and British films were mediocre. 
Moved to France in 1934, Britain in 
1935, and Hollywood in 1940. His first 
Hollywood film of any merit was Con- 
flict (45), a Germanic-style thriller with 
Humphrey Bogart and Sidney Green- 
street. He even managed to nullify the 
charms of The Merry Widow, and his 
Miss Sadie Thompson is a poor remake 
of Rain.] 

DIR (notably): Qualen der Nacht (26), 
Schinderhannes (28), die Letzte Kom- 
pagnie/The Last Company (30), Der 
Mann, der den Mord beging/The Man 
Who Murdered (31), Der Rebell (32), 
Der Tunnel (33), L'Or dans la rue 
(Fr34), Beloved Vagabond (Brit36), 
Devotion (USA43), Conflict (45), A 
Stolen Life (46), Possessed (48), The 
High Wall (48), Payment on Demand 
(51), The Blue Veil (51), Sirocco (51), 
The Merry Widow* (52), Miss Sadie 
Thompson (54), Beau Brummel (54), 
Interrupted Melody (56), Gaby (56), 
Kisses for My President (64). 

* BERNSTEIN, Elmer mus USA. (New York 
1922- ) Excellent composer whose 



work ranges from jazz-like, popular 
themes to heavily orchestrated epics for 
many Hollywood films. Notable scores: 
Sudden Fear (52), The Man with the 
Golden Arm* (55), The Ten Command- 
ments (56), The Tin Star (57), The 
Sweet Smell of Success* (57), God's 
Little Acre (58), Desire under the Elms 
(58), Some Came Running* (59), The 
Magnificent Seven* (60), Birdman of 
Alcatraz (62), Walk on the Wild Side 
(62), To Kill a Mockingbird (62), The 
Sons of Katie Elder (65), Baby the Rain 
Must Fall (65), Return of the Seven* 

(66) , Hawaii (66), Thoroughly Modern 
Millie (67), A Walk in the Spring Rain 

(68) , The Liberation of L. B. Jones 

(69) . 

BERTHOMIEU, André DIR France. (Rouen 
Feb 16, 1903-Paris April 10, 1960) The 
most prolific of French directors with 
over sixty films to his name from 1926 
to 1960, including several good ones: 
Pas si bête (29), Le Morte en fuite (36), 
and others. 

*BERTOLUCCI, Bernardo DIR. Italy (Parma 

March 16, 1940- ) Young film maker 
of serious moral sensibility and political 
interests who made his name with Before 
the Revolution (64), a thematically dense 
and visually bold film. Though he has 
worked on documentaries and for TV, 
his films are more influenced by the later 
Visconti (q.v.) and Rossellini (q.v.) and 
by Godard (q.v.) and Pasolini (q.v.) 
than by conventional Italian neorealist 
roots. His Partner (68) is a portrait of 
modern intellectual man; The Conformist 

(69) and The Spider's Strategy (70) both 
deal ostensibly with Italy's fascist past but 
are philosophically complex works with 
a more visually assured and less gran- 
diose style than his earlier features. As- 
sistant to Pasolini on Accattone* (61) 
and has scripted all his own films. 

Dm: La Commare Secca/The Grim 
Reaper (62), Prima della Rivoluzione/ 
Before the Revolution* (64), La Via del 
Petrolio (65) (3-part film for TV), // 
Canale (67), Amore è rabbia/Vangelo 70 

(67) (one episode), Partner (68), // 
Conformista/The Conformist (69), Stra- 
tegia del ragno/The Spider's Strategy 

(70) (for TV). 

BERTRAND, Paul art DIR France. (Chalon- 
sur-Saône April 4, 1915- ) Trained by 
Alexandre Trauner (q.v.), he was René 



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Clément's (g.v.) designer on Les Mau- 
dits* (47), Jeux interdits* (52), Ger- 
vaise (56), and Plein Soleil (60), to all 
of which he brought his sense of poetic 
realism. 

•BIBERMAN, Herbert J. DIR USA. (Phila- 
delphia March 4, 1900-June 1971) One 
of the Hollywood Ten imprisoned for 
contempt of Congress in 1950-51. Orig- 
inally an actor and theater director (he 
directed the first Bolshevik play seen in 
the USA) he became a scriptwriter in 
Hollywood {King of Chinatown, New 
Orleans, Road to Yesterday) and directed 
his first unremarkable films: One Way 
Ticket (35), Meet Nero Wolfe (36). His 
only other Hollywood film was The Mas- 
ter Race (44), a bitterly anti-Nazi film, 
though he also produced a western, Abi- 
lene Town (46). He made the brilliant 
Salt of the Earth* in 1954 and spent 
much of his time thereafter in political 
and social agitation against the Holly- 
wood system. He did not make another 
film until 1968, Slaves, an often bril- 
liantly structured analysis of 19th-century 
slavery in America. 

bielek, PaPo DiR Czechoslovakia. (Banska 
Bistrica Oct 11, 1910- ) An outstanding 
figure in the Slovakian cinema in Brati- 
slava, first as an actor before the war 
with, e.g., Martin Fric (q.v.), then after 
the war as scriptwriter and the best 
Slovakian director. All his films have 
Slovakian themes. 

dir: Far Freedom (45) (documentary), 
Vicie diery/ Foxholes (48), Priehradaf 
The Dam (50), Lazy sa pohli/The 
Mountains are Stirring (52), V piatok 
trinasteho I Friday the 13 th (53), Styridsat- 
styri/ Forty-four (57), Kapitan Dabac/ 
Captain Dabac (59), Janosik, I (62), 
Janosik, 11 (63), Majster kat/The Hang- 
man (65), Traja/Trio (69). 

BIRRI, Fernando dir Argentina (Santa-Fé 
March 13, 1925- ) One of the most 
vigorous young Argentinian directors, 
interested in social themes, especially in 
Tiredie (60) (short) and Los Inundados 
(62). 

BITZER, Billy PHOTOG USA. (Boston April 
21, 1874-Hollywood 1944) One of the 
greatest cameramen of all time. Began in 
1899, joined Biograph and worked with 
D. W. Griffith (q.v.), photographing all 



his major films with an unusual feeling 
for visual form and for humanity. 

BLACHE, Alice see GUY-BLACHÉ, ALICE 

BLACKBURN, Maurice mus Canada. (Qué- 
bec, 1914- ) An inventive composer 
who created scores for McLaren's (q.v.) 
Blinkety Blank, A Fantasy, Lines Verti- 
cal, Lines Horizontal, using synthetic 
sounds. 

♦BLACKTON, Jome* Stuart DIR/PROD USA. 

(Sheffield, Britain Jan 5, 1875-Holly- 
wood Aug 13, 1941) A neglected Amer- 
ican pioneer, equal in artistic importance 
to D. W. Griffith (g.v.). During his years 
with Vitagraph as director and producer 
(in the sense of "artistic supervisor") he 
is credited with the development of 
frame by frame animation of people and 
objects (dubbed mouvement américain 
in France after his Haunted Hotel in 
1907) and with the systematic use since 
1908 (and before Griffith) of a kind of 
medium close-up (still called plan améri- 
cain in France). This is evident in Scenes 
of True Life (1908) which, through this 
and its new approach to theme and acting 
style, exercised a universal influence well 
before 1911, when Griffith's films were 
first noticed in Europe. He also pro- 
duced the first American series of classi- 
cal adaptations, especially of Shake- 
speare. He became interested in films 
after interviewing Edison in 1895 as a 
journalist; in 1896 he established Vita- 
graph with his friend Albert E. Smith. In 
1897 they turned to production and were 
joined in 1899 by William T. Rock, a 
partnership that continued until 1925. 
Their first film (1897) was a story film, 
The Burglar on the Roof (dir: Blackton, 
photog: Smith): in 1898 they made the 
propagandistic Tearing Down the Spanish 
Flag, a theme Blackton returned to in 
1914-16 with his war propaganda films, 
The Glory of the Nation, Womanhood, 
The Common Cause, Safe for Democ- 
racy, Missing, The Battle Cry of Liberty, 
The Battle Cry of Peace. He made his 
first animation film in 1906, Humorous 
Phases of Funny Faces, three years be- 
fore the famous Gertie the Dinosaur. 
Established the Vitagraph acting troupe 
in 1907. In 1911 he set up the Vitagraph 
studio in Hollywood. In 1917 he with- 
drew from Vitagraph to produce inde- 
pendently for Famous Players. In 1921 
he went to Britain to make The Glorious 



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Adventure, a period film in Prizmacolor 
with Lady Diana Manners and Victor 
McLaglen. After several more commer- 
cially successful films he returned to the 
USA and Vitagraph, where he remained 
until the company was sold to the 
Warner brothers (q.v.) in 1925. He re- 
tired a millionaire but lost his fortune in 
the 1929 crash and was reduced in the 
Thirties to showing his old films in side- 
shows, delivering a funny commentary 
and dressed up as a turn-of-the-century 
film maker. He died following an auto- 
mobile accident in 1941. 
dir and/or prod (notably) : The Burglar 
on the Roof (1897), Tearing Down the 
Spanish Flag (1898), A Gentleman of 
France (03), Sherlock Holmes (05), 
Monsieur Beaucaire (05), Raffles, the 
Amateur Craftsman (06), And the Vil- 
lain Still Pursued Her (06), The Jail Bird 
and How He Flew (06), Humorous 
Phases of Funny Faces (06) (anim), The 
San Francisco Earthquake (06), A 
Modern Oliver Twist (06), The Haunted 
Hotel* (07), Lightning Sketches (07) 
(anim), The Easterner (07), Francesco 
di Rimini (07), Liquid Electricity (07), 
The Mill Girl (07), Salome (08), Get 
Me a Step Ladder (08), Scenes of True 
Life (08), Richard III (08), The Mer- 
chant of Venice (08), Julius Caesar 

(08) , Anthony and Cleopatra (08), Prin- 
cess Nicotine or the Smoke Fairy (09) 
(anim), The Magic Fountain Pen* (09) 
(anim), Napoleon Bonaparte and Em- 
press Josephine of France /Napoleon Man 
of Destiny (09), A Midsummer Night's 
Dream* (09), An Alpine Echo (09), 
The Auto Maniac (09), Oliver Twist 

(09) , Saul and David (09), The Way of 
the Cross (09), Richilieu (09), The Ro- 
mance of an Umbrella (09), Les Misé- 
rables* (09), The Life of Moses (09- 
10), Twelfth Night (10), Uncle Tom's 
Cabin (10), A Brother's Devotion (10), 
Convict 796 (10), Chew-Chew Land 

(10) , True Life (10), Fruits of Ven- 
geance (10), The New Stenographer 

(11) , A Tale of Two Cities (11), The 
Derelict Reporter (11), The Mate of the 
John M (11), The Spirit of the Light 

(11) , The Wooing of Winifred (11), 
The Two Portraits (12), Lincoln's Gettys- 
burg Address (12), Alma's Champion 

(12) , The Pink Pajama Girl (12), At 
the Eleventh Hour (12), The Diamond 
Brooch (12), The Light of St. Ber- 
nard (12), Beau Brummel (13), Love's 
Sunset (13), The Vengeance of Durand 



(13), Love, Luck, and Gasoline (14), A 
Million Dollar Bid (14), Battle Cry of 
Peace (15), Womanhood (17), The 
Glory of a Nation (17), Country Life 
(17) (series), The Glorious Adventure 
(Brit22), A Gypsy Cavalier (Brit23), 
The Virgin Queen (Brit23), Redeeming 
Sin (24), The Clean Heart (24), The 
Happy Warrior (25), Tides of Passion 

(25) , The Gilded Highway (25), Bride 
of the Storm (26), Hell Bent for Heaven 

(26) , The Passionate Quest (26). Also, 
produced the John Bunny, Flora Finch 
comedies; the Weary Willy comedies. 

blasetti, Altssondro dir Italy. (Rome July 
3, 1900- ) Blasetti and Camerini (q.v.) 
are the best directors of the mediocre 
period in Italian cinema from 1935 to 
1945. Film critic 1924-28. Carlo Lizzani 
wrote of him: "He had, since 1928, the 
ability to stir the stagnant waters of the 
Italian cinema. He directed Sole then 
I860, which marked the highest peak of 
the Italian cinema during the Fascist 
period: The Old Guard marks his collu- 
sion with the regime. But what was his 
La Corona di ferro if not the dreams of 
the ordinary man, the protagonist of 
Four Steps In the Clouds, a film that 
indicated a return to drama based on 
everyday life?** His postwar films have 
been mainly comedies or spectacular*. 
Has also worked in the theater. 
Dm: Sole (29) (seen: Blasetti, Vergano), 
Nerone/Nero (30), Resurrectio/ Resur- 
rection (31), Terra Madre (31), Palio 
(32), La Tavola dei Poveri (32), / Mille 
di Garibaldi/ 1860* (33), Vecchia Guar- 
dia/The Old Guard (33), Aldebaran 
(35), La Confessa di Parma/The Count- 
ess of Parma (37), Ettore Fieramosca 
(38), Un'avventura di Salvator Rosa 
(40), La Corona di ferro (41), La Cena 
delle beffe (41), Quattro passi fra le 
nuvole/Four Steps in the Clouds* (42), 
Un Giorno nella Vita/A Day of Life 
(46), Fabiola (48), Prima Communione/ 
First Communion (50), Altri Tempi/ 
Infidelity (52), La Fiammata (52), 
Tempi Nostri (53), Peccato che sia una 
Canaglia (54), Europa di Notte/ Euro- 
pean Nights (59), lo Amo, Tu Ami/I 
Love, You Love (61), lo, io, io e . . . 
gli altri (65), Simon Bolivar /La Epopeya 
de Simon Bolivar (It/Sp/Venezuela69), 
10 Giugno 1940 (70) (TV, one episode). 

BLEIMAN, Mikhail SCEN USSR. (RostOV 

1904- ) Notable Soviet scenarist who 

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collaborated with Ermler (q.v.) on A 
Great Citizen* (38, 39), and She De- 
fends Her Country* (43). 

BLIOKH, Yokov Dm USSR. (Odessa 1895- 
Moscow 1957) Documentary film maker 
who began his career as production man- 
ager on Battleship Potemkin* (25) and 
who created an unforgettable portrait of 
a Chinese metropolis with A Shanghai 
Document* (28). 

BLOM, August dtr Denmark. (Copenhagen 
Dec 26, 1869-Copenhagen Jan 10, 1947) 
The principal name, with Holger-Madsen 
(q.v.), associated with the early artistic 
development of the Danish cinema, a 
specialist in lavish melodramas and the 
discoverer of such stars as Asta Nielsen, 
Olaf Fônss, and Else Froelich. [His At- 
lantis (13), for example, is technically 
complex for its period, with an inter- 
related use of locations and a sophisti- 
cated morality. An outstanding success, it 
is considered by many historians to be 
the most important film made before 
Griffith's (q.v.), features, and it had con- 
siderable influence on his work. Notable 
is Blom's use of parallel action and 
double exposure. Blom, who was also an 
actor, directed his first film in 1910.] 
dir (notably): Hamlet (10), Livets 
Storme (10), Robinson Crusoe (10), 
Balletdanserinden (11), Cuvernorens 
Datter (12), Atlantis (13), Pressens 
Magt (13), Revolutions Bryllup (14), 
Verdens Under gang (15), Maharajaens 
Yndlingshustru (18), Prometheus (19), 
Hendes Naade Dragonem (25). 

BLOMBERG, Erik photog/dir Finland. 
(Helsinki Sept 18, 1913- ) Since 1936 
he has been the best Finnish cincma- 
tographer. He became a director and es- 
tablished an international reputation in 
1952 with his first film, White Reindeer*. 

•BOETTICHER, Budd (Oscar Boetticher, Junior) 

dir USA. (Chicago July 29, 1916- ) 
With Peck in pah (q.v.), whom he perhaps 
influenced, he is the best modern director 
of westerns. Having become involved in 
bull-fighting in Mexico, he was hired as 
technical adviser for Mamoulian's Blood 
and Sand (41), became an assistant direc- 
tor in 1943-44, and directed his first film 
in 1944. Of his early films, Boetticher 
says: "I was really working in the dark 
. . . (They) only took 8, 10, 12 days 
and there isn't a bit of directing in 



them." After several not very interesting 
films, except for The Bullfighter and the 
Lady, Seminole, and The Magnificent 
Matador, he made the brilliant Seven 
Men from Now and received his first 
serious critical attention in André Bazin's 
famous analysis (see Dictionary of 
Films). Since then he has made a series 
of remarkable westerns and a classic 
thriller, The Rise and Fall of Legs Dia- 
mond (60). His films reflect a classic 
moral confrontation that has its roots in 
the early westerns of Thomas Ince (q.v.) 
and William S. Hart Andrew Sards de- 
scribes them as "Constructed partly as 
allegorical odysseys and partly as floating 
crap games where every character took 
turns at bluffing about his hand until the 
final showdown." Boetticher says of him- 
self: "I have never made a film either for 
something or anti-something ... I think 
(Daves) and (Ford) are the best people 
for landscape that I know, but I have the 
impression at times that they let the 
landscapes take over from the people. 
I've never done that I like very simple 
landscapes in my films - desert or rocks 
... I prefer that because it's the actors 
who count ... I don't think I have ever 
really brought off a successful study of 
a woman, except Alice Diamond in Legs 
Diamond and the girls in The Magnifi- 
cent Matador and The Bullfighter and the 
Lady. What is important is what the 
heroine has caused to happen, or what 
she represents . . . She herself is of no 
importance." Burt Kennedy (q.v.) has 
written most of his scripts since 1956; 
Boetticher wrote the script for Don Sie- 
gel's Two Mules for Sister Sara (70). 
assist: Destroyer (43) (dir: William 
Seiter), The More the Merrier (43) (dir: 
George Stevens), The Desperadoes (43) 
(dir: Charles Vidor), Cover Girl (44) 
(dir: Charles Vidor). 
dir: One Mysterious Night (44), The 
Missing Juror (44), Youth on Trial (44), 
A Guy, a Gal, and a Pal (45), Assigned 
to Danger (48), Behind Locked Doors 
(48), Black Midnight (49). Wolf Hunt- 
ers (49), Killer Shark (50), The Bull- 
fighter and the Lady (51), The Sword of 
D'Artagnan (51) (TV), The Cimarron 
Kid (51), Bronco Buster (52), Red Ball 
Express (52), Horizons West (52), City 
Beneath the Sea (53), Seminole (53), 
The Man from the Alamo (53), Wings 
of the Hawk (53), East of Sumatra (53), 
The Magnificent Matador (55), The 
Killer is Loose (55), Seven Men from 



Copyrighted material 



Now* (56), The Tall T (57), Decision 
at Sundown (57), Buchanan Rides Alone 

(58) , Ride Lonesome (59), Westbound 

(59) , Comanche Station (60), The Rise 
and Fall of Legs Diamond (60), Olle 

(67) (documentary), A Time for Dying 
(69). Also 55-60, several TV programs. 

BOISROND, Michel dir France. (Château- 
neuf Oct 9, 1921- ) Has directed many 
of Brigitte Bardot's commercial suc- 
cesses: Cette sacrée gamine (56), Une 
Parisienne (57), Voulez-vous danser avec 
moi? (59). [Also: Le Chemin des écoliers 
(59), Un soir sur le plage (60), Com- 
ment réussir en amour (62), L'Homme 
qui valait des milliards (67), La Leçon 
particulière (68), Aux purs tout est pur 

(68) . Assistant to Clair on La Beauté 
du diable* (49), Les Belles de nuit* 
(52), Les Grandes Manoeuvres* (55).] 

BOLOGNINI Maure DIR Italy. (Pistoia 
1923- ) Trained as assistant to Zampa, 
Delannoy, Yves Allégret (all q.v.), he 
developed into a somewhat mannered 
director with a taste for elegant images 
but whose films usually have great flair. 
His best film is // Bell' Antonio (60). 
His most recent films have been largely 
"episodes." 

[dir (notably): Oil Innamorati (55), 
Giovani mar it i (57), La Not te brava 
(59), // Bell'Antonio (60), La Giornata 
balorda (60), La Viaccia (61), Senilita 
(61), Agostino (63), La Corruzione 
(64), / Tre Volti (64) (one episode), 
La Bambole (64) (one episode), Made- 
moiselle de Maupin (65), La Donna e 
una cosa mervigliosa (65), Le Streghe 

(66) (one episode), Le Fate (66) (one 
episode), Le Plus vieux métier du monde 

(67) (one episode), Metello (71).] 

bol vary Geza von dir Germany. (Buda- 
pest Dec 28, 1897- ) Prolific German 
director, mediocre specialist in operetta 
films; over 50 films before, during, and 
after the Nazi regime. 

BONDARCHUK, Sergei DIR USSR. (Ukraine 
1920- ) Famous postwar Russian actor 
(Cavalier of the Golden Star*, The 
Grasshopper, Othello*, etc.) who became 
a director in the late Fifties. He suffered 
much in the Second World War when he 
was 20 but has taken as his motto a 
phrase of Gorky's: "Man is made for 
happiness as the bird is for flight." His 
experiences are reflected in his first film, 



Destiny of a Man (59), and in his choice 
of later subjects, though these have led 
him into directing spectaculars. 
dir: Sudba Cheloveka/ Destiny of a 
Man* (59), Voina i Mir/War and 
Peace* (64-67), Waterloo (It/USSR70). 

BONN ARDOT, Jean-Claude DIR France. 

(Paris Dec 26, 1923- ) Trained as a 
maker of short films, he directed in 
Korea Moranbong (59), which was 
banned by the French censors until 1964, 
despite its humanistic theme and admir- 
able qualities. Later he directed an ad- 
mirable thriller, Ballade pour un voyou 

(63) . 

*boorman, John dir Britain/USA. (Brit- 
ain 1933- ) Ex-TV director who at- 
tracted attention with the thriller, Point 
Blank, a quasi allegory replete with visual 
pyrotechnics. Later films have not ful- 
filled his earlier promise and Leo the 
Last is disappointing. 
Dm: Catch Us if You Can /Having a Wild 
Weekend (Brit66), Point Blank (USA 
67), Hell in the Pacific (USA68), Leo 
the Last (Brit69). 

BOROWCZYK, Walerlan ANIM/DIR Poland/ 

France. (Kwilcz Oct 21, 1923- ) Stud- 
ied painting and worked as a graphic ar- 
tist until 1955. Made his first animated 
films with Jan Lenica (q.v.). His ani- 
mated films have a satiric, bitter power, 
with strange, fantastic surrealistic images 
and overtones of horrific tragedy. His 
(un-animated) feature films are similar 
but the dramatic structure with actors 
seems less able to sustain his vision. He 
has worked in France since 1959. 
Dm: Once Upon a Time (57), Love 
Requited (57), Dom/House (58) (all 
co-dir: Lenica), School (58), Les Astro- 
nautes (59) (co-dir: Chris Marker), Le 
Dernier voyage de Gulliver (60), Le 
Concert de M. et Mme. Kabal (62), 
L'Encyclopédie de grand' maman (63), 
Rennaissance (63), Les Jeux des anges 

(64) , Le Dictionnaire de Joachim (65), 
Rosalie (66), Le Théâtre de Monsieur et 
Madame Kabal (67) (feature), Gavotte 

(67) , Diptyque (67), Goto l'île d'amour 

(68) (feature), Le Phonographe (69), 
Blanche (70) (feature). 

BORZAGE, Frank dir USA. (Salt Lake City 
April 23, 1893-Hollywood 1961) A 
largely unrecognized director but the 
equal of his contemporaries, John Ford, 

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Howard Hawks, or King Vidor (all q.v.). 
A product of the commercial cinema, he 
had about 15 artistically productive years 
1925-40 before returning to the standard 
Hollywood product, no director nas 
shown better than he the intimate 
warmth of human love in a profoundly 
united couple. His lovers are rarely iso- 
lated from their environment but are 
carefully depicted as part of their times, 
most commonly crisis-ridden America. In 
addition to his understanding of human 
relationships and his poetic tenderness, he 
had a social awareness and many of his 
films express a hatred of war. When war 
ravaged the world for the second time in 
his life he resigned himself to directing 
merely competent commercial films. He 
worked as a coal miner, became an actor 
for the Lubin Company and Thomas 
Ince (q.v.), and a director of westerns 
for Universal on, e.g.. The Pitch 
O'Chance and several Will Rogers films. 
Dm: Ashes of Desire (19), Humoresque 
(20), Song of Love (23), Children of 
Dust (23), The Nth Commandment 
(23), Secrets (24), The Lady (25), 
Circle (25), The Marriage License (26), 
The Greater Glory (26), Seventh 
Heaven* (27), Street Angel (28), They 
Had to See Paris (29), The River* 
(29), Liliom (30), Bad Girl (31), 
Young America (31), A Farewell to 
Arms (32), Secrets (33), A Man's 
Castle* (33), Flirtation Walk (34), No 
Greater Glory* (34), Little Man, What 
Now?* (34), Living on Velvet (35), 
Desire (36) (supervised by Lubitsch), 
Hearts Divided (36), The Big City (37), 
The Green Light (37), History is Made 
at Night (37), Mannequin (38), The 
Shining Hour (38), Three Comrades 
(38), Disputed Passage (39), Strange 
Cargo (40), Flight Command (40), 
Smiling Through (41), Stage Door Can' 
teen (43), His Butler's Sister (43), Till 
We Meet Again (44), The Spanish Main 
(45), rve Always Loved You (46), 
Magnificent Doll (47), Moonrise (48), 
China Doll (58), The Big Fisherman 
(61), Atlantis, the Lost Kingdom* (It63) 
(completed by Edgar G. Ulmer). 

BOSE, Debaki Kumar DUt/PROD India. 
(Akalpoush, Bengal Nov 25, 1898- ) 
With P. C Barua (9. v.), one of the 
founders of the Calcutta school at New 
Theatres and the best Bengali film maker 
of the Thirties. A militant nationalist in 
his youth and a devotee of the Vishnava 



evangelical movement, he brought to the 
Indian film an integrated sense of music, 
song, and action in creating his lyric, 
devotional dramas such as The Devotee 
(33). His Seeta (33) was the first Indian 
film to be shown at the Venice Festival 
Younger directors like Bimal Roy (q.v.) 
and Satyajit Ray (q.v.) learned much 
from Bose and from his artistic expres- 
sion of his Bengali cultural roots. Began 
his career writing and acting in Flames 
of Flesh (25). 

dir (notably): Pansahar (29), Aparadhlf 
The Culprit (31) (for P. C. Barua), 
Chandidas (32), Puran Bhagat/The Dev- 
otee (33), Seeta (33), Vidyapathi (37), 
Inquilbad (37), Apnagar (41), Kewi/ 
The Poet (49). Also, between 1935-47, 
Meerabai, NartaJd, Sonera, Sansar, Kusha 
Laila, Chandra Keshar, Ratna Deep, 
Sagar Sangame. In later years he has 
concentrated on production* 

bose, Nirin dir/fhotoo India. (Calcutta 
1901- ) Began as a cameraman for 
Debaki Bose (q.v.) on, e.g., Chandidas 
(32), which he later directed in a Hindi 
version. He became a director for New 
Theatres and was one of the leading 
directors of the Calcutta school during 
the Thirties. According to M. Garga he 
directed "social films and tragedies in 
which the rich and the poor are caught 
up in a merciless battle and in which the 
good, like the bad and the indifferent, 
are powerfully characterized." Between 
1930-40 he directed films like Bhagya 
Chakra/The Wheel of Fate (35), The 
President, The Enemy, Mother Earth and 
Marriage. After 1950 he moved to Bom- 
bay and became a leading director there. 
He is a cousin of Satyajit Ray (q.v.) and 
Ray occasionally watched him at work 
at New Theatres in the Forties. 

BOSSAK, J«rzy Dm Poland. (Rostov 1910— 
) A precise but emotional documen- 
tary film maker who has contributed 
much to the development of the Polish 
short film and the encouragement of 
young talent. Originally a journalist and 
film critic, he joined the progressive Start 
group in 1930. In 1943, he formed, with 
Aleksander Ford (q.v.), the film section 
of the Polish Army in the USSR, and 
with Ford directed M aid an ek (44) on 
the death camp and The Battle of Kol- 
berg (45) among others. He has directed 
many short and medium length documen- 
taries, including: Powodzl Storm over Po- 



ll 



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land/ Flood (46). Pokoj zdobedzie swiat/ 
Peace Will Win (51) (co-dir: Joris 
Ivens), Wrzesien 1939 /September 1939 
(61) (compilation feature), Requiem dia 
500,000 (63), Dokumenty walki (67). 
He is head of the Kamera film group and 
teaches at the Lodz Film School. 

BOST, Pierr» scen France. (Lasalle Sept 5, 
1901- ) Originally a writer, he became 
one of the best postwar French script- 
writers in his collaboration with Jean 
Aurenchc (q.v.). 

BOSUSTOW, Stephen an i m USA. (Canada 
Nov 6, 1911- ) Worked for Ub Iwerks 
(q.v.) and Walter Lantz, and for Walt 
Disney (q.v.) until 1941, when he left 
him during the famous strike. Worked in- 
dependently and formed UFA with a 
staff of six in 1943. Although UPA revo- 
lutionized animated film production in the 
Forties and although he later received 
Academy Awards for Mr. Magoo* and 
Gerald McBoing Boing, the credit for 
this is more due to John Hubley (q.v.), 
Peter Burness (q.v.) t Robert Cannon 
(q.v.), and others. He gave up directing 
after Swab Your Choppers (47) to con- 
centrate on production and, after the 
departure of its more creative talents, 
UPA ended up aa much of an assembly 
line as the later Disney, as witnessed by 
Magoo' s Arabian Nights. Notable among 
his earlier films as director are Brother- 
hood of Man (43) (co-dir: Robert Can- 
non) and Hell Bent for Election (44) 
(co-dir: Chuck Jones). 

•BOULTIKO, John Dm Britain. (Bray Nov 
21, 1913- ) and Roy (Bray Nov 21, 
1913- ) Twins as prolific as quads 
who have made many films in collabora- 
tion, alternating as producer/director. 
They formed Charter Films in 1937, 
with Roy directing. John directed his 
first film in 1945. During the war Roy 
made the notable documentaries Desert 
Victory, Burma Victory, and Tunisian 
Victory (with Frank Capra). John made 
the excellent Brighton Rock (47) from 
Graham Greene's story and in the Fifties 
they made a series of satirical comedies, 
notably, rm Alright Jack and Lucky 
Jim. Recent work has been dull. 
Dm (John): Journey Together (45), 
Brighton Rock (47), Seven Days to 
Noon (50), The Magic Box (51), Prf- 
vate's Progress (56), Lucky Jim (57), 



I'm Alright Jack (59), Heaven's Above 
(63), Rotten to the Core (65). 
Dm (Roy): The Landlady (37) (short). 
Consider Your Verdict (37), Trunk Crime 
(39), Inquest (39), Pastor Hall (40), 
Dawn Guard (41) (short), Thunder 
Rock (42), They Serve Abroad (42) 
(short), Desert Victory (43) (documen- 
tary), Tunisian Victory (44) (docu- 
mentary), Burma Victory (45) (docu- 
mentary), Fame is the Spur (47), The 
Guinea Pig (48), High Treason (51), 
Singlehanded (51), Sea Gulls over Sor- 
rento (54), Josephine and Men (55), 
Run for the Sun (USA56), Brothers-in- 
Law (57), Carlton-Browne of the F.O. 

(59) , Suspect (60), A French Mistress 

(60) , The Family Way (66), Twisted 
Nerve (68), There's a Girl in My Soup 
(70). 

BOURGEOIS, Girard Dm France. (Geneva 
Aug 18, 1874-Paris Dec 15, 1944) Pio- 
neer French film maker with a theatrical 
background who made admirable use of 
depth of field in his best film, Les 
Victimes de f alcool (11), a version of 
Zola's L'Assommoir, 

BOURGOIN, Joan (Yvas Bourgoin) PHOTOO 
France. (Paris March 4, 1913- ) An 
excellent cameraman who gained experi- 
ence with Renoir on La Vie est à nous* 
and La Marseillaise* and later special- 
ized in color. 

photoo (notably): for Tati, Mon oncle*; 
for Baratier, Goha*; for Orson Welles, 
Confidential Report*; for Becker, Goupi 
mains-rouges*; for Molinaro, Une fille 
pour Véti; for Y. Allégret, Les Démons 
de Y aube, Dédée d'Anvers, Manèges; for 
Cayatte, Les Amants de Vérone, Justice 
est faite*, Nous sommes tous des 
ci s s as s i fxs^ m 

BOURGUIGNON, Sera* Dm France/USA. 
(Maignelay Sept 3, 1928- ) Studied at 
the Institut des Hautes Etudes Cinéma- 
tographiques (IDHEC). He is passion- 
ately devoted to the cinema, delighting 
in beautiful images and the exotic, but 
he is sometimes a little mannered. His 
Sundays and Cybele won an Academy 
Award. 

Dm (notably): Sikkim, terre secrète (57) 
(documentary), Les Quatre Sourires 
(60) (documentary). Les Dimanches de 
Ville-d'Avrayt Sundays and Cybele (62), 
The Reward (USA65), A Coeur foie/ 



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Two Weeks in September (67), The Pi- 
casso Summer (69). 

BOYER, Francois scen France. (Sezanne 
March 30, 1920- ) Began by scripting 
René Clémcnt's Les Jeux interdits* from 
his own novel and ten years later met 
with equal success in La Guerre des 
boutons (62). 

BOYTLER, Arcady DIR Mexico/USSR. (Aug 
31, 1895- ) Originally an actor in 
Russia trained by Stanislavski, he directed 
the Russian comedy series, Arcady, in 
1916. Later he moved to Mexico, where 
he directed the excellent La Mujer del 
puer to* in 1933 and Cantinflas's screen 
debut in 1938. 

BRACHO, Julio DIR Mexico (190?- ) 
Theatrical background with Copeau and 
Stanislavski; he became during the For- 
ties one of the best Mexican directors. 
His best film is Distinto amanacer. 

•BRAKHAGE, Stan DIR USA. (Kansas City 
1933- ) One of the most influential and 
most prolific film makers of the Amer- 
ican underground. Directed his first film 
at 18 and has worked as a director of 
commercials in order to have the freedom 
to make his own films. He is enchanted 
with the technical possibilities of the 
camera and all his films exude a sense 
of delight in the physical world. Scenes 
from Under Childhood, an autobiograph- 
ical film, is his latest work. His films in- 
clude: Interim (51), Desist film (53), 
Unglassed Windows Cast a Terrible Re- 
flection (53), In Between (54), The Way 
to Shadow Garden (55), Reflections on 
Black (55), Wonder Ring (55), Flesh 
of Morning (56), Nightcats (57), Day- 
break (57), White Eye (57), Anticipa- 
tion of the Night (57), Loving (57), 
Colorado Legend (59), Prelude (61), 
The Dead (61), Thin Line Lyre Trian- 
gular (63), Window Water Baby Mov- 
ing (63), The Art of Vision (61-65), 
Fire of Waters (66), Lovemaking (68) 
(episodes), Scenes from Under Child- 
hood (2 episodes completed, 1969). 

BRAUNBERGER, Pierre PROD France. (Paris 
July 29, 1905- ) Perhaps the single 
most influential producer in France, cou- 
rageous and farsighted in his choice of 
directors from the French avant-garde 
of 1925 to the nouvelle vague; has 
worked with, among many others, Jean 
Renoir, René Clair, Bunuel, Resnais, 



Jean Rouch, Reichenbach, Jacques Ri- 
vette, Truffaut, Godard (all q.w). 

BRDECKA, Jiri anim/scen Czechoslovakia. 
(Moravia Dec 24, 1917- ) Excellent 
director of cartoons who has often 
worked with Trnka (q.w) and has writ- 
ten scripts for many important fiction 
and animated films. 

[scen (notably): for Jasny, That Cat*; 
for Lipsky, Lemonade Joe (64); for 
Weiss, Appassionato (59); for Trnka, 
The Emperor's Nightingale*, Old Czech 
Legends*, A Midsummer Night's Dream. 
an i m (notably): Love and the Dirigible 
(47), A Comic History of Aviation 
(58), Look Out! (59), Our Red Riding 
Hood (60), Gallina Vogelbirdae (63), 
A Minstrel's Song (64), Why Do You 
Smile Mona Lisa? (66).] 

BRECHT, Bertolt scen Germany. (Augs- 
bourg Feb 10, 1898-Berlin Aug 14, 
1956) The influential German poet, dra- 
matist, and theoretician has occasionally 
collaborated on films, but until Caval- 
canti's Puntila* was unhappy with screen 
adaptations of his work. His Dreigro- 
schenoper* (31) was filmed by Pabst 
and later remade; he co-wrote the script 
for Slatan Dudow's Kuhle Wampe* (32), 
wrote the original story for Fritz Lang's 
Hangmen Also Die (43), and wrote the 
song for Ivens' Das Lied der Strôme 
(54). His influence on the cinema has 
been considerable and both Losey (q.v.) 
and John Hubley (q.w) were his disci- 
ples. 

♦BRENON, Herbert Dm USA/Britain. (Dub- 
lin Jan 13, 1880-Los Angeles June 21, 
1958) Hollywood pioneer who began as 
scriptwriter and editor with the Imp 
Company in 1909. First film in 1912. 
He directed two spectaculars. Ivanhoe 
(13) and Across the Atlantic (13), in 
Britain and made Annette Kellerman a 
star with Neptune's Daughter (14); made 
Nazimova famous with War Brides (16) 
and directed other important stars of the 
period: Theda Bara (in The Two Or- 
phans*), Pola Negri, and Louise Brooks. 
He returned to Britain in the mid-Thir- 
ties and made a number of mediocre 
films. His sentimental melodramas made 
him one of the most famous Hollywood 
names of the Twenties. 

BRESSON, Robert DiR France. (Bromont-la- 
Mothe, Sept 25, 1907- ) The Jansenist 



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of the French cinema, though he has de- 
veloped a humanistic classical abstrac- 
tion and is not at all coldly doctrinaire. 
He became involved in the cinema in 
1933 but he considers that his career 
really began with his first feature, made 
during the war: Les Anges du péché, a 
drama set in the closed world of a con- 
vent. His next film, Les Dames du bols 
de Boulogne, freely based on a Diderot 
story and updated to a contemporary pe- 
riod, is a searing work, as luminous as 
the exceptionally vivid gas lighting. It 
was a commercial failure and Bresson 
did not make another film for some years 
until his Bernanos adaptation, Le Journal 
d'un curé de campagne. This marked a 
turning point in his work, a more rigor- 
ous exactness in approach: from this 
film on he has avoided professional ac- 
tors, sets, and florid dialogue in order to 
reach a more direct contact with life 
(though his style is quite different from 
neorealism). In order to capture human 
expression, psychology, and behavior he 
submits his characters to a rigorously 
refined and austere visual staging, most 
often set in a restricted environment, a 
closed world. His masterpiece, Un con- 
damné à mort s'est échappé, is bare and 
intense, constructed out of gestures and 
objects, the essence of the courage and 
atmosphere of the French Resistance. 
Pickpocket, a reworking of the theme of 
Crime and Punishment, deals more di- 
rectly with the theme of submission and 
salvation, follows the style of his earlier 
work, and creates a profoundly forceful 
sense of reality. In Procès de Jeanne 
d'Arc, his most severe film, he reached 
the summit of abstraction. [The figure of 
the donkey Balthazar in Au hasard, 
Balthasar is a study in innocence, a com- 
plex and profound symbol. His two 
most recent films, Mouchette (from 
Bernanos) and Une Femme douce (from 
Dostoevski) are far less severe than his 
preceding films, the first a study in with- 
drawal comparable to Le Journal d'un 
curé de compagne, the second an evoca- 
tion of spiritual sterility. Une Femme 
douce is also Bresson's first color film.] 
He has said, at various times, of his 
work: "A film must be the work of one 
man, and reach the public as such. The 
cinema must express itself not through 
images but through the relationships of 
images, which is not at all the same 
thing. In the same way, a painter does 
not express himself through colors but 



through a relationship of colors. If an 
initial, neutral image is suddenly brought 
together with another, it vibrates, life 
bursts through. This isn't so much the 
life of the story or of the characters, it 
is the life of the film. As soon as the 
image comes alive one is creating cinema. 
The cinema is not a spectacle, it is in the 
first place a style. ... I try more and 
more in my films to suppress what is 
called plot. Plot is a novelist's trick. I 
want to and, indeed, do make myself as 
much of a realist as possible, using only 
raw material taken from real life. But 
in the end I find I have a realism that 
is not simply 'reality.' ... An actor, 
even (and particularly) a talented actor, 
gives us too simple an image of a human 
being, and therefore a false image. . . . 
In a film what I am looking for is a 
march towards the unknown. In any case, 
the basis is nature, man, not the actor." 
André Bazin wrote: "Like Dreyer, Bres- 
son is naturally drawn towards the most 
sensual qualities of the face which . . . 
is only the licensed impression of the 
being, the visible tracing of the soul. 
Bresson literally strips away all super- 
fluous elements from his characters. 
scen: C'était un musicien (33) (dir: 
F. Zelnick, M. Gleize), Les Jumeaux de 
Brighton (36) (dir: Claude Heymann), 
Courrier sud (37) (dir: Pierre Billon), 
and for all his own films. 
dir: Les Affaires publiques (34) (short 
feature), Les Anges du péché* (43), Les 
Dames du bois de Boulogne* (45), Le 
Journal d'un curé de campagne* (50), 
Un condamné à mort s'est échappé* 
(56), Pickpocket* (59), Procès de 
Jeanne d'Arc* (62), Au hasard, Bal- 
thasar (66), Mouchette* (66), Une 
Femme douce/ A Gentle Creature (69), 
Quatre nuits d'un rêveur (71). 

•BROC A, Philippe de dir France. (Paris 
1935- ) He originally made shorts in 
Africa, became assistant to Chabrol 
(q.v.) and Truffaut (q.v.), directed his 
first features in 1960, the extremely suc- 
cessful Love Game and The Joker. A 
film maker with a deft sense of sophis- 
ticated comedy, and of social and sexual 
satire. 

dir: Les Jeux de l'amour (60), Le 
Farceur (60), L'Amant de cinq jours* 
(61), Cartouche (61), Les Sept péchés 
capitaux (61) (one episode), Les 
Veinards (62) (one episode), L'Homme 
de Rio (63), Un monsieur de cam- 



30 



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pagnie (64), Les Tribulations d'un 
Chinois en Chine (65), Le Roi de coeur 

(66) , Le Plus vieux métier du monde 

(67) (one episode), La Diable par la 
queue (68), La Poudre d'escampette 
(70). 

BRONSTON, Samuel PROD USA (Russia 
1910?- ) Independent Hollywood pro- 
ducer who founded Samuel Bronston 
Productions based in Madrid (with the 
backing of Dupont) and made the super 
spectacles King of Kings and El Cid. 
In 1964, The Fall of the Roman Empire 
heralded his own. 

[prod: The Adventures of Martin Eden 
(42), Jack London (43), A Walk in the 
Sun* (45), John Paul Jones (59), King 
of Kings (60), El Cid* (61), 55 Days at 
Peking (63), Circus World/The Mag- 
nificent Showman (64), The Fall of the 
Roman Empire (64).] 

BROOK, Peter DIR Britain (London March 
21, 1925- ) Famous British stage pro- 
ducer (since 1945) who has made several 
notable films. 

[dir: The Beggar's Opera (53), Moderato 
cant ab He (60), Lord of the Flies (62), 
The Persecution and Assassination of 
Jean-Paul Morat as Performed by the 
Inmates of the Asylum of Charenton un- 
der the Direction of the Marquis de 
Sade* (66), Red, White, and Zero (67) 
(one episode), Tell Me Lies (68), King 
Lear (Brit/Den70).] 

BROOKS, Richard Dm/scEN USA. (Phila- 
delphia May 18, 1912- ) Originally a 
novelist (Dmytryk's Crossfire* is based 
on his novel), theatrical producer, and 
radio/TV writer, he entered films as a 
scriptwriter in 1942. He is an interesting 
film maker when he directs his own 
scripts, as in Blackboard Jungle and 
Elmer Gantry, and, despite its naïveté, 
Something of Value. But he can become 
totally mediocre when he has to play by 
the Hollywood rules. All his films since 
Something of Value (57) have been 
from his own scripts. He has said of bis 
work: 'Though I write a script, I don't 
have real control over my film because 
the studio can transform the completed 
film in the editing. I also regret not be- 
ing able to choose my actors freely, like 
most American directors.** **Your film 
can be no better than the script If the 
story is bad, the actors can be sublime, 
the music magnificent, the color breath- 



taking, but your film will, in the end, be 
a failure." He has produced bis own 
films since 1965. 

scen: White Savage (52) (dir: Arthur 
Lubin), Cobra Women (45) (dir: Robert 
Siodmak), My Best Gal (44) (dir: 
Anthony Mann), Brute Force (47) (dir: 
Jules Dassin), To the Victor (48) (dir: 
Delmer Daves), Key Largo (48) (dir: 
John Huston), Any Number Can Play 
(49) (dir: Mervyn LeRoy), Mystery 
Street (50) (dir.- John Sturges), Storm 
Warning (50) (dir: Stuart Heisler) and 
for all his own films except The Last 
Time I Saw Paris, The Flame and the 
Flesh, Take the High Ground and The 
Catered Affair. 

dir: Crisis (50), The Light Touch (51), 
Deadline USA (52), Battle Circus (53), 
Take the High Ground (53), The Last 
Time I Saw Paris (53), The Flame and 
the Flesh (54), The Blackboard Jungle* 
(55), The Last Hunt (56), The Catered 
Affair/Wedding Breakfast (56), Some- 
thing of Value* (57), The Brothers 
Karamazov (58), Cat on a Hot Tin Roof 
(58), Elmer Gantry* (60), Sweet Bird 
of Youth (62), Lord Jim (65), The 
Professionals (60), In Cold Blood (67), 
The Happy Ending (69). 

BROWN, Clarence DIR USA. (Clinton May 

10, 1890- ) Formerly assistant to Mau- 
rice Tourneur (q.v.) — with whom he 
co-directed the memorable Last of the 
Mohicans (20) - he became one of Hol- 
ly woods veterans, sometimes capable of 
real achievements, as in The Flesh and 
the Devil* (27), The Trail of '98 (28), 
and Intruder in the Dust* (49). [Also, 
notably: The Eagle (25), Anna Karenina 
(35), AM Wilderness (35), Conquest/ 
Marie Walewska (37), Of Human Hearts 
(38), The Human Comedy (43), Na- 
tional Velvet (45), The Yearling (47), 
Song of Love (47). His last film was 
Plymouth Adventure (52) but he pro- 
duced Delmer Daves's Never Let Me Go 
(53) before retiring.] 

BROWNING, Tod dir USA. (Louisville, 
Kentucky July 12, 1882-Santa Monica 
Oct 6, 1962) Originally a vaudeville and 
circus performer, he became an actor 
for Griffith, then his assistant in 1916 on 
Intolerance*, and finally joined Fox as 
director in 1917. During the Twenties 
and Thirties he was the master of the 
American horror film genre and made 
Lon Chaney and Bela Lugosi famous. 



i 



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He has sometimes been called "the Edgar 
Allan Poe of the cinema" and, in any 
case, is a "dark angel H whose phantas- 
magoric creations were much admired 
around 1925 by the surrealists. He took 
a singular delight in grotesque characters 
and built his best films around them. In 
1928 he said: "While I am working on 
a subject for Lon Chaney, I never con- 
sider the plot This writes itself after I 
have conceived the characters. The Un- 
known came to me after I thought of a 
man without arms. For The Road to 
Mandalay, the initial idea is simply that 
of a man so frightfully ugly that he is 
ashamed to reveal himself to his own 
daughter. In this way one can develop 
any story." Many of his films are from 
his own scripts. He retired after 1939 
and lived in comfort on his savings in 
Santa Monica. 

dir (notably): Jim Btudso (17), The 
Brazen Beauty (18), The Wicked Dar- 
ling (19) (with Chaney), The Virgin of 
Stamboul (20), Outside the Law (21) 
(with Chaney), Under Two Flags (22), 
Man Under Cover (22), The White Tiger 
(23), Drifting (23), The Unholy Three* 
(25) (with Chaney), The Mystic (25), 
The Blackbird (26) (with Chaney), The 
Road to Mandalay (26) (with Chaney), 
The Unknown (27) (with Chaney), 
London After Midnight (27) (with 
Chaney), London After Midnight (27) 
(with Chaney), The Show (27) (with 
Chaney), West of Zanzibar (28) (with 
Chaney), Big City (28), Where East is 
East (29) (with Chaney), The Thir- 
teenth Chair (29), Outside the Law (30), 
The Iron Man (31), Dracula* (31) 
(with Lugosi), Freaks* (32), Fast 
Workers (33), Mark of the Vampire 

(35) (with Lugosi), The Devil Doll 

(36) , Miracles for Sale (39). 

BRUMBERO, VoUntina ami Zinaida an I M 

USSR. (Moscow Aug 2, 1899 and Aug 2, 
1900- ) Their cartoons use human 
characters more than animals, as in The 
Young Samoyed (29). Since 1940 their 
work has been quite conventional. 

brunius, John W. Dm Sweden. (Stock- 
holm Dec 26, 1884-Stockholm Dec 16, 
1937) After a theatrical background, he 
developed into the best Swedish silent 
director apart from Sjôstrôm (q.v.) 
and Stiller (q.v.). His films in the Twen- 
ties are largely elaborate period films. 



dir: M'dsterkatten l stôvlar/Puss In Boots 
(18), Synnôve Solbakkien (19), Ah, I 
morron kvàll/Oh, Tomorrow Night (19), 
Thora van Deken (20), Gyurkovisarna 
(20), Kvarnen/The Mill (21), En Ly- 
ckoriddare/A Fortune Hunter (21), En 
Vild fagel/A Wild Bird (21), Harda 
Viljor/Hard Wills (22), Karlekens Ogon/ 
The Eyes of Love (22), Johan Ulfstjerna 
(23), En Piga bland Pigor/A Maid 
among Maids (24), Karl XII /Charles 
XII, Parts I, n (25), Fdnrik Stals 
S'dgner /Tales of Ensign Steel, Parts I, II 
(26), Custaf Wasa, Parts I, H (26), VI 
Tva/The Two of Us (30), Doktorns 
Hemlighet/The Doctor's Secret (30), 
Langtan till Havet/ Longing for the Sea 
(31), Havets M elodi/ Melody of the Sea 
(34), (co-dir), Falska Greta/ False Greta 
(34). All the films until 1926 photoo 
Hugo Edlund. 

•bryan, John art dir/prod Britain. (Lon- 
don 1911-London 1969) Trained as a 
theater designer in the Thirties, he even- 
tually developed into one of the cin- 
ema's most distinctive designers, nota- 
ble for his period films: the Shaw adap- 
tations Pygmalion, etc., the two Dickens 
adaptations by David Lean (q.v.) Great 
Expectations (which won him an Oscar) 
and Oliver Twist, and more recently 
Becket. Began producing in the early 
Fifties. 

art dir (notably): Asquith's Pygmalion*, 
Fanny by Gaslight, Gabriel Pascal's Ma- 
jor Barbara, Caesar and Cleopatra*, 
David Lean's Great Expectations, Oliver 
Twist, The Passionate Friends, Made- 
leine, Albert Lewin's Pandora and the 
Flying Dutchman, Peter Glenville's 
Becket. 

prod (notably): Ronald Neane's The 
Card, The Horse's Mouth, Robert Par- 
rish's The Purple Plain, Stuart Burge's 
There Was a Crooked Man, de Sica's 
After the Fox, Robert Freeman's The 
Touchables. 

BUCHOWETZKI, Dlmltrl (Dmitri Bukhovetiky) 

dir Germany/France/USA. (Russia 
1895-USA 1932) Originally a director in 
Russia he emigrated to Germany and 
made his name with a series of exotic 
costume dramas, many with Emil Jan- 
nings. (He was invited to Hollywood in 
1924 but his seven films there were not 
successful and he returned to Europe 
with the arrival of sound.] 

32 



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DIR (notably): Die Bruder Karamosoff 

(20) (co-dir: Carl Froclich), Danton 

(21) , Sappho (21), Die Crafin von 
Paris (22), Othello* (22), Peter der 
Grosse (22), das Karusell des Lebens 
(23), The Crown of Lies (USA26), 
Valencia (USA26), Weib im Dschungel 
(30), Die Nacht der Entscheidung (31). 

bulajic, Velko (Veljko) DIR Yugoslavia. 
(Montenegro March 23, 1928- ) One 
of the best of the younger Yugoslav 
directors who trained at the Centro 
Sperimentale in Rome and who made 
documentaries before turning to features. 
His documentary on the Skopje disaster, 
Skopje 1963, won many international 
awards. 

MR: Vlak bez voznog redu/Train without 
a Timetable (58), Rat/War (60), 
Uzavreli Graniczna/Boom Town (61), 
Kozara/Hill of Death* (62), Skopje 
2963 (64) (documentary), Pogled u 
zjenicu sunca/A Glance at the Pupil of 
the Sun (66), Bitka na Nerctvi/ Battle 
on the River Neretva (69) (with Sergei 
Bondarchuk). 

BUNUEL, Luis DIR Spain/France/Mexico. 
(Calanda, Aragon Feb 22, 1900- ) In- 
finitely tender under an apparent cruelty, 
uncompromising, understanding, totally 
honest and faithful to himself, his art, 
his ideals and his friends. If Vigo (q.v.) 
can be called the Rimbaud of the cinema 
he is the Lautréamont. Born in Aragon 
like Goya (one of his idols), he studied 
at Madrid University with Garcia Lorca, 
Dali, Juan Vicens, Rafael Alberti, and 
others. He left Spain in 1925 to escape 
the dictatorship of Primo de Rivera and 
in order to find freedom in France. He 
worked as assistant to Jean Epstein 
(q.v.), whom he admired, from 1926 to 
1928. But then "surrealism revealed to 
me that man cannot dispense with the 
moral sense. I believed in the total 
freedom of man, but I saw in surrealism 
a discipline to follow and it led me to 
take a marvelous and poetic, large step 
forward" (in Un chien andalou and 
L'Age d'or). After breaking with sur- 
realism, directing Land Without Bread, 
and working as an executive producer 
with the Spanish Republicans, he had a 
very unhappy, abortive period in the 
USA (from 1938), where he worked for 
the Museum of Modern Art in New York 
and directed shorts for the American 



army. Then he was invited to Mexico to 
direct commercial films and found his 
voice again with Los Olvidados. There- 
after he has directed in Mexico, Spain, 
and France a series of powerful master- 
pieces, Subida al Cielo, £1, Nazarin, 
Viridiana, El Angel Exterminador, and 
Belle de four. He has said: "I have al- 
ways been an atheist, thank God ... I 
believe it is necessary to find God in 
man, it's a very straightforward atti- 
tude." "Apart from my first three films, 
I have only made films that have been 
commissioned. I have not made them 
badly but always morally worthy; I have 
always followed my surrealist precept: 
'the prostitution of art is not excused by 
having to eat' I am opposed to conven- 
tional morality, traditional fantasies, sen- 
timentalism, all the moral trash of so- 
ciety. Bourgeois morality is, for me, 
amoral because it is based on extremely 
unjust institutions: religion, nationalism, 
the family, and other pillars of society." 
He has discussed his conception of the 
cinema: "It will be enough for the white 
eyelid of the screen to reflect the light 
that is proper to it in order to make the 
universe jump. But for the time being we 
can sleep quietly, for the cinematographic 
light is securely smothered." "The cinema 
is a marvelous and dangerous weapon if 
it is in the hands of a free spirit. It is the 
best instrument for expressing the world 
of dreams, emotions, instincts. It seems 
to have been invented to express the life 
of the subconscious, whose roots lie at 
the heart of poetry. However, it shouldn't 
be thought I am for a cinema exclusively 
dedicated to fantasy and mystery ... I 
ask the cinema to be a witness, to take 
account of the world, which is to say all 
that is important in reality. Reality has 
many levels and can have a thousand 
different meanings for different people. I 
want to have an integral vision of reality; 
I want to enter the marvelous universe 
of the unknown." "As far as I'm con- 
cerned, the private drama of one indi- 
vidual could not interest anyone worthy 
of living in his times. If the spectator 
shares the joys, sadnesses, agonies of a 
character on the screen, it could only be 
because they are a reflection of the joys 
sadnesses, and agonies of society at large 
and are therefore his own. Unemploy- 
ment, lack of security, the fear of war, 
etc., affect everyone today, therefore the 
spectator." 



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assist: for Jean Epstein Mauprat (26), 
La Chute de la Maison Usher* (28). 
dir: Un chien andalou* (Fr28), L'Age 
d/or* (Fr30), Las H ur de s /Land Without 
Bread* (Sp32), Cran Casino (Mex47), 
El Gran Calavera (Mex49), Los Olvida- 
dos* (Mex50), Susana (Mex51), La Hija 
del Engano (Mex51), Una Mufer sin 
Amor (Mex51), Subida al Cielo* (Mex 
51), El Bruto (Mex52), Robinson Cru- 
soe (Mex52), Cumbres Borrascosas* 
(Mex52), La Illusion viaja en Tranvla 
(Mex53), El Rio y la Muerte (Mex54), 
Ensayo de un Crimen* (Mex55), Cela 
s'appelle l'aurore* (Fr/It55), La Mort 
en ce Jardin/Evil Eden (Fr/Mex56), 
Nazarin (Mex58), La Fièvre mont à 
El Pao/Republlc of Sin (Fr/Mex59), 
The Young One* (Mex60), Viridiana* 
(Sp/Mex61), El Angel Extermlnador* 
(Mex 62), Le Journal dune femme de 
chambre* (Fr64), Simon del Desierto 
(Mex65), Belle de four* (Fr67), La Vole 
lactée/The Milky Way (Fr68), Tristana 
(Sp/It/Fr70). 

BUREL, Uonce-Henry PHOTOO France. (In- 
dret Nov 23, 1892- ) From Gance 
($.v.) to Bresson («.v.) perhaps the 



greatest French cameraman, and one of 
those who has contributed the most to 
cinematic art. 

photoo (notably): for Pouctal, Alsace 

(16) ; for Abel Gance, Les Gaz mortels 

(17) , Le Droit à la vie (17), La Zone 
de la mort (17), Mater Dolorosa* (17), 
La Dixième Symphonie* (18), J'accuse* 
(19), La Roue* (22), Napoléon* (27); 
for Feyder, Crainquebille* (22), Visages 
d'enfants (25), L'Image (26); for Mau- 
rice Tourneur, L'Équipage (28); for 
Mariel L'Herbier, Nuits de prince (30); 
for Jean Renoir, Boudu sauvé des eaux* 
(32); for Jean Benoit-Lévy, La Mort du 
cygne (38); for Noël-Noël, Les Casse- 
Pieds (48), La Vie enchantée (49); for 
Bresson, Le Journal d'un curé de cam- 
pagne* (50), Un condamné à mort s'est 
échappé* (56), Pickpocket* (59), Procès 
de Jeanne d'Arc* (62). 

•BURNESS, Peter ANIM USA. (1910- ) 

Originally worked on such cartoons as 
Tom and Jerry and The Little King, then 
joined UPA and became the most prolific 
director of the Mr. Magoo* cartoons in 
the Fifties. Later moved to TV and the 
Bullwinkle Show. 



34 



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CABANNE, Christy William DIR USA. (St. 
Louis 1888-Philadclphia Oct 15, 1950) 
Important American film pioneer, trained 
by D. W. Griffith (q.v.); directed Lillian 
Gish in, e.g., The Rebellion of Kitty 
Belle (14), The Sisters (14), Enoch 
Arden/The Fatal Marriage (15), directed 
Douglas Fairbanks's screen debut, The 
Lamb* (15), and was co-director on the 
1925 Ben Hur* (notably for the nativity 
scene). Later, directed many B -pictures. 

CACOYANNIS, Michael Dm Greece. (Cyprus 
1922- ) The first Greek director to give 
his country's cinema an international rep- 
utation and, since the Fifties, one of the 
best Greek film makers along with Nikos 
Koundouros (q.v.) and George Tzavellas 
(q.v.). He was based in England as a 
radio and stage producer and actor 1939— 
50. His early films show an English in* 
fluence and many of his best films have 
been photographed by the English cam- 
eraman Walter Las s all y (q.v.). Neverthe- 
less, his Windfall in Athens, Stella, and 
A Girl In Black have an authentic na- 
tional flavor. After several failures, he 
regained his international stature with 
Electra, a version of the Euripedes trag- 
edy filmed in his own country, and 
achieved an enormous popular success 
with Zorba the Creek, He writes the 
scripts for his own films. 
Dm: Kiriakatiko XypnimalWindfa.il In 
Athens (53), Stella (55), To Koritsl me 
ta mavra/A Girl in Black* (55), A Mat- 
ter of Dignity (57), Our Last Spring 
(58), The Wastrel (60), Elektra* (61), 
Zorba the Greek* (64), The Day the 
Fish Came Out. (67), The Trojan 
Women (71). 

CALMETTES, André DiR France. (Paris April 
18, 1 861 -Paris 1942) Also an actor, he 
co-directed (with Le Bargy), L'Assas- 
sinat du duc de Guise* (08), and Le 



Retour d'Ulysse (08) and was for three 
years a director with Film d'Art, making 
La Tosca (08) and La Dame aux 
Camélias/Camille (10) with Sarah Bern- 
hardt; Macbeth* (09) with Mounet- 
Sully; Camille Desmoulins (il) with 
Madame Lara; Madame Sans-Gêne (11) 
with Madame Réjane. 

CAMERlNl, Mario DiR Italy. (Rome Feb 6, 
1895- ) With Blasetti (q.v.), the best 
Italian director of the Thirties a special- 
ist in somewhat melancholy comedies 
whose heroes are often ordinary people 
hoping to meet good fortune. He studied 
law, was an officer in the bersaglieri, was 
assistant to his cousin G en in a (q.v.) 
1920-23, and became a scriptwriter. He 
played a role in De Sica's (q.v.) develop- 
ment. Since 1940 he has concentrated on 
period films and has made little of 
interest. Carlo Lizzani wrote of him: 
"He was the confessor of the middle 
classes, scrutinizing with an always most 
prudent art the hearts of the faithful in 
order to find there any small sins; he 
never concerned himself with recounting 
their secret passions nor with making 
them face the major problems of exis- 
tence.** 

DiR (notably): Jolly, Clown da Circo 
(23), Maciste contre lo Sceicco (26) 
(with the original "Maciste,** Pagano), 
Kiff Tebi (27), Rotaie (29), Figaro e la 
Sua Gran Giornata (31), Gil Uomini, 
che Mascazont (32), // Cappello a tre 
Punte (34), Daro un Milione (35), Ma 
non è Una Cosa Seria (36) (with De 
Sica), // Signor Max (37), Batticuore 
(38), Grandi Magazzini (39) (with De 
Sica), Una Romantica Avventura (40), 
/ Promessi Sposi (40), Una Storia 
d'Amore (42), TAmero Sempre (43), 
Two Anonymous Letters (45), La Figlia 
del Capitano (47), Molti SogrU per le 
Strode (48), // Brigante Musolino (50), 

35 



L/OpyriQhtGd mstcnsl 



Wife for a Night (51), Honeymoon De- 
ferred (52), Ulisse/Ulysses (53), La 
Bella Mugnaia (55), Suor Letizia (56), 
Holiday on Ischia (58), Via Margretha 
(61), / Briganti Italiani (61), Kali-Yug, 
Goddess of Vengeance (63), Delitto 
Quasi Perfetto/ Imperfect Murder (66). 

CAMUS, Marcel Dm France. (Chappes 
April 21, 1912- ) An assistant for 
many years (to Decoin, Rouquier, 
Becker, Astruc), he made a short film, 
Renaissance, in 1950 and in 1956 his first 
feature, the moving Mort en Fraude on 
the Indochina war. He achieved great 
international success with the visually 
striking Black Orpheus but his later films 
have been of far less interest. 
Dre: Mort en Fraude (56), Orfeu negro/ 
Black Orpheus* (58), Os bandeirantes 
(60), L'Oiseau de paradis (62), Le Chant 
du monde (65), L'Homme de New York 
(67), Vivre la nuit (68), Le Mur de 
l'Atlantique (70). 

*CANNON, Robert ANIM USA. (1901-June 

5, 1964) A leading animator for UPA 
during its creative period when it revolu- 
tionized the cartoon. Originally with Dis- 
ney (q.v.), he co-directed Brotherhood 
of Man with Bosustow (q.v.) and made 
a notable contribution to UPA with the 
creation of Gerald McBoing Boing (50) 
and Christopher Crumpet (52). His films 
have very carefully orchestrated, often 
surrealistic, sound tracks. Among his 
other films, Madeline (52) and Fudget's 
Budget (54) stand out. 

CANTAGREL, Marc Dm France. (Paris Dec 
1, 1879-Paris Nov 6, 1960) A major 
figure in the educational and scientific 
film field, who directed about a hundred 
shorts. 

CAPELIANI, Albert Dra France/USA. (Paris 
1870-Paris 1931) One of the earliest 
pioneers of the cinema as it developed 
into an art form. Trained in the theater 
by André Antoine (q.v.), he became for 
Pathé the principal director of SCAGL 
(Société Cinématographique des Auteurs 
et Gens de Lettres), adapting in an illus- 
trative style the works of Hugo, Zola, 
Sue, etc. His masterpiece is Les Misé- 
rables. Worked also in the USA, was 
head of the Clara Kimball Young Film 
Corporation and directed Nazimova in 
several films. 

PIR (notably): Aladin (06), Don Juan 



(07) , Cendrillon (07), Les Apprentis- 
sages de Boireau (07), Le Chat botté 

(08) , Jeanne d'Arc* (08), L'Homme au 
gants blancs (08), L'Assommoir* (09), 
Athalie (10), L'Évadé de Tuileries (10), 
Les Deux Orphelines /The Two Orphans* 

(10) , Les Misérables* (11), Les Mys- 
tères de Paris (11), Le Courrier de Lyon 

(11) , Notre-Dame de Paris (11), Ger- 
minal (13), La Glu (13), Patrie (13), 
Quatrevingt-treize (14), Les Epaves de 
l'amour (15), Le Rêve interdit (15), 
Camille (USAI 5), The Dark Silence 
(USA16), La Vie de Bohème (16), Day- 
break (USA17), Out of the Fog (USA 
19), The Red Lantern (USA20), The 
Young Diana (USA22). 

CAPRA, Frank DiR USA. (Palermo May 19, 
1897- ) Famous both as the man who 
wrote and directed Harry Langdon's best 
films and for his brilliant series of light 
comedies in the Thirties, mostly based on 
scripts by Robert Riskin {q.v,). Sicilian 
born, he emigrated to the USA in 1903 
and in 1921 became a gagman for Hal 
Roach (q.v.). He wrote Langdon's first 
feature and directed his next two, and in 
1932 began the series of New Deal 
comedies that made his name. He wrote 
of Mr. Smith Goes to Washington: "The 
meaning of a film, it seems to me, is not 
in its truth or falsity but in the persis- 
tence of its ideas and in the way it 
reaches the public ... It can be con- 
sidered less as a reflection of life than 
as a document of human psychology, a 
testament of the popular spirit." In order 
to resolve social injustice, his fables (as 
invented or adapted by Robert Riskin) 
often involved "good fairies": gangsters 
(Lady for a Day), millionaires, both gen- 
erous (Mr. Deeds) or converted from 
their evil ways (You Can't Take It with 
You), and persuasive innocents (Mr. 
Smith). Capra, who himself had many of 
Mr. Smith's traits, possessed great faith 
in the myth of the New Deal and re- 
flected his Rooseveltian beliefs in his 
somewhat Utopian films. This is true even 
of the documentary series Why We Fight, 
which he produced when he was drafted 
into the array during World War II. 
When times and the mood changed after 
the war, this mocking Sicilian never truly 
recaptured the engaging optimism and 
good humor of his earlier successes. His 
qualities and his failings were equally out 
of fashion in postwar America. Robert 
Riskin wrote none of his postwar films. 



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scen: for Harry Edwards, Tramp, 
Tramp, Tramp* (26); for William Well- 
man, Westward the Women (51); and 
his own The Strong Man*, Say It with 
Sables, Submarine, Flight, Forbidden, It's 
a Wonderful Life. 

dir: Fultah Fisher's Boarding House 
(23) (short), The Strong Man* (26), 
Long Pants* (27), For the Love of Mike 
(27), That Certain Feeling (28), So This 
Is Love (28), The Matinee Idol (28), 
The Way of the Strong (28), Say it with 
Sables (28), Submarine (28), The Power 
of the Press (28), The Donovan Affair 
(29), The Younger Generation (29), 
Flight (29), Ladies of Leisure (30), Rain 
or Shine (30), Dirigible (31), The Mir- 
acle Woman* (31), Platinum Blonde 
(31), Forbidden (32), American Mad- 
ness (32), The Bitter Tea of General 
Yen (33), Lady for a Day* (33), // 
Happened One Night* (34), Broadway 
Bill (34), Mr. Deeds Goes to Town* 
(36), Lost Horizon (37), You Can't 
Take It with You* (38), Mr. Smith Goes 
to Washington* (39), Meet John Doe/ 
John Doe Dynamite (41), Arsenic and 
Old Lace (41 released 44), Prelude to 
War* (42), The Nazis Strike* (42) (co- 
dir: Litvak), Divide and Conquer* (43) 
(co-dir: Litvak), The Battle of China* 
(44) (co-dir: Litvak) (all in Why We 
Fight* documentary series), Tunisian 
Victory (44) (co-dir: Boulting) (docu- 
mentary), Two Down, One to Go (45) 
(documentary) It's a Wonderful Life 
(46), State of the Union/ The World and 
His Wife (48), Riding High (49) (re- 
make of Broadway Bill), Here Comes 
the Groom (51), A Hole in the Head 
(59), A Pocketful of Miracles* (61) 
(remake of Lady For a Day*). 
prod: Why We Fight* series, and all his 
own postwar films. 

CARBONNAUX, Norbert DIR France. 
(Neuilly March 28, 1918- ) Good 
French director of comedies who did not 
fulfill all the hopes of his first films. 
dir (notably): Les Corsaires du bois de 
Boulogne (54), Courte tête (56), Le 
Temps des oeufs durs (58), Candide 
(61), La Gamberge (62). 

•CARDIFF, Jack photog/dir Britain. (Yar- 
mouth 1914- ) One of the best British 
cameramen, notable for his color work 
in Britain and Hollywood. Began as a 
camera assistant on Robinson's The in- 
former* (29) and won an Oscar for his 



color photography of Black Narcissus 
(47). Began directing with the interesting 
Intent to Kill (58) and later, Sons and 
Lovers (60), but has made little of note 
since. 

photog (notably): for Paul Czinner, As 
You Like It (36); for Jacques Feyder, 
Knight without Armor (37); for Powell 
and Pressburger, A Matter of Life and 
Death /Stairway to Heaven (46), Black 
Narcissus (47), The Red Shoes* (48); 
for Gabriel Pascal, Caesar and Cleo- 
patra* (45); for Albert Lewin, Pandora 
and the Flying Dutchman (51); for 
Hitchcock, Under Capricorn (49); for 
John Huston, The African Queen* (51); 
for Mankiewicz, The Barefoot Contessa* 
(54); for King Vidor, War and Peace* 
(56); for Laurence Olivier, The Prince 
and the Showgirl (57); for Richard 
Fleischer, The Vikings (58). 
dir: Intent to Kill (58), Beyond This 
Place (59), Sons and Lovers (60), Scent 
of Mystery /Holiday in Spain (60), 77»e 
Lion (62), My Geisha (62), The Long 
Ships (64), Young Cassidy (64) (re- 
placed John Ford), The Liquidator (65), 
The Mercenaries/ Dark of the Sun (67), 
The Girl on a Motorcycle (68). 

CARLO-RIM (Jean-Marius Richard) SCEN/ 
dir France. (Nîmes Dec 19, 1905- ) 
Good French scriptwriter, notably on 
Tourneur's Justin de Marseille (35), 
Berthomieu's Le Morte en Fuite (36), 
who has also directed several films from 
his own scripts. 

dir (notably): Simplet (42) (co-dir: 
Fernandel), L'Armoire volante (48), La 
Maison Bonnadieu (51), Virgile (53), 
Escalier de service (55), Les Truands 
(56), Contes (63), (from Maupassant, 
for TV). 

CARNE, Marcel dir France. (Paris Aug 
18, 1909- ) The master of French 
poetic realism, exacting, painstaking, and 
dedicated, whose films since Jenny (his 
first feature, at 27) have exerted an ex- 
traordinary international influence. A 
journalist and film critic in the Twenties, 
his film making career began as assistant 
to Feyder (q.v.) and Clair (q.v.). He 
made a short in 1929 and a number of 
very short advertising films in the Thirties 
with Aurenchc (q.v.) and Paul Grimault 
(q.v.). As a critic, he asked in 1932: 
"When will the cinema descend into the 
streets?" and felt that he couldn't see 
"without irritation the current cinema 

37 



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shutting itself away, fleeing from life in 
order to delight in sets and artificiality." 
He called for a cinema that would be 
interested, like the novelist Dabit, in par- 
ticular Parisian districts: "Do you say 
'Populism?' One shouldn't be afraid of 
the word more than the thing itself. Isn't 
describing the simple life of ordinary 
people, conveying their working-class at- 
mosphere, better than re-creating the 
overheated ambience of dance parties?" 
The style of his films suggests the influ- 
ence of his Kammer spiel mentors: Stern- 
berg, Lupu Pick, Murn au, and Feyder 
(all q.v.), and his pre-1948 films reveal 
several recurrent themes: unattainable 
love, the possibility of happiness only in 
eternity, and villains who are not evil but 
have fallen into difficulties. His universe 
like that of Prévert (<7-v.) is a kind of 
stage on which good battles with evil. 
His heroes (often played by Jean Gabin) 
are honest, courageous men, driven 
into crime by society — though his profes- 
sional gangsters are always portrayed as 
vulgar riffraff. His lovers seek an "else- 
where" where happiness will be possible 
and eternal, but they are always thwarted 
by destiny, often symbolized by one of 
the characters but also by the environ- 
ment itself. Ultimately, this sense of fa- 
tality is an expression of Carné's under- 
standing of the structure of society. The 
dramatic shape of his theme was not 
inviolable and became less pessimistic in 
later years as when the Devil in Les 
Visiteurs du soir finds himself powerless 
before the still beating hearts of the 
entwined lovers. At the end of 1940, 
when his Quai des brumes was accused 
by Vichy moralizers of contributing 
(along with Gide, Sartre, etc.) to the 
collapse of France, he replied that it was 
the job of an artist to be a barometer 
of his period and that the barometer 
shouldn't be blamed for the storm it fore- 
casts. In his preceding films with Jacques 
Prévert, he had metaphorically expressed 
his pessimism in the face of the rising 
threat. They both reached their artistic 
height with Les Enfants du paradis. 
Their next film together, Les Portes de la 
nuit, was an unmerited failure and, apart 
from the unfinished La Fleur de l'âge in 
1948, they never worked together again. 
(Prévert apparently contributed to La 
Marie du port but was not credited.) 
Nonetheless, some of their earlier themes 
can be detected in La Marie du port, 
L'Air de Paris and Les Tricheurs, though 



these had far less public and critical suc- 
cess than Carné's prewar films. 
assist photoo: to Georges Périnal on 
Feyder's Les Nouveaux Messieurs* (28), 
to Jules Kruger on Richard Oswald's 
Cagliostro (29). 

assist: to René Clair, Sous les toits de 
Paris* (29); to Feyder, Le Grand jeu* 
(33), Pension Mimosas* (34), La Ker- 
messe héroïque* (35). 
dir: Nogent, Eldorado du dimanche (29) 
(short), Jenny (36), Drôle de drame 
(37), Quai des brumes* (38), Hôtel du 
Nord (38), Le Jour se lève* (39), Us 
Visiteurs du soir* (42), Les Enfants du 
paradis* (45), Les Portes de la nuit* 
(46), La Marie du port (50), Juliette ou 
la Clef des songes (51), Thérèse Raquin* 
(53), L'Air de Paris (54), Les Pays 
d'où je viens (56), Les Tricheurs (58), 
Du mouron pour les petits oiseaux (63), 
Trois chambres à Manhattan (65), Les 
Jeunes loups (68), La Force et le droit 
(70), Les Assassins de l'ordre (71). 

carril, Hugo del dir Argentina. (Buenos 
Aires Nov 30, 1912- ) Originally a 
handsome leading actor and singer in the 
Thirties and Forties, in 1952 he directed 
the remarkable Las Aguas bajan Tur- 
bias*, which totally broke with the then 
current conventions of the Argentinian 
cinema. 

C ARTIER-BRESSON, Henri DIR France. 

(Chanteloup, S. et M. 1908- ) The 
most famous modern French photog- 
rapher also directed Le Retour (46), a 
documentary portrait of returning French 
prisoners of war and a hauntingly moving 
human document. He has recently turned 
to television reportage with less success- 
ful results: California Impressions (USA 
70). 

CASERINI, Mario dir Italy. (Rome 1874- 
Rome Nov 17, 1920) One of the most 
famous directors of Italian spectaculars, 
from 1908 to 1918, who also made a 
number of comedies and Shakespeare 
adaptations for Cinès. He directed at 
least a hundred films including: Otello* 
(07), Garibaldi (07), Marco Visconti, 
Romeo e Giulietta, Giovanna d'Arcof 
Joan of Arc* (all 08), Beatrice Censi, 
La Gerla di Papa Martin, L'Innominato 
(all 09), Macbeth*, Amleto I Hamlet*, 
Il Cid, Federico Barbarossa, Giovanni 
del le Bande Nere, Lucre zi a Borgia, Mes- 
salina (all 10), Jane Gray, Antigone. 

38 



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Santarelllna, L'Ultimo del Frontignac 
(at 11), Mater Dolorosa, l Mille, Sieg- 
fried (all 12), Florette e Patapon, II 
Treno degli Spettri, Ma TAmor, Mio 
non Muore (all 13), Nerone e Agrippina 
(13 or 14), La Gorgona (14), Amor che 
Uccide (17), Capitan Fracassa (17), 
Madama Arlecchino (18), Fior d'Amore 
(20). 

CASSAVETES, John MR USA. (New York 
1929- ) A well- known stage and film 
actor, his reputation as one of the best 
young independent New York film 
makers was established with Shadows 
(59) and Too Late Blues (61), allying 
a "de-dramatized" story with a deep sensi- 
tivity. [His first commercial feature, A 
Child Is Waiting, was a disaster (in every 
sense) and he did not direct again until 
he returned to his earlier improvisational 
approach and re-established his reputa- 
tion with the highly praised Faces.] 
Dm: Shadows* (59), Too Late Blues 
(61), A Child is Waiting (62), Faces 
(68), Husbands (Brit71). 

castellan i, Renato Dm Italy. (Finale 
Ligure Sept 4, 1913- ) Originally an 
assistant to Blasetti (q.v.), he wrote B la- 
set ti's La Corona di Ferro and Camerini's 
Una Romantica Awentura and in the 
early Forties established a reputation — 
with Soldati (q.v.) and Lattuada (q.v.) — 
as a decorative film maker. He later 
joined the neorealist movement and con- 
tributed to it a delicate sense of fantasy, 
notably in the picaresque Sotto il Sole di 
Roma (47) and Due Soldi di Speranza 
(52). He returned to orn am en tali s m with 
Romeo and Juliet (54) and has since 
made little of interest 
Dm (notably): Un Colpo di Pistola (41), 
Zaza (42), Sotto il Sole di Roma (47), 
E Primavera (49), Due Soldi di Sper- 
anza* (52), Romeo and Juliet (Brit54), 
/ Sogni net Cassetto (57), Nella Citta 
VInferno (59), // Brigante (61), Mare 
Motto (63), Sotto il Cielo Stellato (66), 
Questi Fantasmi (67), Leonardo da Vinci 
(71) (TV). 

cauvin, André Dm Belgium. (Brussels 
Feb 12, 1907- ) Originally a pioneer 
director of films on art-Van Eyck (38), 
Hans Memling (38). During the war be- 
came a specialist in documentaries made 
in the Congo and continued portraying 
Belgian colonialism until the last voyage 
of their King in Bwana Kikoto. 



CAVALCANT1, Alberto DDt/PROD France/ 
Britain/Brazil/etc. (Rio de Janeiro Feb 6, 
1897- ) Though largely unsung, he is 
one of the most important film makers in 
the history of the cinema, making signif- 
icant and often basic contributions to 
the French avant-garde 1925-30, to the 
English documentary and the "Ealing'* 
style 1934-48, and to the renaissance of 
the Brazilian cinema 1949-52. He was 
not always able to direct the films as he 
intended, but those he created in com- 
plete freedom are characterized by their 
sensitivity, their sense of human and 
social realities, their understanding, their 
visual refinement, and their reflection of 
his delight in the cinema. His career began 
in France in the early Twenties as a set 
designer for Marcel L'Herbier (q.v.) with 
whom he developed a new style for 
studio constructions, notably the use of 
ceilings. He directed his first film in 1926 
and in films like Rien que les heures, En 
rade, Yvette, La Ftite Lille, and Le Petit 
Chaperon rouge, with their descriptions 
of ordinary life allied to a sense of some- 
what melancholy poetic fantasy and the 
suggestion of an unattainable "else- 
where," he is an obvious forerunner of 
French poetic realism of the Thirties. 
After a sterile period he joined John 
Grierson (q.v.) at the British General 
Post Office (GPO) Film Unit and gave 
the British documentary movement a new 
impetus based on his work in France and 
on new experiments he made in the use 
of sound (e.g. on Night Mail*). It was at 
this time he suggested calling the move- 
ment "neorealism." As a producer with 
the GPO and later with the Crown Film 
Unit (1939) he made many short docu- 
mentaries, produced others, and discov- 
ered and/or encouraged Len Lye, Pat 
Jackson, Harry Watt (q.v.) t Basil Wright 
(q.v.), Chick Fowles, and Humphrey 
Jennings (q.v.). During the war he joined 
Michael Balcon (q.v.) at Ealing Studios 
and brought the documentary approach 
and a sense of national and social real- 
ities to his fiction films. His own films as 
director are remarkable, but he also de- 
veloped many of the postwar English film 
makers like Charles Frend, Charles 
Crichton, Basil Dearden, Robert Hamer 
(all q.v.), etc. He was invited to Brazil 
in 1949 and in Sâo Paolo gathered to- 
gether the talents he felt necessary to re- 
vitalize the Brazilian cinema. He created 
a movement which, although it soon ran 
into difficulties with foreign monopolies, 



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had an impact whose ripples have still 
not subsided. More than this, he directed 
one film in his country of origin, O 
Canto do Mar, which is of major impor- 
tance, though totally unknown in Europe. 
On his return to Europe he directed a 
Brecht adaptation Mr. Puntila and His 
Valet Maui, which is the only adaptation 
the exacting Brecht considered faithful to 
the original. He has since made several 
other features and directed for British 
TV. 

art dir: for L'Herbier, L'lnhumane* 
(23), L'Inondation (24), Feu Mathias 
Pascal* (25); for Catelain, La Galerie 
des monstres (24); for George Pearson, 
The Little People (Brit25). 
dir: Le Train sans yeux (26), Rien que 
les heures* (26), Yvette (27), En rade* 

(27) La Ftite Lilie (27), La Jalousie de 
barbouillé (27), Le Capitaine Fracasse 

(28) , Vous verrez la semaine prochaine 

(29) , Le Petit Chaperon rouge (29), A 
mi-chemin du ciel (30), Les Vacances 
du diable (30), Toute sa vie (30), Dans 
une île perdue (31), En lisant le journal 
(32), Le Jour du Frotteur (32), Revue 
Montmartroise (32), Nous ne ferons 
jamais le cinema (32), Le Truc du Bré- 
silien (32), Le Mari garçon (32), Coralie 
et Cie (33), Plaisirs deféndus (33), Le 
Tour de chant (Fr33), Pett and Pott 
(Brit34), New Rates (34), Une to 
Tcherva Hut (36), Coalface (36), We 
Live in Two Worlds (37), Who Writes to 
Switzerland (37), Message from Geneve 
(37), Four Barriers (37), Men of the 
Alps (39), A Midsummer Day's Work 
(39), Yellow Caesar (41) (compilation), 
Film and Reality (42) (compilation), 
Watertight (43), Alice in Switzerland 
(42), Went the Day Well? (42), Cham- 
pagne Charlie (44), Dead of Night* 
(45) (co-dir: Hamer, Crichton, Dear- 
den), The Life and Adventures of Nich- 
olas Nickleby (46), They Made Me a 
Fugitive (47), The First Gentleman 
(47), For Them That Trespass (Brit48) 
Simao o Coalha (Brazil52), O Canto do 
Mar* (54), Mulher de Verdade (Brazil 
54), Herr Puntila und sein Knecht Matti* 
(Aust55), Die Windrose (GDR56) 
(compilation), La Prima Notte (It58), 
The Monster of Highgatc Pond (Brit60), 
Thus Spake Theodor Herzl (Israel60) 
(documentary). 

prod (notably): many GPO documen- 
taries, including Rainbow Dance, Calen- 
dar of the Year, North Sea, Speaking 
from America, Spare Time, The First 



Days. Also: The Foreman Went to 
France (Brit42) (dir: Charles Frend), 
The Big Blockade (Brit41) (dir: Charles 
Frend), The Halfway House (Brit43) 
(dir.* Basil Dearden), Caicaro (Brazil 
50) (dir: Adolfo Celi), Painel (50), 
Santuario (51) (both shorts, dir: Lima 
Barreto), Terra Semper e Terra (51), 
Volta Redonda (52) (both dir: John 
Payne). 

ed: for the Marquis de Wavrin's Au pays 
scalp (Fr32). 

CAYATTE, Andri dir France. (Carcassonne 
Feb 3, 1909- ) Originally a lawyer, 
journalist, and novelist, he developed into 
an unexceptional director who made his 
name with four skillful and sympathetic 
"judicial" films that have little to offer 
but their theses: Justice est faite, Nous 
sommes tous des assassins, Avant le 
déluge and Le Dossier noir. Charles 
Spaak collaborated on the scripts of all 
four. The best of the series is Avant le 
deluge, with its portrait of the confusion 
the cold war caused among certain peo- 
ple. André Bazin wrote of the "cyber- 
netics" of Cayatte: 'These are not only 
films with ideals or a thesis, but quite a 
paradoxical enterprise in which the me- 
chanics of the cinema are used on the 
spectator. He is suggesting to us a jurid- 
ical and mechanistic universe populated 
by automatons; we await the revolt of 
the robots." 

scen: for Marc Allégret, Entrée des 
artistes; for Jean Grémillon Remorques* 
and many of his own films. 
dir: Les Amant de Vérone (48), Justice 
est faite* (50), Nous sommes tous 
des assassins* (52), Avant le déluge* 
(53), Le Dossier noir (55), Oeil pour 
oeil (56), Le Miroir à deux faces (58), 
Le Passage du Rhin (60), Le Glaive et la 
balance (62), La Vie conjugale (63), 
Piège pour Cendrillon (65), Les Risques 
du métier (67), Les Chemins de Khat- 
mandou (69), Mourir d'aimer (70). 

CAYROL, J*an dir/scen France. (Bor- 
deaux 1911- ) Excellent author and 
poet who has ended using the camera as 
fluently as the pen. Has written a book 
on the cinema Le Droit de Regard. 
scen: for Alain Resnais, Nuit et BroulU 
lard* (56), Muriel* (63); and for his 
own films. 

dir: Les Spécialités de la mer (59) (TV 
short), On vous parle (60), La Frontière 
(61) (short), Madame se meurt (61) 

40 



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(short), De tout pour faire un monde 
(62) (short). Le Coup de grâce (65), 
La Déesse (66) (short). All except the 
last, co-dir: Claude Durand. 

CECCHI, Emilie prod/scen Italy. (Flor- 
ence July 14, 1884-Rome 1966) An 
established Italian essayist and critic who 
advocated in the Twenties a revival of 
stylistic formalism and who became ar- 
tistic director of Cinès on the invitation 
of the banker L. Toeplitz. At Cinès, 
from 1932-44, he promoted the careers 
of Blasetti, Camerini, and Soldati (all 
q.v.) among others. 

CECCHI D'AMICO, Suso scen Italy. (Rome 
July 12, 1914- ) Excitable, vehement, 
sometimes a little acidic, she is one of 
the best Italian script-writers (always in 
collaboration) who has worked with 
De Sica (Bicycle Thieves*, Miracle In 
Milan*, Boccaccio 70), 2&mpa (Vivere 
in pace, VOnorevole Angelina), Vise on ti 
(Bellissima, Senso*, Le None Blanche*, 
Rocco and His Brothers*, The Leopard*, 
Vaghe stelle del? Orsa), Antonioni (/ 
Vlntl, La Signora senza Camélia, V 
Amlche*), Cast ell ani (E Primavera), 
Blasetti (Fablola, Altrl Tempi), Fran- 
cesco Rosi (Salvatore Glullano, La Sfida, 
Kean), Mario Monicelli (Proibito, i 
Solitl I g not i, Casanova 70), and Bolog- 
nini (Metello). 

•chabrol, Claud* dir France. (Paris June 
24, 1930- ) Apart from Godard (q.v.), 
he is the most prolific (19 features and 
three sketches) of the former nouvelle 
vajgue directors. A dedicated film maker, 
at his happiest behind a camera, he 
passed through an artistically sterile pe- 
riod in the Sixties and has recently re- 
emerged with a series of films from Les 
Biches to La Rupture (including his 
best film to date Le Boucher) that can 
lay justifiable claim to being counted 
among the best postwar French films. 
He began as press attaché at 20th Cen- 
tury-Fox in Paris and film critic for 
Arts and Cahiers du Cinéma; an inheri- 
tance received by his first wife enabled 
him to make his first films, Le Beau 
Serge (58) and Les Cousins (58), both 
richly detailed explorations of life, one 
in a village, the other in the city, and the 
first appearance of his typical pattern of 
heroes. He followed these with the ex- 
quisitely stylized A double tour (59) and 
the poetic, though poorly acted, Les 



Bonnes Femmes (59). The latter, a 
commercial disaster, heralded a period 
of other critical and/or commercial 
failures and Chabrol turned for some 
years to directing commercial thrillers. 
With Les Biches (68), an exquisite, un- 
hysterical study of obsession and the 
struggle for dominance, his technical as- 
surance and purity of style became evi- 
dent. Since then, although he usually 
makes two films a year, his work has 
evidenced increasing strength and mas- 
tery of the most economical means of 
expression (e.g., the ending of La Femme 
infidèle) culminating in the brilliant Le 
Boucher, a profoundly compassionate 
study of emotions and human relation- 
ships. He has gathered around him a 
team of collaborators: scen himself and/ 
or Paul Gégauff photog Jean Rabier art 
dir Guy Littaye mus Pierre Jansen ed 
Jacques Gaillard; his actors often in- 
clude his wife, Stéphane Audran, Michel 
Bouquet, Michel Duchaussoy, Maurice 
Ronet, Jean Yanne. 

Dm: Le Beau Serge* (58), Les Cousins* 
(58), A double tour /Web of Passion/ 
Leda (59), Les Bonnes Femmes* (59), 
Les Godelureaux (60), Les Sept Péchés 
Capitaux (61) (one episode), L'Oeil du 
malin/The Third Lover (62), Ophélia 
(62), Landru/ Bluebeard (62), Les Plus 
belles escroqueries du monde (63) (one 
episode), Le Tigre aime la chair fraîche/ 
The Tiger Likes Fresh Blood (64), 
Marle-Chantal contre le docteur Kha 
(65) Le Tigre se parfume à la dyna- 
mite/An Orchid for the Tiger (65), La 
Ligne de demarcation (66), Paris vu 
par . . . (66) (one episode), Le Scan- 
dale/The Champagne Murders (66), La 
Route de Corlnthe (67), Les Biches /The 
Does /The Girl Friends (68), La Femme 
Infidèle* (68), Que la bête meure /Killer 

(69) , Le Boucher (69), La Rupture 

(70) , Juste avant la nuit (70). 

"CHANDLER, Raymond SCEN USA. (Chi- 
cago July 23, 1888-La Jolla, California 
March 26, 1959) American author of 
crime stories whose work profoundly in- 
fluenced the postwar Hollywood thriller. 
He began at Paramount in 1943 and 
was a scriptwriter or a co-scriptwriter 
on Double Indemnity* (44), And Now 
Tomorrow (44), The Unseen (45), The 
Blue Dahlia (46), Strangers on a Train* 
(51). Several of his novels have been 
filmed: Farewell, My Lovely /Murder My 
Sweet*, The Big Sleep*, Brasher Dou- 

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bloon (from The High Window), The 
Lady in the Lake*, Marlowe (from The 
Little Sister). His acidic essay, Writers in 
Hollywood, is one of his most famous 
nonfiction pieces* 

CHAPLIN, Charln Spencer DR USA. (Lon- 
don April 16, 1889- ) The greatest 
genius the cinema has ever produced, 
justifiably compared to Molière by Delluc 
and to Shakespeare by Elie Faure. His 
childhood in London at the end of the 
Victorian era is like something out of a 
Dickens novel. His parents were music 
hall entertainers who fell into poverty 
and he and his elder brother Syd (1885- 
1965), were familiar with slums, begging, 
nights spent in the streets, and children's 
homes. He made his first stage appear- 
ance in 1895 and from the age of six had 
a busy stage career. In about 1906 he 
joined the famous pantomime group of 
Fred Karno and toured extensively with 
it In 1910 he went with Karno to the 
USA; at the end of 1913, having been 
seen by Mack Sennett, he was persuaded, 
somewhat reluctantly, to sign a contract 
with Sennett's Keystone Company. He 
appeared in 35 films in 1914 for Key- 
stone, all filled with slapstick* wild 
chases, and custard pies. However, it 
was in his second film, Kid Auto Races 
at Venice, that he first wore the tramp 
costume of large shoes, baggy pants, 
tight coat, and derby hat In 1915 he 
signed a contract with Essanay at $1,250 
a week and made 14 films. (He directed 
these and all his later films.) In them the 
wild slapstick began to take second place 
to more subtle pantomime and to the 
development of his character of a little 
man at odds with the world around him, 
notably in The Bank, The Tramp, and 
Work. At Essanay he first began to work 
with Rollie Totheroh as cameraman; he 
continued to use him on all his films up 
to Limelight. His co-actors at Essanay 
included the delightful Edna Purviance, 
Leo White, and Lloyd Bacon. In 1916 
he signed with Mutual for $10,000 a 
week and a bonus of $670,000 a year. At 
Mutual he crossed the abyss that sepa- 
rates talent from genius and created 12 
often perfect comedies, as graceful as 
ballet and full of sustained comedy 
and psychological characterizations: The 
Floorwalker, The Count, The Rink, and 
The Cure. At the same time, in films like 
The Pawnshop, Easy Street, The Im- 
migrant, and The Adventurer he began 



to move towards the bold social polemic, 
and sometimes the tragedy, that marked 
his later work. His Mutual films, said 
Delluc, made him as famous as Sarah 
Bernhardt and Napoleon. He now had 
total mastery of his means of expres- 
sion. In a famous early article he de- 
scribed how in the classic ice-cream gag 
in The Adventurer, the first laugh comes 
from Charlie's embarrassment and the 
second and bigger laugh when the ice 
cream falls down the bare back of a 
dignified woman. This, he felt, showed 
not only the tendency of the viewer to 
share in the actor's predicament (sym- 
pathetic shivering with cold) but also his 
delight in seeing the rich and pompous 
get the worst of things: "If I had dropped 
the ice cream, for example, on a scrub- 
woman's neck, instead of getting laughs, 
sympathy would have been aroused for 
the woman. Also, because a scrubwoman 
has no dignity to lose, that point would 
have been lost." Throughout his career, 
much of Chaplin's comedy grew out of 
how his "little man" punctured the pom- 
posity of the upper class. In June 1917 
he signed the famous million-dollar con- 
tract with First National for eight films 
of any length. (From 1918 until he left 
Hollywood all his films were made at 
bis own studios.) His first three shorts, 
A Dog's Life, Shoulder Arms, and 
Sunnyside moved still more firmly in 
the direction of social criticism and sa- 
tire. Each film was the result of long 
and painstaking effort an ordeal of ner- 
vous tension that involved reshooting a 
scene over and over again until Chaplin 
was completely satisfied. His first feature, 
The Kid, was a great success and he left 
the USA for a triumphant tour of 
Europe. After The Pilgrim in 1923, with 
its nose-thumbing at hypocrisy and con- 
vention, he began to suffer mounting at- 
tacks from moralists, culminating in a 
violent campaign (after his divorce from 
Li ta Grey in 1927) that demanded his 
expulsion from the USA. However, his 
image of a David battling Goliath, a 
little man, battered, lovesick, frustrated, 
but eventually triumphant endeared him 
to millions of other "little men" around 
the world. Although he had formed 
United Artists in 1919 with D. W. Grif- 
fith, Douglas Fairbanks, and Mary Pick- 
ford, his First National commitments 
prevented his making a film for the com- 
pany until 1923, when he directed (but 
did not star in) the drama A Woman of 

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Paris. In the preface to this film he 
wrote: "Humanity is not divided into 
heroes and villains, but simply men and 
women. Their passions, for good or ill, 
have been given them by nature." He 
made a triumphant return to the screen 
in The Gold Rush (25), but following 
the hysterical campaign against him in 
1927, which brought him close to suicide, 
a sense of bitterness appeared in The 
Circus (28) which has never since been 
totally absent from his films. Although 
talkies had become established, he re- 
fused dialogue in favor of music and 
sound effects in his first sound film, City 
Lights. He spent two years of unrelenting 
effort on this and created a harrowing 
film with a profound sense of tragedy. 
He left the USA for a world tour and 
on his return made Modern Times (36), 
directly based on the contemporary eco- 
nomic crisis. When fascism and war 
again threatened the world he prepared 
the brilliant satire The Great Dictator 
and found himself for the third time the 
victim of attacks. He married Oona 
O'Neill in 1943 and, after the war, aban- 
doned his "little man" character in 
Monsieur Ver doux, a derisive, lucid 
piece of ferocious black comedy. At- 
tacks on him as a Communist during the 
McCarthy years made it impossible for 
him to live in the USA; and after the 
notorious denial of his re-entry permit in 
1952 he took up residence with his family 
in Switzerland. He was unable to attend 
the premiere of his Shakespearean trag- 
edy Limelight, and declared at the time: 
"I believe in liberty, that is my only 
political belief; I am for men, that is 
my nature. I don't believe in technique, 
in cameras promenading around stars' 
nostrils; I believe in mime, I believe in 
style. I have no 'mission.' My aim is to 
bring pleasure to people." He directed 
A King in New York in Britain in 1957, 
wrote his autobiography, and in 1962 
had his tenth child. He was awarded an 
honorary doctorate by Oxford University 
in 1962. He directed A Countess from 
Hong Kong in Britain in 1966 but it 
received poor reviews and public re- 
sponse. 

[In the following filmography, about 15 
of the early 1914 Keystone shorts were 
directed by Henry Lehrmann, Mack Sen- 
nett, Mabel Normand, or George Nichols 
but for convenience they have been in- 
cluded here. Chaplin directed and wrote 
all his other films, appeared in all but 



one, and wrote the music for most of 
his sound films.] 

dir (shorts): Making a Living, Kid Auto 
Races at Venice, Mabel's Strange Pre- 
dicament, Between Showers, A Film 
Johnnie, Tango Tangles, His Favorite 
Pastime, Cruel Cruel Love, The Star 
Boarder, Mabel at the Wheel, Twenty 
Minutes of Love, Caught in a Cabaret*, 
Caught in the Rain, A Busy Day, The 
Fatal Mallet, His Friend the Bandit, 
The Knockout, Mabel's Busy Day, Ma- 
bel's Married Life, Laughing Gas, The 
Property Man, The Face on the Bar- 
room Floor, Recreation, The Masquer- 
ader, His New Profession, The Rounders, 
The New Janitor, Those Love Pangs, 
Dough and Dynamite, Gentlemen of 
Nerve, His Musical Career, His Trysting 
Place, Tillie's Punctured Romance (6 
reels, dir: Mack Sennett), Getting Ac- 
quainted, His Prehistoric Past (all 14), 
His New Job*, A Night Out, The Cham- 
pion, In the Park, The Jitney Elopement, 
The Tramp*, By the Sea, Work*, A 
Woman*, The Bank*, Shanghaied*, A 
Night in the Show, Carmen*, Police (all 
15), (Triple Trouble (18) is a pastiche 
of earlier Essanay Chaplins), The Floor- 
walker (16), The Fireman* (16), The 
Vagabond* (16), One AM. (16), The 
Count (16), The Pawnshop* (16), Be- 
hind the Screen (16), The Rink* (16), 
East Street* (17), The Cure (17), The 
Immigrant* (17), The Adventurer* 

(17) , A Dog's Life* (18), The Bond 

(18) , Shoulder Arms* (18), Sunny side* 

(19) , A Day's Pleasure (19), The Idle 
Class (21), Pay Day* (22), The Pil- 
grim* (23). 

dir (features): The Kid* (21), A 
Woman of Paris* (23), The Gold 
Rush* (25), The Circus* (28), City 
Lights* (31), Modern Times* (36), The 
Great Dictator* (40), Monsieur Ver- 
doux* (47), Limelight* (52), A King in 
New York* (Brit57), A Countess from 
Hong Kong (Brit66). 

CHARELL, Erik (a/so Eric Charrell) Dm Ger- 
many. (Pressburg 1897-19?) Famous 
director of stage operettas in the Twenties 
and Thirties who made his name with 
only one film, Der Kongress tanzt* (31), 
although the producer, Erich Pommer 
(q.v.), seems to have been more respon- 
sible for this worldwide success which 
influenced many subsequent musicals. 
He made one film in Hollywood: Cara- 
van (34). 



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chautard, Emile DiR France/USA. (Paris 
1881-Hollywood 1934) French pioneer 
who worked for Eclair from 1909-14 
and made his name with La Poison de 
l'humanité (12). He moved to the States 
in 1914 and was an actor and director 
during the Twenties. 

chayefsky, Paddy scen USA. (New York 
Jan 29, 1923- ) Though more of a 
teleplay writer than a scenario writer, he 
had a considerable influence on the 
American cinema 1955-58 with his adap- 
tations of his own TV plays, quasi-neo- 
realist dramas of ordinary people in 
everyday situations. He said: "Every 
thread of human relationships merits a 
dramatic study. It is far more interesting 
to know the reasons why a man gets 
married than why he kills his neighbor." 
scen: for Delbert Mann, Marty* (55), 
Bachelor Party* (57), Middle of the 
Night (58); for Richard Brooks, The 
Catered Affair/Wedding Breakfast (56); 
for John Cromwell, The Goddess (58); 
for Arthur Hiller, The Americanization 
of Emily (65), Hospital (71); for Joshua 
Logan, Paint Your Wagon (68). 

CHENAL, Pierre (P. Cohen) DIR France. 

(Paris 1903- ) He made his name in 
the Thirties with a somewhat studied 
stylization in several French films, over- 
praised at the time: La Rue sans nom 
(34), Crime et châtiment (35), Le 
Dernier tournant/The Postman Always 
Rings Twice* (39), L'Alibi (37) and 
in Italy with // Fu Mattia Pascal /The 
Late Matthew Pascal* (37). Later fol- 
lowed an international career in Argen- 
tina, Chile, the USA (Native Son), and 
back in France with Clochmerle (48), 
but his work has been consistently medi- 
ocre. 

CHIARINI, Luigi dir Italy. (June 20, 1900- 
) Italian film critic and the founder 
and director, 1935-50, of the Centro 
Spcri mentale (Rome film school). He 
has also directed several films in the 
decorative style: Via delle Cinque Lune 
(42), La Bella Addormentata (42), La 
Locandiera (43), L'Ultimo Amore (46), 
Patto col Diavolo (48). 

CHIAURELI, Mikhail DIR USSR. (Tiflis Jan 
25, 1894- ) Trained as a sculptor, he 
became a stage actor in 1916 and a film 
actor in 1921 (Perestiani's and Nikidze's 
The Murder of General Gryaznov), he 



directed his first film in 1928. His Saba 
(29) and Out of the Way! (31), early 
in his career, have a direct, almost neo- 
realist style. The latter is a lively bur- 
lesque attack on the cult of personality, 
a cult to which he himself fell prey after 
1938 and which he expressed in several 
of his films on Stalin, notably in the 
oversimplifications and grandiose imagery 
of The Fall of Berlin (49). 
DIR: First Cornet Streshnev (28) (co-dir: 
Y. Dzigan), Saba (29), Khobar da! / Out 
of the Way! (31), Poslednl maskarad/ 
The Last Masquerade (34), Arsen (37), 
Great Dawn (38), Georgi Saakadze, Part 
I (42), Georgi Saakadze, Part II (43), 
Klyatva/The Vow (46), Padeniye Ber- 
lina/The Fall of Berlin* (49), Nezaby- 
vayemi 1919 god /The Unforgettable 
Year of 1919 (52), Otar's Widow (58). 

CHIRSKOV, Boris scen USSR. (Stavropol 
1904- ) The author of many scripts 
(Valeri Chkalov, Zoya, Invasion, etc.) 
but notable mainly for his script for 
Ermler's Velikii perelom/The Great 
Turning Point* (46). 

CHKEIDZE, Revoi DIR USSR. (Tiflis 1926- 
) Notable Georgian film maker who 
studied under Yutkevich (q.v.) and 
Romm (q.v.) and whose best film is 
Magdana's Donkey, co-directed with 
Abuladze {q.v.). 

dir: Lurdzha Magdana/ Magdana's Don- 
key* (55), Nash dvor/Our Courtyard 
(56), Maya lz Tskhneti/Maya from 
Tshnetl (62), Otets soldata/A Soldier's 
Father (65). 

CHOMON, Segundo de PHOTOG France/ 

Italy. (Teruel Oct 18, 1871-Paris May 2, 
1929) A major pioneer in the develop- 
ment of trick effects: 1902, stencil tint- 
ing; 1906, frame by frame animation 
(?). From 1905 to 1911 he made trick 
films for Pathé (e.g., Sleeping Beauty in 
1908) and was the first to make artistic 
and expressive use of the moving camera 
in Pastrone's Cabiria* (14). 

CHRETIEN, Henri inventor France. (Paris 
Feb 1, 1879-Washington Feb 6, 1956) 
Invented and developed the "hyper- 
gonar" lens after 1925 (used by Autant- 
Lara on his 1927-28 Construire un Feu), 
which, when acquired by Spiros Skouras 
of 20th Century-Fox, became the basis of 
the anamorphic lens system of Cincraa- 

44 



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Scope and eventually established the 
worldwide preeminence of the wide 
screen film. 

CHRISTENSEN, Benjamin (in USA, Benjamin 
Christianton) ore Denmark/USA/Ger- 
many. (Viborg Sept 28, 1879-Copen- 
hagen April 3, 1959) originally an opera 
singer and producer, his film career be- 
gan in Denmark as writer and actor. He 
made two atmospheric and visually styl- 
istic thrillers The Mysterious X (13) and 
Night of Revenge (15) before making 
in Sweden the most striking of all film 
fantasies Hàxan. [This led to a contract 
with UFA in Germany, where he acted in 
Dreyer's Michael and directed three films. 
He went to Hollywood in 1926 and di- 
rected six features — three horror films 
and three comic horror films (including 
the remarkable Seven Footprints to 
Satan) — before returning to Denmark in 
1930. He made no more films until 1939. 
Then he made four successful films in 
four years, though these are largely un- 
known outside Scandinavia.] 
Dm: Det Hemmelighedsfulde X/The 
Mysterious X (Den 13), Haevnens Nat/ 
The Night of Revenge (Denl5), Hàxan/ 
Witchcraft Through the Ages* (Swed22) , 
Unter Juden (Ger23), Seine Frau, die 
Unbekannte (Ger23), Die Frau mit den 
Schlechten Ruf (Ger25), The DeviVs 
Circus (USA26), Mockery (USA27), 
The Hawk's Nest (USA28), The Haunted 
House (USA28), The House of Horror 
(USA29), Seven Footprints to Satan 
(USA29), Skilsmissen Born/Children of 
Divorce (Den39), Barnet/The Child 
(Den40), Gaa med Mig Hjem (Den41), 
Damen med de Sorte Handsker (Den42). 

CHRISTIAN-JAQUE (Christian Maudst) DR 

France. (Paris Sept 4, 1904- ) Trained 
at the Beaux Arts and originally an art 
director and assistant to Duvivier, he has 
directed some 50 films, of which at least 
a dozen have been major commercial 
successes. Undeniably a complete pro- 
fessional, he has a sense of conviction 
and often of liberality and has created 
many interesting films: Las Disparus de 
Saint- Agil, La Chartreuse de Parme, Si 
tous les gars du monde and, above all, 
Fanfan la Tulipe. 

dda (notably). Francois I' r (36), Les 
Pirates du rail (37), Les Disparus de 
Saint- Agil (38), L'Assassinat du Père 
Noël (41), La Symphonie fantastique 
(42), Carmen* (42-44), Sortilèges (45), 



Boule de suif* (45), Un Revenant (46), 
D'homme à hommes (48 ), La Chartreuse 
de Parme (48), Souvenirs perdus (50), 
Fanfan la Tulipe* (51), Lucrèce Borgia 
(52), Nana* (55), Si tous les gars du 
monde /Race for Life (56), Babette s'en 
vo't-en guerre (59), Madame Sans-Gêne 
(61), Les Bonnes causes (63), La Tulipe 
noire (64), Le Saint ... (66), La 
Seconde vérité (66), Emma Hamilton 
(68). 

CHRISTIE, Al prod/dir USA. (Ontario, 
Canada Nov 24, 1886-Hollywood April 
14, 1951) Mack Sennett's (q.v.) and Hal 
Roach's (q.v.) closest rival as a producer 
of short comedies in the Twenties. He be- 
gan as a director of westerns and come- 
dies in 1910 and established his own 
production company in 1916, which 
turned out hundreds of short comedies 
(and occasionally features like Charley's 
Aunt in 1925) featuring comedians like 
Bobby Vernon, Neal Burns, and Billy 
Dooley. His comedies were often lively 
and entertaining with interesting satirical 
aspects. 

CHU, Shih-ting (Tseu S«-lin 9 ) DIR Hong 

Kong. (?-?) A Hong Kong pioneer in 
the use of the neorealist style who has 
made at least two interesting films: The 
Dividing Wall* (51), and House Warm- 
ing* (54). 

CHUKRAI, Grigori DiR USSR. (Ukraine 
1921- ) Simple and honest in approach, 
he is a key Soviet film maker of the 
Fifties. Trained by Yutkevich (q.v.) 
and Romm (q.v.) and an assistant to 
Rom m in 1953, he developed into the 
voice of a new Soviet generation, one 
that had been profoundly affected by the 
war and the difficult Stalinist years that 
followed. He himself suffered severely 
during the war and his experiences are 
reflected in his films. The Forty First, a 
remake of the earlier film, is an attack 
on the hero cult; Ballad of a Soldier is 
a sincere and moving portrait of the 
sufferings of a country at war; Clear 
Skies (less perfect) is a direct criticism 
of the Stalinist years that resounds like a 
cry from the heart. He has said of him- 
self: "I am a romantic, a believer in life. 
Without romance, I could not live. A 
work of art must move the mind and 
heart, be strictly directed with a unity of 
style, and be of service to mankind. War 
does not obsess me, but I loathe it. It 



Uopy riQhtod mstcnsl 



stole from me my best years and my best 
friends." 

dir: Nazar Srodolia (55), Sorok pervyi/ 
The Forty -Fir st* (56), Ballad a o soldate/ 
Ballad of a Soldier* (59), Chistoie 
nebo/ Clear Skies* (61), Zhilibyli starik 
so starukhoi/ There Was an Old Man and 
an Old Woman (64), People! (66), 
Stalingrad (69) (documentary). 

CIAMPI, Yves dir France. (Paris Feb 9, 
1921- ) A film maker of the Fifties 
generation (totally ignored in France), 
he has always demonstrated the greatest 
integrity, even under the difficult condi- 
tions of international co-productions. Be- 
gan as an amateur film maker and be- 
came assistant to Hunebelle. He has 
filmed also in Japan and Senegal. 
dir (notably): Les Compagnons de la 
gloire (45) (documentary), Un grand 
patron (51), La Guérisseur (54), Les 
Héros sont fatigués (55), Le Vent se 
lève (61), Liberté I (Senegal62), La 
Ciel sur la tête (65), A quelques jours 
près (68). 

CICOGNINI, Alessandro mus Italy. ( Pcscara 
Jan 25, 1906- ) One of the most 
fashionable Italian composers who tends 
to use traditional, often gay themes. He 

has collaborated notably with Dc Sica 
on Sciuscia*, Bicycle Thieves*, Miracle 
in Milan*, Umberto D*, L'Oro di Napoli, 
11 Tetto, Yesterday, Today, and Tomor- 
row; with Blasetti on Quatro passi fra le 
nuvole*, Prima Communione; with 
Comencini on Pane, Amor e Fantasia; 
with Duvivier on Don Camillo. 

CIULEI, Liviu dir Romania. (Bucharest July 
7, 1923- ) Trained as an architect, he 
had a successful theatrical career as set 
designer, actor, and director before turn- 
ing to films, first as actor, then as 
assistant to Victor Illiu (q.v.). His first 
film was The Eruption (59), his second 
Valurile Dunariis/The Danube Waves 
(63), a lively color film; then the best 
film of the new Romanian cinema, his 
third, the striking Padurea Spinzuratilor / 
Forest of the Hanged* (65). 

CLAIR, René (René Chomette) DIR France/ 

Britain/USA. (Paris Nov 11, 1898- ) 
The most French of all film makers and 
the most famous French film maker after 
Méliès (q.v.) and Linder (q.v.). From 
the first, said Moussinac in 1951, "he 
proclaimed freedom, that freedom which 



is common to all of us and which he 
never stopped defending ... It seems 
to me admirable that in all of his films, 
every Frenchman could recognize a little 
of himself and every foreigner a little 
of France." His childhood coincided with 
the cinema's and, after the war, his career 
began as a journalist for Ulntransigéant. 
[In 1920 he began playing leads in films 
by Feuillade (q.v.) and Protozanov 
(q.v.), developed an interest in the cin- 
ema, and went to Brussels in 1922 to 
study Jacques de Baroncelli (q.v.) at 
work. He became a film critic and a pas- 
sionate champion of the cinema, redis- 
covered the French pioneers, made his 
first film Paris qui dort (23), and flirted 
briefly with the avant-garde in its search 
for "pure cinema" (Entr'acte).] His 
mentor in those youthful days was 
Feuillade and at that time he wrote: 
"What is basic to the cinema is that 
which cannot be told. But try to make 
people (you, me, others) understand that, 
people warped by some 30 centuries of 
chattering — poetry, theater, the novel. It 
is necessary to return them to the primi- 
tive state!" After several less successful 
films, he established his international 
reputation with Un Chapeau de paille 
d'Italie (27), transforming Labiche 's 
chattering into images. The arrival of 
sound depressed him and he asked, "Re- 
birth or death? If chance doesn't thwart 
the plans of the financiers, you'd better 
bet on death or at least on a long death- 
like sleep." But he added: "It will not 
be impossible for an art appropriate to 
the sound film to be developed" and 
himself proved this with Sous les toits 
de Paris, hailed everywhere as the most 
beautiful film in the world. At the age 
of barely 30 he reached his artistic peak 
with Le Million (31) and A nous la 
liberté (31). Their success intoxicated 
Clair less than they made him uneasy; in 
1927 he had denounced money as an ob- 
stacle to true creation, adding, "the cin- 
ema must therefore renounce the rela- 
tive freedom enjoyed by other arts. Let 
us resign ourselves to being artisans of 
ephemeral works. Undoubtedly we will 
be the sacrificial generation." The un- 
merited failure of Le Dernier Milliardaire 
(34) led to an exile from France, which 
the war later prolonged. His British and 
Hollywood films, even The Ghost Goes 
West, The Flame of New Orleans, and 
// Happened Tomorrow, do not match 
his greatest French films. In 1946 he re- 

46 



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turned to his native Paris and to a 
second maturity with more personal films 
involving true feeling. He warmly evoked 
the turn of the century and the approach 
of old age in his tender homage to the 
cinema's pioneers in Le Silence est d'or 
(47). He denounced the technological 
age and the atomic threat in his "Faust," 
La Beauté du diable (49). He dissected 
the conventions and behavior of "la Belle 
Epoque" and revealed their sordid foun- 
dations in the elegant tragicomedy Les 
Grandes Manoeuvres (55) and exalted 
friendship and loyalty in Porte des Lilas 
(57). In the end his universally recog- 
nized qualities forced the French Acad- 
emy to admit to their ranks for the first 
time a film maker in his own right: "His 
glory lacked nothing, it was ours that 
was deficient." He has written several 
books on the cinema. 
dir: Paris qui dort* (Fr23), Entr'acte* 
(24), Le Fantôme du Moulin-Rouge 
(24) Le Voyage imaginaire (25), La 
Proie du vent (26), Un Chapeau de 
paille d'Italie* (27), La Tour (28) 
(documentary short), Les Deux Timides 
(28), Sous les toits de Paris* (30), Le 
Million* (31), A nous la liberté* (31), 
Quatorze juillet (32), Le Dernier Milliar- 
daire* (34), The Ghost Goes West* 
(Brit35), Break the News (Brit37), The 
Flame of New Orleans (USA40), Forever 
and a Day (USA42) (one episode), 
/ Married a Witch* (USA42), // Hap- 
pened Tomorrow* (USA43), And Then 
There Were None/Ten Little Indians 
(USA45), Le Silence est d'or* (Fr47), 
La Beauté du diable* (49), Les Belles 
de nuit* (52), Les Grandes Manoeuvres* 
(55), Porte des Lilas* (57), La Fran- 
çaise et l'amour (60) (one episode), 
Tout l'or du monde (61), Les Quatre 
Vérités (62) (one episode), Les Fêtes 
galantes (65). Also: scen for Genina's 
Prix de beauté (29) and for all his own 
films except Entr'acte; prod Pierre Harts' 
documentary short, Un village dans Paris 
(Fr39); Dm the uncompleted Air Pur in 
France 1939. In 1920-23, acted in 
Feuillade's Parisette, Les Deux Gamines, 
L'Orpheline; Protozanov's Le Sens de la 
mort, Pour une nuit d'amour; Loïe 
Fuller's Le Lys de la vie. assist to 
Baroncelli on Carillon de minuit (22), 
La Légende de soeur Béatrix (22). 

* CLARKE, Shirfcy DIR USA. (New York 
1925- ) Important independent Ameri- 
can film maker who, after several ex- 



perimental shorts (Dance in the Sun, A 
Moment in Love, Bridges-go-round) and 
documentaries (Scary Time, Loops, Sky- 
scraper, with Lewis Jacobs, Willard van 
Dyke), turned to the quest for realism 
and established her reputation with her 
first feature, the Pirandellian The Con- 
nection* (61). Her later The Cool World 
(63) and Portrait of Jason (67) were 
less successful. 

CLARKE, T. E. B. scen Britain. (Watford 
June 7, 1907- ) Sometimes called the 
British Zavattini, he wrote several of the 
most famous Ealing comedies and dra- 
mas. Originally a journalist. 
scen (notably): for Basil Dearden, Half- 
way House (44), The Blue Lamp (50); 
for Cavalcanti, Champagne Charlie (44), 
Dead of Night* (45); for Charles Crich- 
ton Hue and Cry* (47), The Lavender 
Hill Mob* (51), The Titfield Thunder- 
bolt (53); for Charles Frend, Barnacle 
Bill (57); for Henry Cornelius, Passport 
to Pimlico* (48); for Jack Cardiff, Sons 
and Lovers (60); for Don Chaffey, The 
Horse Without a Head (63). 

♦CLAYTON, Jack dir Britain. (1921- ) A 
complete professional who worked bis 
way up through the industry, which he 
joined when young, assisting on many 
films since 1945. His first film, the short 
feature The Bespoke Overcoat, won an 
award at Cannes and his Room at the 
Top brought a new sense of realism to 
the British cinema and established a pat- 
tern of film-making for a decade. He 
has a sure touch with actors, notably 
in The Innocents (a beautiful visualiza- 
tion of the James story) and in the 
otherwise gimmicky The Pumpkin Eater. 
dir: The Bespoke Overcoat* (55), Room 
at the Top* (58), The Innocents (61), 
The Pumpkin Eater (64), Our Mother's 
House (67). Also produced Three Men 
in a Boat (56) (dir: Ken Annakin). 

CLEMENT, René dir France/Italy/Britain. 
(Bordeaux March 18, 1913- ) A pre- 
cise, intelligent, if sometimes mannered, 
film maker who, after experience as a 
cameraman and documentary film maker 
in the Thirties, developed a realistic ap- 
proach that he retained for some years. 
In 1946 he told Jean Quéval: "The cin- 
ema is my vocation, even my life. Long 
before La Bataille du rail I was able to 
draw my first weapons in the fiction film. 
The anecdote and the triangle drama 



47 



Copyrighted material 



have had their day. The cinema must 
respond to the social restlessness of the 
viewer and must give him hope in 
wisdom. It is a concept that I believe can 
be expressed through a social and aes- 
thetic realism." His first feature, La 
Bataille du rail, which merited the suc- 
cess of Paisà or Sciuscià, was hardly 
known outside France and his Les 
Maudits was an undeserved failure. After 
some setbacks he stubbornly returned 
to his first principles with Jeux interdits 
which although refused by the Cannes 
Festival was a success at Venice and 
throughout the world. Perhaps the great 
success profited him less than his pre- 
vious failures. After Knave of Hearts in 
Britain and Gervaise he began to spe- 
cialize in large-budget, international co- 
productions, but he never matched his 
earlier work. However, he remains one 
of the best French film makers of the 
postwar years. 

dir (shorts): Soigne ton gauche (37) 
(with Jacques Tati), La Grand Chartreuse 
(37), Arabie interdite (38) (series of 
three documentaries), La Bièvre (39), Le 
Tirage (42), Ceux du rail (42), Toulouse 
(43), La Grande Pastorale (43), Chefs 
de demain {Al) .Mountain (43). 
dir (features): La Bataille du rail* 
(45), La Père tranquille (46), La Belle 
et la Bête* (46) (co-dir/technical ad- 
viser), Les Maudits* (47), Le Mure di 
Malapurga (It/Fr48), Le Château de 
verre (50), Jeux interdits* (52), Knave 
of Hearts* (Brit54), Gervaise* (56), La 
Diga sul Pacifico/The Sea Wall/This 
Angry Age (It58), Plein Soleil (It59), 
Che Joia Vivere! /Quelle Joie de vivre! 
(Fr/It61), Le Jour et t heure (Fr/It 
63), Les Félins/The Cage /Joy House 
(63), Paris brûle-t-il? /Is Paris Burning? 
(66), Ecrit sur le sable (66), Passager de 
la pluie /Rider in the Rain (Fr/It69). 

CllNE, Edward Dm USA. (Wisconsin Nov 
7, 1892-1961) The best comedy direc- 
tor trained by Mack Sennett (<?.v.), he 
collaborated on short films with Buster 
Keaton from 1920 to 1923 and later 
directed several W. C. Fields features: 
Million Dollar Legs* (32), My Utile 
Chickadee (40), Never Give a Sucker an 
Even Break* (41), The Bank Dick (41). 

CLOCHE, Maurice dir France. (Commercy 
June 17, 1907- ) A prolific film maker 
who began by making documentaries in 
1933 and who is memorable mainly for 



his ambitious Monsieur Vincent (47), 
with Pierre Fresnay, photographed by 
Claude Renoir (q.v.). Also, La Vie est 
Magnifique (38), Cage aux filles (48), 
Né de père inconnu (50), Les Filles de la 
nuit (57), Coplan, agent secret (64), 
among many others. 

CLOEREC, René mus France. (Paris May 
31, 1911- ) Autant-Lara's (q.v.) fa- 
vorite composer, notably for Douce, 
Diable au corps*, L'Auberge rouge*, La 
Traversée au Paris. Also in Britain for 
Intimate Relations*. 

CLOUZOT, Henri-Georgei DIR France, f Niort 

Nov 20, 1907- ) The greatest French 
specialist in thrillers, sometimes incor- 
porating neurotic tensions, and always 
violence; made his name after the war 
with the suspenseful effects of his films, 
his meticulous creation of atmosphere, 
used of actors, effective style, and a 
certain taste for visual experiment (nota- 
bly in Le Mystère Picasso). He began 
his career as a scriptwriter and 1932-33 
was assistant to Litvak (q. v.) and Du- 
pont (a.v.) in Germany. He spent the 
period 1934-38 in various sanatoria, 
then returned to scriptwriting and di- 
rected his first feature in 1942. His first 
three films, L'Assassin habite au 21, Quai 
des Orfèvres, and Le Corbeau (despite 
the overemotional accusations of Nazi 
collaboration which this third film aroused 
in France) are above all suspense films. 
He was praised at the time for a certain 
tendency towards social criticism and 
affirmed this in Manon (49), which 
was not, however, the equal of the later 
Wages of Fear. At this time he spoke of 
the importance of preparation, of plan- 
ning every detail, every movement, be- 
fore beginning to shoot: "My greatest 
pleasure is the actual production, the 
editing . . . Dialogue, which played a 
major role in my first films, has dimin- 
ished in importance. Le Salaire de la 
peur is a visual film in which the dia- 
logue is largely in the background. I 
developed a form of editing built around 
continuing shocks. I always set light 
against shadow. I could be accused, be- 
cause of this, of being simplistic . . . 
But I pursue a process of simplification 
in order to accentuate contrasts . . . 
What do sophisticated, old-fashioned 
dramas, the recounting of spicy stories 
matter to us? The social drama, the 
drama of our times, has arrived. It is 



Copyrighted material 



those that hold us, those that we hope 
to fix on the screen." His later projects 
ran afoul of the censor. But with Les 
Diaboliques and La Vérité was he sure 
he was not returning to a more highly 
spiced recounting of old-fashioned spicy 
stories? The earlier pessimism and the 
taste for the sordid and for neurotic pas- 
sions has become more marked in his 
later films. 

scen: Un soir de rafle (31) (dir: Car- 
mine Gallone), Ma cousine de Varsovie 
(38), Le Révolte (38) (both dir: Léon 
Mathet), Le Duel (39) (dir: Pierre 
Fresnay), Le Monde tremblera (39) 
(dir: Richard Pottier), Le Dernier des 
six (41) (dir: Georges Lacombe), Les 
Inconnus dans la maison (41) (dir: 
Henri De coin ) , Si tous les gars du monde 
(56) (dir: Christian-Jaque), and all his 
own films. 

dir: La Terreur des Batignolles (31) 
(short), L'Assassin habite au 21 (42). 
Le Corbeau* (43), Quai des Orfèvres* 
(47), Manon (49), Retour à la vie 
(49) (one episode), Miquette et sa mère 
(49), Le Salaire de la peur* (53), Les 
Diaboliques/The Fiends (55), Le Mys- 
tère Picasso* (56), Les Espions (57), 
La Vérité* (60), La Prisionnière/Woman 
in Chains (68). Also, an incomplete 
documentary, Brésil (50-51), and an 
abandoned feature, L'Enfer (64). 

COCTEAU, Jean dir/ scen France. (Mais- 
ons-Laffitte July 5, 1889-Milly-la-Forêt 
Oct 11, 1963) A dominant figure on the 
French intellectual scene -poet, drama- 
tist, novelist, actor, and painter — who 
took a great delight in the cinema and 
worked intermittently with it over 30 
years. He saw the cinema as a means of 
expressing "the frontier incidents be- 
tween one world and another." The films 
he directed, from Le Sang d'un poète to 
Testament d'Orphée, are a kind of pri- 
vate diary, full of his own ideas, views, 
and obsessions and his delight in cine- 
matic devices. His fantasy, La Belle et la 
Bite, almost balletic in style, was fol- 
lowed by the claustrophobic dissection of 
a self-centered family Les Parents terri- 
bles and the mythological, unforgettable 
Orphée. He has said of himself and of 
the cinema: "The more I am forced to 
study the craft of film, the more I per- 
ceive its effectiveness is in its intimacy, 
its confessional and realistic qualités. A 
film is not a dream that is told but one 
that we all dream together." 'The role of 



the poet is to act out his thoughts. Sup- 
pose then that the film serves us, allows 
us to show personal things.* "Nothing 
is more truthful than fiction. Nothing 
more beautiful than the accidental, other- 
wise it is the train that leaves and ar- 
rives at a fixed time.** "It is not up to us 
to obey the public, which does not know 
what it wants, but to compel the public 
to follow us." Cocteau's work is unique 
in the cinema, an always visually fas- 
cinating combination of the real and the 
unreal, personal obsession and ancient 
myth. 

scen: La Comédie de bonheur (39) 
(dir: L'Herbier), Le Baron Fantôme 
(43) (dir: Serge de Poligny), L'Eternel 
retour* (43) (dir: Jean Delannoy), Les 
Dames du bois de Boulogne* (45) (dir: 
Bresson), Ruy Bias (47) (dir: Pierre 
Billon), Les Enfants terribles (50) (dir: 
Jean-Pierre Melville), La Princesse de 
Clèves (60) (dir: Jean Delannoy), 
Thomas l'imposteur (65) (dir: Georges 
Franju). Also, commentary for André 
Zwobada's Les Noces de sable* (48) 
and scripts for all his own films. 
dir: Le Sang d'un poète* (30), La Belle 
et la Bête* (46), L'Aigle a deux têtes 
(47), Les Parents terribles* (48), Or- 
phée* (49), Le Testament d'Orphie* 
(59) and two 16mm shorts, Coriolan 
(50), Villa Santo-Sospir (51). 

COHL, Emits (Emile Court») ANIM/DIR 

France/USA. (Paris Jan 4, 1857-Orly 
Jan 27, 1938) French pioneer of anima- 
tion and related genres who was a pupil 
of André Gill, a famous cartoonist, and 
was a cartoonist himself until 1907, when 
he became a director at Gaumont and 
developed rapidly from trick films to 
frame-by-frame animation. He was not 
only an extraordinary technician, the 
creator and developer of various tech- 
niques (animation of line drawings, pup- 
pets, objects, combination of cartoons 
and live action, stop-frame animation, 
etc.), he was also a great artist, a man 
of fantastic imagination, fertile inven- 
tiveness, and a sure sense of malicious 
comedy. He was the first to develop a 
standard character, "Fantoche,** (an or- 
dinary but unconquerable man) in his 
cartoons. He worked in the USA from 
1913-15 on the Snookums series. All 
modern animation is descended from 
Cohl, notably that of Norman McLaren 
(q.v.) after 1940. He was ruined by the 
war and became destitute. He died in 



Copyrighted material 



a rest home in 1938 when a candle acci- 
dentally set his beard on fire. 
Dm: a hundred short films, including: 
La Course aux potirons/The Pumpkin 
Race (07), La Vie à rebours (07), Fan- 
tasmagorie/A Fantasy, Don Quichotte*, 
Le Cauchemar du Fantoche, Un drame 
chez les Fantoches, Les Allumettes 
animées, Le Journal animé, Le Petit 
soldat qui devient dieu (ail 08), Les 
Transfigurations, La Lampe qui file, Les 
Joy faux microbes/Magic Cartoons, Les 
Locataires dà côté, Génération spontanée, 
Les Lunettes féeriques (ail 09), Le Binet- 
toscope, Le Petit Chanteclair, Le Tout 
Petit Faust, Enfance de Vart, Rien n'est 
impossible à l'homme (ail 10), Poudre 
de vitesse, La Chambre ensorcelée /The 
Automatic Moving Co., Le Retapeur de 
cervelle, Aventures d'un bout de papier, 
Les Melons baladeurs (ail 11), Les 
Jouets animés, L'Homme sans tête, 
Cuisine-Express (ail 12), Les Aventures 
de Baron de Crac/Baron Munchausen* 
(13), Monsieur Stop (13), Aventures de 
Maltracé (13), Snookums series (USA 
13-15), Les Aventures des Pieds Nickelés 
(18). 

COLLINS, Alfred Dm Britain. (?-?) British 
pioneer who in 1903-05 (before Grif- 
fith) used a very modern editing syntax 
with extreme close-ups and a moving 
camera in tackling social subjects: The 
Runaway Match /Marriage by Motor 
(03), Mutiny on a Russian Battleship 
(05) (the Potemkin Mutiny). Originally 
a music hall comedian, he made numer- 
ous short comedies and chase films for 
Gaumont, 1903-10. 

COLPI, Henri ed/dir France. (Switzerland 
July 12, 1912- ) A member of the 
French new wave and a close collabo- 
rator of Resnais as editor of several of 
his films, he directed several shorts in 
the Fifties and made his feature debut 
with Une aussi longue absence (61) 
from a Marguerite Duras screenplay. He 
trained at riDHEC, became a film 
critic, and has written two books on the 
cinema. 

ed (notably): for Resnais, Nuit et 
Brouillard*, Hiroshima mon amour*, 
L'Année dernière à Marienbad*; for 
Clouzot, Le Mystère Picasso*; for Chap- 
lin, A King in New York*. 
Dm: Une aussi longue absence (61), 
Codine (Rom62), Pour une étoile sans 



nom (66), Heureux qui comme Ulysse 
(69). 

COMENCINI, Luigi dir Italy. (Salo June 8, 
1916- ) After the ncorealist short 
Bambini in Città (46), he was pushed 
into commercial film-making somewhat 
in spite of himself with Pane, Amore e 
Fantasia (53), but he has a sense of 
comic fantasy as witnessed by Tutti a 
casa (60). He has also written scripts. 
[Dm (notably): Bambini in Città (46) 
(short), Proibito Rubor e (48), Persiane 
Chi use (51), Pane, Amore e Fantasia/ 
Bread, Love, and Dreams (53), Pane, 
Amore e Jalosia/Bread, Love, and Jeal- 
ousy (54), Marita in Città (58), Tutti 
a casa (60), // Compagno Don Camillo 
(66), // Frigorifero (71) (co-dir: Mario 
Monicelli).] 

COMMANDON, J«on Dm France. (Jarnac 
Aug 3, 1877- ) A pioneer of the sci- 
ence film who since 1908 has made 100- 
150 research films in the fields of micro- 
scopy, zoology, medicine, botany, etc. 

CONNELLY, Marc SCEN USA. (McKeesport 

Dec 13, 1890- ) Well-known drama- 
tist and stage director who contributed 
to several major Hollywood successes 
with original scenarios or adaptations of 
his plays, notably Beggar on Horseback 
(25) (dir: James Cruze) and Green 
Pastures* (36), directed by himself 
and William Keighley. His Merton of 
the Movies was filmed twice: Merton 
of the Movies (24) (dir: James Cruze), 
Make Me a Star (32) (dir: William 
Beaudine). 

CONWAY, Jock Dm USA. (Gracevflle July 
17, 1887-Los Angeles Oct 11, 1952) An 
honest Hollywood craftsman who was 
trained by D. W. Grifilth (q.v.) at Tri- 
angle, he directed his first feature film, 
The Old Armchair, in 1912; he also 
acted for some years. Worked for most of 
his career with MGM and directed a 
large number of films, including: Our 
Modern Maidens {!%)* The New Moon 
(30), The Unholy Three* (30) (re- 
make), Arsène Lupin (32), Viva Villa* 
(34), A Tale of Two Cities (35), A 
Yank at Oxford (38), Boom Town (40), 
Crossroads (42), The Hucksters (47). 

COOPER, Merian c. dir/prod USA. (Jack- 
sonville Oct 24, 1893- ) He worked as 
co-director and producer with Ernest B. 

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Schoedsack (q.v.), with whom he had 
gone through the First World War, on 
several well-known early films, from the 
documentaries, Grass* (25) and Chang* 
(27), to The Four Feathers (29) and the 
marvelous fantasy, King Kong* (33). 
[Also produced, notably, Little Women 
(33), Flying Down to Rio (33), She 
(35), The Last Days of Pompeii (35), 
Mighty Joe Young* (49), several John 
Ford films: The Lost Patrol* (34), The 
Fugitive (47), Fort Apache* (48), She 
Wore a Yellow Ribbon (49), Wagon- 
master (50), Rio Grande (50), The 
Quiet Man* (52), The Sun Shines Bright 
(53), The Searchers (56). Produced This 
is Cinerama (52) and The Best of Cin- 
erama (63). Received special Academy 
Award in 1952 for his "innovations and 
contributions to the art of the motion 
picture."] 

corman, Roger Dm USA. (Detroit April 
5, 1926- ) A director who made his 
name as king of the B-pictures in the 
Fifties (25 in five years) and as a master 
of Edgar Allan Poe adaptations in the 
Sixties. Though his scripts are often un- 
even and the acting rarely memorable, he 
has brought to the fantasy, horror, 
science-fiction, and thriller genres a visual 
power and a sense of poetic violence. In 
some respects he can be considered the 
heir to Tod Browning's (q.v.) mantle. 
He was originally a literary agent and 
author before he began his film career 
as a producer in 1954. 
[dir: Five Guns West (55), Apache 
Woman (55), The Day the World Ended 

(55) , Swamp Women (55), The Okla- 
homa Woman (55), Gunslinger (56), It 
Conquered the World (56), Not of this 
Earth (56) The Undead (56), The She 
Gods of Shark Reef (56), Naked Para- 
dise (56), Attack of the Crab Monsters 

(56) , Rock All Night (56), Teenage Doll 

(57) , Carnival Rock (57), Sorority Girl 

(57) , The Viking Women and the Sea 
Serpent (57), War of the Satellites (57), 
Machine Gun Kelly (58), Teenage Cave- 
men (58), /, Mobster /The Mobster 

(58) , A Bucket of Blood (59), Crybaby 
Killer (59), The Wasp Woman (59), 
Ski Troop Attack (60), The House of 
Usher/The Fall of the House of Usher* 
(60), The Little Shop of Horrors (60), 
The Last Woman on Earth (60), Crea- 
ture from the Haunted Sea (60), Atlas 
(60), The Pit and the Pendulum (61), 
The Intruder/The Stranger (61), The 



Premature Burial (61), Tales of Terror 
(61), Tower of London (62), The Young 
Racers (62), The Raven (62), The Ter- 
ror. (62), X-the Man with X-Ray Eyes 

(63) , The Haunted Palace (63), The 
Secret Invasion (63), The Masque of the 
Red Death (64), The Tomb of Ugela 

(64) , The Wild Angels (66), The St. 
Valentine's Day Massacre (66), The 
Trip (67), Whafs in it for Harry (68), 
Bloody Mama (70), Von Richthofen and 
Brown, and Gas, or, It Became Necessary 
to Destroy the World in Order to Save It 
(both 71). Also The Little Guy (57), 
Reception (57), both uncompleted. 
prod: The Monster from the Ocean 
Floor (54), The Fast and the Furious 
(54), Highway Dragnet (54), and most 
of his own films.] 

CORNEllUS, Henry Dm Britain. (South Af- 
rica Aug 18, 1913-London May 3, 1958) 
Former actor and stage producer in Ger- 
many, editor in France and Britain, he 
made a number of documentary shorts m 
South Africa (40-45) and co-scripted It 
Always Rains on Sunday* for Ealing be- 
fore making a striking directorial debut 
with Passport to Pimlico. However, apart 
from Genevieve, his other films were dis- 
appointing; he declined with the other 
directors of the British comedy school 
and died relatively young. 
dir (features): Passport to Pimlico* 
(48), The Galloping Major (51), Gene- 
vieve (53), / Am a Camera (55), Next 
to No Time (58), Law and Disorder 
(58) (completed by Crichton). 

COS, Joachim See ROSAS, ENRIQUE 

cottafavi, vittorio Dm Italy. (Modena 
Jan 30, 1914- ) Prolific Italian director 
of commercial period spectaculars and 
melodramas who, curiously, has been 
compared (for his later work) by some 
critics to Racine. He studied at the 
Centro Sperimentale, wrote scripts for 
Alessandri and Vergano from 1939-48, 
and has been assistant to Blasetti {q.v.) 

and De Sica (q.vJ), 

dir: I Nostri Sogni (43), Lo Sconosciuto 
di San Marino (48), La Grande Strada 
(48), La Fiamme die non si Spegne (49), 
Una Donna a Ucciso (51), // Boia di 
Ulla (52), Traviata '53 (53), In Amove 
si Pecca in Due (53), Una Donna Libera 
(54), Avanzi di Galera (54), Nel Gorgo 
del Paccato (55), Fiesta Brava (Sp56), 
The Revolt of the Gladiators (58), Le 



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Legioni di Cleopatra (59), Messalina 
(59), La Vendetta di Ercole/The Ven- 
geance of Hercules (60), Ercole Alia 
Conquista di Atlantis/ Hercules Conquers 
Atlantis (61), / Cento Cavalieri (Sp64). 

COURANT, Curt (also Curtis, Kurt) PHOTOO 
Germany/France/Britain/USA. ( 1 895?- 
) One of the best prewar cinematogra- 
phers. Began his career in Germany after 
the First World War and gained expe- 
rience during the classic German period, 
mainly on period melodramas and spec- 
taculars. Left Germany in 1933, worked 
in Britain with Hitchcock (q.v.) and 
achieved his best work during the era of 
French poetic realism with Carné (q.v.) 
and Renoir (q.v.). 

photog (notably): Hamlet* (Ger20) 
(dir: Sven Gade), Peter der Grosse (Ger 
22) (dir: Buchowetzki), Quo Vadis?* 
(It/Ger24) (dir: Gcorg Jacoby, d'An- 
nunzio), Die Frau im Mond (Ger29) 
(dir: Fritz Lang), Perfect Understanding 
(Brit33) (dir: Cyril Gardner), Ciboulette 
(Fr33) (dir: Autant-Lara), The Man 
Who Knew Too Much* (Brit34) (dir: 
Hitchcock), The Iron Duke (Brit35) 
(dir: Victor Saville), Broken Blossoms* 
(Brit36) (dir: John Brahm), Le Puri- 
tain (Fr38) (dir: Jeff Musso), La Bête 
humaine* (Fr38) (dir: Renoir), Louise 

(Fr39) (dir: Abel Gance), Le Jour se 
lève (Fr39) (dir: Carne), De Mayerling 
à Sarajevo (Fr40) (dir: Ophuls), Mon- 
sieur Verdoux* (USA47) (dir: Chaplin). 

COUSTEAU, Jacques-Yves DIR France. 
(Saint-André June 11, 1910- ) French 
underwater explorer whose documentaries 
(notably his two full-length films) have 
revealed the marvels of underwater life 
to millions of spectators. 
dir (notably): Par 18 mètres de fond 
(43), Epaves (45), Paysages du silence 
(47), Autour d'un récif (48), Dauphins 
et Cétacés (49), Carnets de plongée 
(50), Le Monde du silence* (55) (co- 
dir: Louis Malle), Le Monde sans soleil/ 
World Without Sun (64), and numerous 
TV documentaries. 

♦COUTARD, Raoul photog/dir France. 
(1924- ) A press photographer (1951- 
56), he became associated with several 
new wave directors, notably Truffaut 
(q.v.) and Godard (q.v.). He has a 
sharp, exhilarating style, full of quick 
pans and hand-held camera shots. Di- 
rected his first feature in 1970: Hoa 



Binh, a remarkably unsentimental por- 
trait of Vietnamese children caught up in 
a war without meaning. 
photog (notably): for Truffaut Tirez 
sur le pianiste* (60), Jules et Jim* (61), 
L'Amour a vingt ans (62) (one episode), 
La Peau douce (64), La Mariée était en 
noir /The Bride Wore Black (67); for 
Jacques Demy, Lola* (60); for Jacques 
Baratier, La Poupée (62); for Jean 
Rouch, Chronique d'un été (61 ); for Phil- 
ippe de Broca, Un monsieur de com- 
pagnie (64); for Claude de Givray, Tire- 
au-flanc 62* (61); for Raoul Lévy, Je 
vous salve Mafia (65); for Tony Rich- 
ardson, The Sailor from Gibraltar 
(Brit66); for Costa-Gavras, L'Aveu (70); 
and for most of Godard's (q.v.) films. 
dir: Hoa Binh (70). 

COWARD, Noël scen/prod/dir Britain. 
(Teddington Dec 16, 1899- ) Actor, 
producer, playwright, one of the bright 
lights of the English theater and enter- 
tainment world in the Twenties and Thir- 
ties who has also contributed over a pe- 
riod of years to the cinema. Many of his 
plays have been filmed, including Caval- 
cade*, Bittersweet, Blithe Spirit. He has 
always exuded an urbane, sophisticated 
wit, at times cynical, at others senti- 
mental. 

SCEN: The Queen Was in the Parlor (27) 
(dir: Graham Cutts), Easy Virtue (27) 
(dir: Hitchcock), The Vortex (27) 
(dir: Adrian Brunei), Bittersweet (33) 
(dir: Herbert Wilcox), The Astonished 
Heart (50) (dir: Terence Fisher), Meet 
Me Tonight (52) (dir: Anthony Pelis- 
sier), and his own dir/prod films. 
dir: In Which We Serve* (42) (co-dir: 
David Lean). 

prod: David Lean's This Happy Breed 
(44), Blithe Spirit (45), Brief Encoun- 
ter* (45), and In Which We Serve* 
(42). 

C RE VENA, Alfredo DIR Mexico (?- ) 

Prolific Mexican film maker who made 
his name in Europe with the violent and 
self-indulgent Revolt of the Hanged 
(55). 

CRICHTON, Charles DIR Britain. (Wallasey 
Aug 6, 1910- ) One of the most dis- 
tinctive talents of the Ealing school dur- 
ing the Forties and Fifties, responsible 
for the extremely successful Hue and 
Cry, Lavender Hill Mob, and The Tit- 
field Thunderbolt. He was trained as an 



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editor in the Thirties (Elephant Boy, 
Things to Come, The Thief of Bagdad, 
etc.) and joined Ealing in 1940, where he 
came under the influence of Michael Bal- 
con (q.v,) and Cavalcanti (q.v.) and 
initially directed documentaries. 
Dm: Young Veterans (41) (short), For 
Those In Peril (44), Painted Boats (45), 
Dead of Night* (45) (one episode), 
Hue and Cry* (47), Another Shore (48), 
Against the Wind (48), Train of Events 

(49) (co-dir: Basil Dearden), Dance 
Hall (50), The Lavender Hill Mob* 
(51), Hunted (52), The Tit field Thunder- 
bolt (53), The Love Lottery (53), The 
Divided Heart (54), The Man in the 
Sky (56), Law and Disorder (58) (be- 
gun by Henry Cornelius), Floods of 
Fear (58), Battle of the Sexes (59), The 
Boy Who Stole a Million (60), The 
Third Secret (64), He Who Rides a 
Tiger (65), and many episodes of various 
TV series. 

CROMWELL, John DIR USA. (Toledo Dec 
23, 1888- ) Veteran Hollywood direc- 
tor, formerly stage actor and producer, 
who since the early days of sound until 
1961 was a conscientious craftsman with 
an ability with actors and who has oc- 
casionally (Caged, The Goddess) dealt 
with somewhat unconventional themes. 
Dm (notably): The Dummy (29), Tom 
Sawyer (30), Vice Squad (31), The 
World and the Flesh (31), Of Human 
Bondage (34), The Fountain (34), Jalna 
(35), Little Lord Fauntleroy (36), The 
Prisoner of Zenda (37), Algiers (38) 
(remake of Pépé le Moko*), Abe Lin- 
coln in Illinois (40), The Enchanted 
Cottage (45), Anna and the King of 
Slam (46), Dead Reckoning (47), Caged 

(50) , The Racket (51), Hidden Fear 
(57), The Goddess (58), A Mutter of 
Morals (61). 

CROSLAND, Alan DIR USA. (New York 
Aug 1894-Hollywood July 25, 1936) 
Mediocre director of some 30 films from 
1915 to 1936 who merits a footnote in 
film history as the director of the first 
film with synchronized music, Don Juan 
(26), and the first film with dialogue, 
The Jazz Singer* (27). Died in a car 
accident* 

CRUZE, James (Jens Crux Boson) DIR USA. 
(Ogden March 27, 1884-Hollywood Aug 
4, 1942) Prolific Hollywood director, at 
his best during the silent period when he 



made at least two important films, the 
epic western, The Covered Wagon, and 
the quasi-expressionistic Beggar on 
Horseback. [Originally an actor for David 
Belasco and Thanhouser (She, Cymbe- 
line, Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde), he di- 
rected his first feature in 1918. He dis- 
trusted talking pictures and was never 
at ease with them.] 

DIR (notably): Too Many Millions (18), 
The Valley of the Giants (19), Terror 
Island (20), Crazy to Marry (21), One 
Glorious Day (22), The Dictator (22), 
Hollywood (23), Ruggles of Red Gap 

(23) , To The Ladies (23), The Covered 
Wagon* (23), The Garden of Weeds 

(24) , The City That Never Sleeps (24), 
The Enemy Sex (24), Mer ton of the 
Movies (24), The Fighting Coward (24), 
Beggar on Horseback (25), Welcome 
Home (25), The Goose Hangs High 

(25) , Pony Express (25), Marriage (26), 
Mannequin (26), Waiter from the Ritz 

(26) , Old Ironsides (27), The City Gone 
Wild (27), On to Reno (27), The Great 
Gabbo (29), Man's Man (29), // / Had 
a Million (32) (one episode), Wash- 
ington Merry -Go-Round (33), David 
H arum (34), Helldorado (35), / Cover 
the Waterfront (35), Sutter's Gold (36), 
The Wrong Road (37), The Prison Nurse 
(38), Gangs of New York (38), Come 
On, Leathernecks (38). 

CUKOR, George DIR USA. (New York July 
7, 1899- ) A former Broadway actor 
and producer (1921-29) who moved to 
Hollywood with the coming of sound and 
specialized in literary adaptations, sophis- 
ticated comedies, musical comedies, and 
period films. Though a director without 
true artistic genius, his films at their best 
are tasteful, cultivated, urbane, and in- 
telligently directed. To him we owe the 
memorable Dinner at Eight, Little Wom- 
en, Holiday, Born Yesterday, Heller in 
Pink Tights, The Philadelphia Story, 
and Keeper of the Flame. He is a lucid, 
modest, and sincere man who has spoken 
of the difficulties of his profession: "I 
spent five weeks supervising the cutting 
of Heller in Pink Tights. It was worth 
what it was worth, but at least it had a 
sense of direction. Unfortunately I had 
to leave; the film was re-edited in a stupid 
way and everything was destroyed. Le- 
gally I had no rights ... In Europe, a 
director is taken more seriously. In 
Hollywood, when you complete a film, 
everyone believes he can give you bis 



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opinion." He began his film career as 
dialogue director on Richard Wallace's 
River of Romance (29) and Milestone's 
All Quiet on the Western Front* (30). 
dir: Grumpy (30) (co-dir: Cyril Gard- 
ner), The Virtuous Sin (30) (co-dir: 
Louis Gasnier), The Royal Family of 
Broadway (30) (co-dir: Cyril Gardner), 
Tarnished Lady (31), Girls About Town 
(31), One Hour With You (32) (taken 
over by Lubitsch), What Price Holly- 
wood? (32), A Bill of Divorcement (32), 
Rockabye (32), Our Betters (32), Dinner 
at Eight* (33), Little Women (33), 
David Copperfield (34), Sylvia Scarlett 

(35) , Romeo and Juliet (36), Camille 

(36) , Holiday* (38), Zaza (38), The 
Women (39), Susan and God/The Gay 
Mrs. Trexel (40), The Philadelphia 
Story* (40), A Woman's Face (41), 
Two-Faced Woman (41), Her Cardboard 
Lover (42), Keeper of the Flame (43), 
Gaslight* (44) (remake), Winged Vic- 
tory (44), A Double Life (47), Edward 
My Son (48), Adam's Rib (49), A Life 
of Her Own (50), Born Yesterday* (50), 
The Model and the Marriage Broker 
(51), The Marrying Kind (52), Pat and 
Mike (52), The Actress (53), // Should 
Happen to You* (54), A Star is Born 
(54) (remake), Bhowani Junction (55), 
Les Girls (57), Wild is the Wind (57), 

Song Without End (59) (dir: Charles 
Vidor, completed by Cukor), Heller in 
Pink Tights (60), Let's Make Love (60), 
The Chapman Report (61), My Fair 
Lady* (64), Justine (69). Also directed 
documentary, Resistance and Ohm's Law 
(43). 

CURTIZ, Michael (in Hungary, Mihaly Kertesz; 
in Germany, Michael Kertesz) Dm Hungary/ 
Austria/USA. (Budapest Dec 24, 1888- 
Hollywood, April 10, 1962) An absolute 
professional whose film career spanned 
fifty years and over 150 films in a variety 
of genres — thrillers, horrors, westerns, 
melodramas, and spectacles. He was act- 
ing in films before he was twenty, di- 
rected his first film in Hungary in 1912, 
and was an assistant to Sjôstrôm and 
Stiller. Ebullient, skillful, and painstaking 
in his approach to often trivial material 
(and sometimes antipathetic themes like 
the proslavery Sante Fe Trail) he can 
include many excellent films and numer- 
ous commercial successes among his out- 
put: 20,000 Years in Sing-Sing, Black 
Fury, Angels with Dirty Faces, Mildred 
Pierce, Casablanca, The Mystery of the 



Wax Museum, The Charge of the Light 
Brigade, The Adventures of Robin Hood, 
Captain Blood. [A director with Warner 
Brothers for most of his Hollywood 
years, he was the industry's most con- 
sistent commercially successful director. 
He once said: "I don't see black and 
white words in a script when I read it. I 
see action." His best work is in the Thir- 
ties and early Forties. 
The following filmography is not neces- 
sarily complete in the early years. Curtiz 
acted in Blom's Atlantis* in Denmark 
and apparently directed one film there. It 
is also said he directed a film in Sweden 
in 1919 with Gar bo (who would then 
have been 14!).] 

[dir Ma Es Holnap (Hung 12), Rabelek 
(12), Az Ejszaka Rabjai (14), A Tolonc 

(14) , Rank Ban (14), A Kolesonkert 
Csecsemok (14), Akit Ketten Szeretnek 

(15) , A Karthauzi (16), Makkhetes 

(16) , A Fekete Szivarvany (16), As 
Ezust Kecske (16), A Farkas (16), 
Doktor Ur (16), A Magyar Fold Ereje 

(16) , Zoard Mester (17), A Voros Sam- 
son (17), Az Vtolso Hajnal (17), Tavasz 
a Telben (17), A Senka Fia (17), A 
Szentjobi Erdo Titka (17), A Kuruzslo 

(17) , A Halazcsengo (17), A Fold 
Embre (17), Az Ezredes (17), Egy 
Krajcar Tortenete (17), A Beke Utja 

(17), Az Arendas Zsido (17), Tatarjaras 

(17) , Az Or dos (18), A Napraforgos 
Holgy (18), Lulu (18), Judas (18), 
Kilencvenkilenc (18), A Csunya Filu 

(18) , Alraune (18), A Vig Ozvegy/The 
Merry Widow (18), Varazskeringo (18), 
Lu, a Kokott (Hungl8), Die Dame mit 
dem Schwarzen Handschuh (Austl9), 
Der Stern von Damas kus (19), Die 
Gottesgeissel (20), Die Dame mit den 
Sonnenblum (20), Wege des Schreckens 
(21), Frau Dorothy's Bekenntnis (21), 
Miss Tutti Frutti (21), Herzogin Satan- 
ella (21), Sodom und Gomorrah (22/23) 
(two parts), Die Lawine (23), Der Junge 
Medardus (23), Namenlos (23), Ein 
Spiel urns Leben (24), General Babka 
(24), The Uncle from Sumatra (?) (24), 
Harun al Raschid (24), Die Slavenkô- 
nigin/Moon of Israel (24), Das Spielzeug 
von Paris/Red Heels (25), Fiaker Nr. 13 
(Ger26), Der Goldene Schmetterling/ 
The Road to Happiness (Ger26), The 
Third Degree (USA26), A Million Bid 
(27), The Desired Woman (27), Good 
Time Charley (27), Tenderloin (28), 
Noah's Ark (28), Hearts in Exile (29), 
Clad Rag Doll (29), Madonna of Avenue 

54 



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A (29), The Gamblers (29), Mammy 
(30), Under a Texas Moon (30), The 
Matrimonial Bed (30), Bright Lights 
(30), A Soldier's Plaything (30), River's 
End (30), Damon des Meeres (31) (Ger- 
man version of Lloyd Bacon's Moby 
Dick), God's Gift to Women (31), The 
Mad Genius (31), The Woman from 
Monte Carlo (32), Alias the Doctor 
(32), The Strange Love of Molly Lou- 
vain (32), Doctor X (32), Cabin in the 
Cotton (32) (co-dir: William Keighley), 
20,000 Years in Sing-Sing (33), The 
Mystery of the Wax Museum (33), The 
Keyhole (33), Private Detective (33), 
Goodbye Again (33), The Kennel Mur- 
der Case (33), Female (33), Mandalay 

(34) , Brifwn i4$enf (34), Jimmy the 
Gent (34), 27ie Key I High Peril (34), 
B/ac* Fury (35), Tne Owe ©/ the Cu- 
rious Bride (35) Uttle Big Shot (35), 
Fron/ Page Woman (35), Captain Blood 

(35) , Tne FPa/Am* Dead (36), The 
Charge of the Light Brigade (36), Stolen 
Holiday (36), Mountain Justice (37), 

Galahad/Battling Bellhop (37), I7ie 
Per pec t Specimen (37), Go/d fa JWiere 
Fou Find It (38), Tfte Adventures of 
Robin Hood (38) (co-dir: William 
Keighley), Four Daughters (38), Four's 
a Crowd (38), Angels with Dirty Faces 0 

(38) , Doo>e City (39), Son* o/ Liberty 

(39) (short), Daughters Courageous 

(39) , Four Wives (39), Ine PnVa/e 
Lives of Elizabeth and Essex (39), 
Virginia City (40), 7** Sea Hawk 

(40) , TA* Santa Fe Trail (40), T«« 
Sea Wolf (41), Dive Borner (41), 
Captains of the Clouds (42), Yankee 
Doodle Dandy (42), Casablanca* (43), 
Mtw/on fo Mojcow (43), This is the 
Army (43), Passage to Marseilles (44), 
/ante (44), Roughly Speaking (45), 
Mi/drea" Pierce (45), M**/ end Day 
(46), life with Father (47), The Unsus- 
pected (47), Romance on the High 
Seas (48), My Dream is Yours (49), 
Flamingo Road (49), 77te Laay Takes a 
Sailor (49), youn* Man with a Horn 



(50) , Bright Leaf (50), TAe BreaWn* 
Point (50), J/m Thorpe — All American/ 
Man of Bronze (51), Foree of Arms 

(51) , /*// See You in My Dreams (52), 
The Story of Will Rogers (52), The Jazz 
Singer* (52), Trouble Along the Way 

(53) , The Boy from Oklahoma (54), 
The Egyptian (54), FFM/e Christmas 

(54) , young af ffeart (55) (remake of 
Four Daughters), We're no Angels (55), 
The Scarlet Hour (56), The Vagabond 
King (56) (remake), The Best Things in 
Life Are Free (56), The Helen Morgan 
Story (57), The Proud Rebel (58), King 
Creole (58), The Hangman (59), The 
Man in the Net (59), The Adventures of 
Huckleberry Finn (60), A Breath of 
Scandal (60), Francis of Assisi (61), 
The Comancheros (61).] 

CZINNER, Foul DiR Germany/Britain. 
(Hungary 1890- ) Former Hungarian 
stage producer who emigrated to Austria, 
then to Germany in 1919, and to Britain 
in 1933. His many films with his wife 
Elizabeth Bergner, largely "boulevard" 
dramas, have a fine sense of psycholog- 
ical characterization, notably in his best 
film, Nju. Since 1955 he has tended to 
concentrate on film reproductions of op- 
era and ballet. 

dir: Homo Immanis (Austl9), Der 
Unmensch (Aust 19), Inferno (Aust20), 
Nju (Ger24), Der Geiger von Florenz 
(Ger26), Liebe (Ger26), Dona Juana 
(Ger27), Fraulein Else (29), The Wom- 
an He Scorned (Brit30), Ariane (31), 
Der Trâumende Mundf Dreaming Lips 
(Ger32), Catherine the Great (Brit34), 
Escape Me Never (35), As You Like 
It (36), Dreaming Lips (37) (remake), 
Stolen Life (39), Don Giovanni (55), 
The Bolshoi Ballet (57), The Royal 
Ballet (59), Der Rosenkavalier (62), 
Romeo and Juliet (66). 
scen Eifersucht (Ger26) (dir: Karl 
Grune), Der Trâumende Mund (Ger53), 
(dir: von Baky), and most of his own 
films. 



55 



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ID) 



DAGUERRE, Mandi INVENTOR France. (Cor- 
meilles Nov 18, 1789-Bry-sur-Marne 
July 10, 1851) A painter and exhibitor of 
panoramas and an irrepressible business- 
man who purchased in 1829 the process 
invented by Nicéphore Niepce (q.v.). In 
1837, he marketed the daguerreotype (a 
single copper-plated print involving a 20 
minute pose), the patent to which was 
purchased by the French government in 
1839 and placed in the public domain. 

D'AMico, Sute Ctcchi see cecchi d'amico, 
suso 

♦Daniels, William pHOTOO USA. (Cleve- 
land 1895-June 1970) Notable Holly- 
wood cameraman who gained his expe- 
rience with Triangle and was with MGM 
for many years. Photographed many of 
Greta Garbo's most memorable films, 
from Flesh and the Devil* (27) to 
Nlnotchka* (39). Also, notably, for 
Stroheim, Foolish Wives* (21). Greed* 
(24), Merry-Go-Round (22), The Merry 
Widow* (25); for George Cukor, Dinner 
at Eight* (33), Camille (36); for Jules 
Dassin, Brute Force* (47), Naked City* 
(48); for Anthony Mann, Winchester 73 
(50). In recent years his work has been 
less interesting: Von Ryan's Express 
(65), Valley of the Dolls (67), Assault 
on a Queen (66), The Maltese Bippy 
(69), Move (70). Also produced Robin 
and the Seven Hoods (64), Assault on a 
Queen (66). 

daquin, louis DiR France/Austria/Ro- 
mania/German Democratic Republic. 
(Calais May 30, 1908- ) A talented 
film maker who began his career as assis- 
tant to Abel Gance (q.v.), Pierre Chenal 
(q.v.), Julien Duvivier (q.v.), and Jean 
Grémillon (q.v.). His films have a sin- 
cerity of approach and certain lyrical 
qualities that are most evident in his 



first film, Nous les gosses (41). "I dis- 
trust formulas," he wrote in 1947. "If 
'realism' is an end in itself, it doesn't in- 
terest me. If it is the 'means' that will 
allow me to communicate my hopes, feel- 
ings, and beliefs, then hurrah for real- 
ism." He portrayed the daily life of 
ordinary people in Les Frères Bouquin- 
quant and created his masterpiece with 
Le Point du jour (48), a film that could 
have led to the development of a fertile 
French neorealism. After 1950 and his 
noble Maître après Dieu his beliefs led to 
his being ostracized by the French film 
industry and he continued his career 
abroad, notably with a number of re- 
markable literary adaptations: Maupas- 
sant, Bel- Ami, Panait Istrati, The Thistles 
of the Baragon, and Balzac, Les Arri- 
vistes. 

dir: Nous les gosses* (41), Madame et 
la mort (43), Le Voyageur de la Tous- 
saint (43), Premier de cordée (44), 
Patrie (45), Les Frères Bouquinquant* 
(47), Le Point du jour* (48), Maître 
après Dieu (51), Bel-Ami (Aust54), 
Ciulinll Baraganului* (Rum57), Triibe 
Wasser (GDR60) (from Balzac), La 
Foire aux cancres (Fr63). 

DASSIN, Jules dir USA/Britain/France/ 
Greece. (Middletown Dec 18, 1912- ) 
One of several American film makers 
driven out of Hollywood by the Mc- 
Carthy witchhunt of the late Forties who 
developed a new career in Europe. From 
1936 to 1940 he was a stage actor and 
producer and a radio scriptwriter. He 
worked for RKO for a year, joined MGM 
in 1941 to direct shorts, and made his first 
feature in 1942. After the notable Brute 
Force, Naked City, and Thieves' High- 
way in Hollywood he built an even more 
successful career in Europe with Rififi, 
He Who Must Die, and Never on Sun- 
day. However, he has also made several 



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failures in recent years. In an interview 
with Chabrol and Truffaut he discussed 
his approach to the cinema: "What inter- 
ests me is truth. The cinema is a mass art, 
the cheapest form of entertainment. A 
film must be entertaining. You discover 
in my films a blend of documentary and 
poetry. This is my poor search for an 
expression of truth, restricted by séries 
noirs" He has collaborated on the scripts 
of many of his films and acted in a few 
of them. 

dir (shorts): Artur Rubinstein (41), 
Pablo Casals (41), The Tcll-Tale Heart 
(41), Survival (68) (documentary on the 
Arab-Israeli conflict). 
dir (features): Nazi Agent (42), The 
Affairs of Martha (42), Reunion in 
Paris (42), Young Ideas (43), The Can- 
terville Ghost (44), A Letter for Evic 
(45), Two Smart People (46), Brute 
Force* (47), Naked City* (48), Thieves' 
Highway* (49), Night and the City* 
(Brit50), Du Rifift chez les hommes* 
(Fr55), Celui qui doit mourir* (Fr/It 
57), La Loi /Where the Hot Wind Blows 
(Fr/It58), Pote Tin Kyriaki/ Never on 
Sunday* (Gr59), Phaedra (USA/Gr61), 
Topkapi/The Light of Day (USA/Fr63), 
10:30 p.m. Summer (USA/Sp66), Up- 
tight (68), La Promesse de l'aube /Prom- 
ise at Dawn (Fr/USA70). 

DAVES, Deimer dir/scen USA. (San Fran- 
cisco July 24, 1904- ) At one time an 
assistant to James Craze (The Covered 
Wagon*), an actor and assistant script- 
writer, 1927-33, a scriptwriter from 1934, 
and a director from 1943; his films are 
extremely variable in quality, though 
often humanistic. He brought his feeling 
for dramatic plot to thrillers (Dark Pas- 
sage) and especially to several notable 
westerns: Broken Arrow, The Last 
Wagon, 3:10 to Yuma, Cowboy, and 
The Hanging Tree. 

[scen (notably): The Petrified Forest 

(36) (dir: Archie Mayo), The Go-Getter 

(37) (dir: Busby Berkeley), Love Affair 
(39) (dir: Leo McCarey) and most of 
his own films. 

dir: Destination Tokyo (43), The Very 
Thought of You (44), Hollywood Can- 
teen (44), Pride of the Marines (45), 
The Red House (47), Dark Passage 
(47), To the Victor (48), Task Force 
(49), A Kiss in the Dark (49), Broken 
Arrow (50), Bird of Paradise (51), Re- 
turn of the Texan (52), The Treasure of 
the Golden Condor (53), Never Let Me 



Go (53), Demetrius and the Gladiators 
(53), Drum Beat (54), Jubal (56), The 
Last Wagon (56), 3:10 to Yuma* (57), 
Kings Go Forth (58), Cowboy (58), 
The Badlanders (58), The Hanging Tree 

(59) , A Summer Place (60), Parrish 

(60) , Susan Slade (61), Rome Adventure 
(62), Spencer's Mountain (63), Young- 
blood Hawke (64), The Battle of Villa 
Fiorita (65).] 

•DEARDEN, Basil dir Britain. (Wcstcliff 
Jan I, 1911-London March 23, 1971) 
Former actor and stage manager and an 
assistant on many of the George Formby 
and Will Hay comedies, he became a 
scriptwriter with Ealing and developed 
under Cavalcanti's (q.v.) tutelage into a 
canable director specializing in the han- 
dling of contemporary social issues, no- 
tably in The Captive Heart (46), Frieda 
(47), The Blue Lamp (49), The Pool of 
London (50), Sapphire (59), / Believe in 
You (51). Violent Playground (58), 
Victim (61 ). Most of his films since 1951 
were produced by Michael Relph, who 
shares producer-director-writer credits on 
many of them. He died in a car crash in 
1971. 

dir: The Black Sheep of Whitehall (41) 
(co-dir: Will Hay), The Goose Steps Out 
(42) (co-dir: Will Hav). My Learned 
Friend (43) (co-dir: Will Hay). The Bells 
Go Down (43), The Halfway House (44), 
They Came to a City (44), Dead of 
Night* (45) (one episode), The Captive 
Heart (46), Frieda (47), Saraband for 
Dead Lovers (48), Train of Events (49) 
(co-dir: Charles Crichton), The Blue 
Lamp (49), Cage of Gold (50), Pool of 
London (50), / Believe in You (51), 
The Gentle Gunman (52), The Square 
Ring (53), The Rainbow lacket (54), 
Out of the Clouds (54), The Ship That 
Died of Shame (55), Who Done it? (56), 
The Smallest Show on Earth (57), Vio- 
lent Playground (58), Sapphire (59), 
The League of Gentlemen (60), Man in 
the Moon (60), The Secret Partner (61), 
Victim (61), All Night Long (62). Life 
for Ruth/ Walk in the Shadow (62), The 
Mind Benders (63), A Place to Go (63), 
Woman of Straw (64), Masquerade 
(64), Khartoum (66), Only When I Larf 
(67), The Assassination Bureau (68), 
The Man Who Haunted Himself (70). 

D'EAUBONNE, Jean see EAUBONNE, JEAN D' 

DE BARONCELLI, Jacqu.* see BARONCELLI, 

JACQUES DE 



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DEBRIE, Andre inventor France. (Paris 
Jan 28, 1891- ) The most famous 
French developer and manufacturer of 
film equipment, responsible for: the 
Parvo camera (1908); the Matipo 
printer, the universal stand, and the ultra- 
high-speed camera (1920-25); three in- 
terlocked cameras, with Abel Gance 
(1926); the Truca equipment (1936); 
mobile laboratory for instantaneous re- 
cording and projection of TV programs 
on 16mm (1949). 

decae, Henry PHOTOO France. (Saint- 
Denis July 31, 1915- ) A major con- 
tributor to the nouvelle vague who be- 
gan his career as an amateur and a direc- 
tor of short films (1941-44) and who 
developed later into a specialist, both in 
location camerawork using high-speed 
film (Le Silence de la mer, Le Beau 
Serge, Les 400 Coups) and in sensual, 
languorous photography (Les Enfants 
terribles, Les Amants) — at its best when 
he shoots in color (La Ronde, Viva 
Maria, A double tour). 
photoo (notably): for Melville, Le Si- 
lence de la mer* (47), Les Enfants ter- 
ribles (49), Bob le Flambeur (55), Léon 
Morin, prêtre* (61), L'Aine des Fer- 
chaux (63), Le Samouraï (67), Le Cercle 
rouge (70); for Louis Malle, Ascenseur 
pour Yéchafaud (57), Les Amants* (58), 
Vie Privée (61), Viva Maria (65), Le 
Voleur (66); for Chabrol, Le Beau 
Serge* (58), Les Cousins* (59), A 
double tour (59), Les Bonnes femmes* 
(59); for Truffaut, Les 400 Coups* (59); 
for René Clément, Plein soleil (59), Che 
Joia Vivere (61), Le Jour et l'heure 

(63) , Les Félins (63); for Serge Bour- 
gignon Les Dimanches de Ville-d 'Avray 
(62); for Jacques B ara tier, Dragées au 
poivre (63); [for Vadim, La Ronde* 

(64) ; for Georges Rouquier, S. OS. 
Noronha (57); for Duvivier, Diabolique- 
ment vôtre (67); for Anatole Litvak, The 
Night of the Generals (66); and the 
Godard, Demy, and Vadim episodes in 
Les Septs péchés capitaux (62); for 
Henri Verneuil, The Sicilian Clan (69); 
and, less successfully, The Only Came 
in Town (USA70), Hello-Goodbye 
(USA70).] 

DECOIN, Henri Dm France. (Paris March 
18, 1896-1969) Prolific and conventional 
director who was originally a journalist, 



then a scriptwriter and assistant director. 
dir (notably): Abus de confiance (37), 
Premier rendez-vous (41), Les Inconus 
de la maison (42), La Fille de diable 
(46), Entre onze heures et minuit (48), 
La Vérité sur Bébé Donge (52), Les 
Amants de Tolède (53), Razzia sur 
chnouf (55), Charmants garçons (57), 
La Chatte (58). 

degelin, Emit* DR Belgium. (Diest July 
16, 1926- ) Good documentary film 
maker — e.g., Dock (55), Faits divers 
(56) — who was less at ease with his first 
fiction feature, Si le vent te fait peur 
(59). 

DE HAAS, Max ont Netherlands. (Amster- 
dam Sept 12, 1903- ) One of the best 
Dutch documentary directors who at the 
start of his career made the ironic and 
truculent masterpiece, Ballad of the Top 
Hat* (36). Also, notably, LO-LKP (48), 
Men and Microbes (51), Maskerage 
(52). 

DEHNI, Salah DR Syria. (Deraa Jan 15, 
1929- ) A former IDHEC (Paris) stu- 
dent who made in Syria in 1958 an in- 
teresting documentary on erosion. 

DEKEUKELEIRE, Charles DR Belgium. (Ixel- 
les Feb 27, 1905— ) One of the best 
Belgian documentary film makers, lie 
began in the avant-garde but eventually 
had to make sponsored films. 
dr (notably): Combat de boxe (27), 
Impatience (28), Flamme blanche (28), 
Histoire de Lourdes (32), Terres brûlées 
(Congo34), Le Mauvais Oeil (38), Au 
service des prisonniers (42), Le Fonda- 
teur (47), Maisons (48), L'Espace d'une 
vie (49). 

DELANNOY, Jean DR France. (Noisy-lc-Scc 

Jan 12, 1908- ) A prolific director well 
versed in the traditions of his craft, he 
has made over 70 films since 1933 and 
has occasionally achieved real success: 
L'Eternel retour, La Symphonie pas- 
torale, Dieu a besoin des hommes. 
DR (notably): Paris Deauville (35), 
Pontcarral, colonel d'Empire (42), 
L'Eternel retour* (43), La Symphonie 
pastorale (46), Les Jeux sont faits (47), 
Dieu a besoin des hommes (49), Le 
Garçon sauvage (51), Chiens perdus sans 
collier (55), Notre Dame de Paris (56), 
Maigret tend un piège (57), La Princesse 
de Clèves (60), Venus impériale (62), 



58 



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Les Amitiés particulières (64), Le Soleil 
des voyous (67), La Peau de torpedo 
(70). 

•DE IAURENTIIS, Dino PROD Italy. (1919- 
) Major Italian producer who ran 
Ponti-De Laurentiis with Carlo Ponti 
(q.v.) from 1950-57. He has produced 
several of the major postwar Italian com- 
mercial and artistic successes: Bitter 
Rice*, Europe 51*, War and Peace*, 
Gold of Naples, La Strada*, Nights of 
Cabiria*, The Bible . . . In the Begin- 
ning, The Stranger (Visconti), Barbar- 
ella, Waterloo. 

•DELERUE, George» MUS France. (Roubalx 

1925- ) Wide-ranging French composer 
associated with the nouvelle vague, he 
has a liking for lyrically atmospheric, 
melancholy themes but at his best can 
deepen a film's psychological character- 
izations. He also works for theater, radio, 
and TV and often conducts. 
mus (notably): for Agnès Varda, Du 
côté de la côte, L'Opéra MouQe; for 
Resnais, Hiroshima, mon amour* (co- 
rnus: Fusco); for Truffaut, Tirez sur le 
pianiste*, Jules et Jim*, La Peau douce; 
for Godard, Le Mépris*; for Broca, Les 
Jeux de Vamour, Le Farceur, L'Amant 
de cinq jours*, Cartouche, Un monsieur 
de compagnie, Les Tribulations d'un 
Chinoise en Chine, Le Roi de coeur; for 
Kast, Le Bel âge; for Colpi, Une aussi 
longue absence; for Melville, L'Aîné des 
Ferchaux; for Alain Robbe-Grillet, L'Im- 
mortelle; for Malle, Viva Maria; for 
Jean-Louis Richard, Mata Hari (64); for 
Claude Berri, Le Vieil homme et Venfant 
(66); for Jean Herman, Le Dimanche 
de la vie (68); for Jack Clayton, The 
Pumpkin Eater; for Fred Zinnemann, 
A Man for All Seasons; for Kevin Bill- 
ington, Interlude (68); for Dassin, La 
Promesse de l'aube (70). 

DEUUC, louis dir/scen France. (Cadouin 
Oct 14, 1890-Paris March 22, 1924) One 
of the most significant influences on the 
development of the French cinema — as 
film maker and critic, proselytizer and 
founder of film societies. He died too 
young to reach his full measure as a 
director but was a remarkable script- 
writer, using, in Dulac's La Fête espa- 
gnole and his own Fièvre and La Femme 
de nulle part, unity of time and place, 
atmosphere, flashbacks, and psychological 
characterizations. He was editor of Ia 



Film, 1917-19; critic for Paris-Midi, 
1918-23; founder and editor of Cinéa, 
1921-23; the author of Cinéma et de, 
1919, Photogénie 1920, La Jungle du 
cinéma and Chariot 1920, Drames de 
cinéma 1923, and several novels. Around 
him formed the French impressionist 
school (sometimes called "the first avant- 
garde") of Abel Gance (q.v.), L'Herbier 
(-/ v.), Germaine Dulac (q.v.), and Jean 
Epstein (q.v.). Moussinac said "he 
worked with a relentlessness that he care- 
fully hid.** His writings sparkle with 
meaningful aphorisms: 'The masters of 
the screen are those who speak to the 
masses." "The mass of the cinema is the 
entire universe." "The great power of this 
stumbling art is that it is popular. The 
cinema is everywhere. Theaters have been 
built in every country, films have been 
made throughout the world. It is the best 
means for people to communicate." "All 
the time life is creating cinema, it is 
time the camera created life." "Existing 
scripts are sad. Have you nothing to say? 
Take a walk, look around, dream. The 
streets, subways, street cars, shops are 
full of a thousand original and powerful 
comedies to challenge your talent, people 
of talent." "Art would be pointless if 
everyone were capable of consciously 
savoring each passing moment." "Taken 
from life: this doesn't necessarily mean it 
is true." "Film, like music, moves and is 
moving." "The purpose of art is to allow 
one soul to communicate with another." 
scen: La Fête espagnole* (19) (dir: 
Germaine Dulac), Le Train sans yeux 
(26) (dir: Cavalcanti) and all his own 
films. 

dir: Fumée noire (20) (co-dir: René 
Coiffart), L'Américain ou le Chemin 
dErnoa (20), Le Tonnere (20) (short), 
Le Silence (20), Fièvre* (21), La 
Femme de nulle part* (22), L'Inondation 
(24). 

DEMARE, lucos dir Argentina. (Buenos 
Aires July 14, 1910- ) One of the best 
Argentinian directors of the Forties; 
though his films are a little unpolished, 
they have an authentic national charac- 
ter, typically in Guerra des Gauchos* 
(42), Pampa Barbare (45), La Zafra 
(58). 

DEMILLE, Cecil Blount dir/prod USA. (Ash- 

field Aug 12, 1881-HoIlywood Jan 21, 
1959) Hollywood personified, a marvel- 
ous story teller who made his name with 



yriQhtod mstcnsl 



a series of DeMille spectaculars, full of 
violence, sex, and pseudo religion, but 
who also excelled in westerns, sophisti- 
cated comedies, and sex dramas. More 
cultured than the other Hollywood 
founders, he found continuing commer- 
cial success over some 60 years by ex- 
ploiting his formula of sex, tempered by 
morality and the Bible. He was, in him- 
self, the "Greatest Show on Earth- and 
epitomized until his death (at almost 
80) the world-wide supremacy of the 
American film industry. His films are a 
blend of striking visual design and a taste 
for "sophistication," the most famous of 
them undoubtedly being his biblical 
spectaculars: The Ten Commandments 
(23 & 56), The King of Kings (27), The 
Sign of the Cross (32), and Samson and 
Delilah (49). His other period films are 
more uneven and though Delluc admired 
Joan the Woman (17), DeMille often 
edged toward absurdity in Cleopatra 
(34), The Crusades (35), and The Volga 
Boatman (26). In the Twenties he made 
a notable series of comedies of manners 
— e.g., Male and Female, Forbidden Fruit, 
and Foots Paradise — that often included 
sumptuously staged dance numbers. His 
The Godless Girl (29) includes criticism 
of the penitentiary system. It is also too 
often forgotten that he was a masterly 
director of westerns from his early days 
{The Squaw Man, The Virginian) until 
the latter part of his career (Uncon- 
quered). His masterpiece in this genre, 
Union Pacific, is an effervescent portrait 
of the period in which the railways 
opened up the West 

After experience as a stage producer and 
playwright (with his brother William) he 
joined Jesse Lasky as a director in Holly- 
wood in 1913 and later worked for Sam 
Goldwyn. Louis Delluc wrote of him in 
1922: "He makes me think of a manufac- 
turer of luxurious automobiles. When a 
Rolls, a Cadillac, a Hispano is built, it is 
likely that they have claim to no other 
aim but to please that sacred cow, the 
public, and to give it what it wants. But it 
is equally likely that this servility and self- 
effacement strikes a blow at imagina- 
tion and inspiration . . . Admirably 
equipped, surrounded by masterly crafts- 
men, armed with a remarkable, disci- 
plined, and photogenic acting troupe, he 
searches out the best with a kind of un- 
knowing audacity, a quasi-violent pa- 
tience, a fecund persistence, in which is 
laid out a shining, comfortable, beautiful, 



and well-oiled future." Everything was 
not always beautiful in many of the films 
that he later directed but most of them 
have a strength that was not to be found 
in Hollywood after his death. 
Dm: The Squaw Man (13), The Vir- 
ginian (14), The Call of the North (14), 
Brewster's Millions (14), The Man from 
Home (14), The Rose of the Rancho 
(14), The Girl of the Golden West (14), 
The Warrens of Virginia (15), The Un- 
afraid (15), The Captive (15), Wild 
Goose Chase (15), The Arab (15), 
Chimmie Fadden (15), Kindling (15). 
The Cheat* (15), Carmen* (15), Temp- 
tation (15), Maria Rosa (16), The Trail 
of the Lonesome Pine (16), The Heart 
of Nora Flynn (16), The Dream Girl 

(16) , Joan the Woman* (17), A Ro- 
mance of the Redwoods (17), The Little 
American (17), The Woman God Forgot 

(17) , The Devil Stone (17), Old Wives 
for New (18), The Whispering Chorus 

(18) , We Can't Have Everything (18), 
Till I Come Back to You (18), The 
Squaw Man (19) (remake), Don't 
Change Your Husband (19), For Better, 
For Worse (19), Male and Female (19), 
Why Change Your Wife? (20), Some- 
thing to Think About (20), Forbidden 
Fruit (21), The Affairs of A natal (21), 
Foots Paradise (21), Saturday Night 

(22) , Manslaughter (22), Adam's Rtb 

(23) , The Ten Commandments* (23), 
Triumph (24), The Golden Bed (25), 
The Road to Yesterday (25), The Volga 
Boatmen (26), The King of Kings (27), 
Chicago (28), The Godless Girl (29), 
Dynamite (29), Madame Satan (30), 
The Squaw Man (31) (remake), The 
Sign of the Cross (32), This Day and 
Age (32), Four Frightened People (33), 
Cleopatra* (34), The Crusades (35), 
The Plainsman (38), The Buccaneer 
(38), Union Pacific* (39), Northwest 
Mounted Police (40), Reap the Wild 
Wind (42), The Story of Dr. Wassel 
(44), Unconquered (47), Samson and 
Delilah (49), The Greatest Show on 
Earth (52), The Ten Commandments* 
(56). 

prod: Silence (26) (dir: Rupert Julian), 
The Buccaneer (58) (dir: Anthony 
Quinn), and most of his own films. 

* DE MILLE, William Churchill SCEN/DIR/ 
prod USA. (Washington June 25, 1878- 
Hollywood March 18, 1955) Elder 
brother of Cecil B. (but spelled his name 
de Mille rather than DeMille), active 

60 



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for many years as a playwright, joined 
Lasky at the same time as his brother as 
head of the scenario department and as 
a director. He wrote many scripts for his 
brother between 1914-20. His work as a 
director is less well known than that of 
his brother and most of his films have 
been lost. He developed a less flamboyant 
style than Cecil's — perceptive, delicate, 
and full of psychological nuances. He 
also produced several of his brother's 
films, including Carmen* and Why 
Change Your Wife?, and wrote Hal 
Roach's Captain Fury (39). 
dir (notably): Miss Lulu Bett (21), 
What Every Woman Knows (21), Nice 
People (22), The Marriage Maker (23), 
Only 38 (23), Craig's Wife (28), The 
Emperor Jones (33). 

•DEMY, Jacquet dir France/USA. (Pont- 
Château (Loire Atlantique) June 5, 
1931- ) His films have a fragile, poi- 
gnant, bittersweet flavor with a character- 
istic quality of nostalgia, often reminis- 
cent of French poetic realism and of 
Max Ophiils (g.v.). He began his career 
working with cartoonist Paul Grimault 
and as assistant to Georges Rouquier, 
then directed several short films before 
establishing an international reputation 
with Lola (60), a gentle, gay film and a 
kind of musical without songs and 
dances. It was on this film that he estab- 
lished a continuing, fertile collaboration 
with the designer Bernard Evein (q.v.). 
After La Baie des anges, he directed the 
revolutionary musical, The Umbrellas of 
Cherbourg an audaciously inventive and 
uninhibited work, splendidly designed in 
glowing colors. His later films have been 
less interesting but are noteworthy for his 
preoccupation with design and decoration 
and his recurrent themes: "My idea is to 
make fifty films that will be linked to- 
gether and that will mutually illuminate 
each other's meaning through shared 
characters." He sees the film largely as 
spectacle and his plots (he writes his 
own scripts) have a distinctly melodra- 
matic flavor. 

assist: to Grimault on commercials 
(SI); to Georges Rouquier, Lourdes et 
ses miracles (54), Honegger (55), SOS 
Noronha (57). 

dir (shorts): Le Sabotier du val de 
Loire (55), Le Bel indifférent (57), 
Musée Grévin (58) (co-dir: Jean Mas- 
son), La Mer et VEnfant (59) (co-dir: 
Jean Masson), Ars (59). 



dir (features): Lola* (60), Les Sept 
péchés capitaux (62) (one episode), La 
Baie des anges (62), Les Parapluies de 
Cherbourg* (64), Les Demoiselles de 
Rochefort (66), Model Shop (USA68), 
Peau d'âne (70). 

denola, George» dir France. (188?-circa 
1950) A film pioneer who directed nu- 
merous literary adaptations (Balzac, Eu- 
gène Sue, Hector Malot, Jules Marey, 
Octave Feuillet, etc.) for Pathé between 
1905-14, including an exceptional Ro- 
cambole (13-14), in episodes. 

•DEREN, Maya DIR USA. (1908-1961) 
Perhaps the most important figure in the 
postwar development of the personal, in- 
dependent film in the USA, she denned 
her approach in this way: "The great art 
expressions will come later, as they al- 
ways have, and they will be dedicated, 
again, to the agony and the experience 
rather than the incident." Her first films, 
Meshes of the Afternoon (43) and At 
Land (44), strikingly individual, injected 
a new vitality into the independent Amer- 
ican cinema. Her later films, less sym- 
bolic, but equally personal, are experi- 
ments in space and time, explorations of 
movement, rhythm, and form in which 
she developed a kind of cine-choreog- 
raphy that eventually reached the com- 
mercial screens in, e.g., West Side Story*. 
She was an effusive and persuasive pros- 
elytizer for a personal cinema, lectured 
widely, wrote many articles, and is the 
author of an important book on esthet- 
ics, An Anagram of Ideas on Art, Form, 
and Film, 1946. 

dir: Meshes of the Afternoon* (43) (co- 
dir: Alexander Hammid), The Witches 
Cradle (43), At Land* (44), A Study in 
Choreography for the Camera (45), 
Ritual in Transfigured Time (46), Medi- 
tation on Violence (48), The Very Eye 
of Night (59). 

DE ROBERTIS, Francesco DIR Italy. (Foggia 
Sept 16, 1902-Rome Feb 3, 1959) 
Former marine officer who directed the 
semidocumentary SOS 103 and gave Ros- 
sellini the opportunity to direct his first 
major feature, La Nave bianca (41). He 
organized the Fascist Republic's film in- 
dustry in Venice (43-45) and later di- 
rected several mediocre films. 

DE ROCHEMONT, Louis PROD USA. (Boston 

Jan 13, 1899- ) The originator and 



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executive producer of The March of 
Time series (35-43) who later became 
one of the leading influences on post- 
war American semidocumentary films as 
the producer of works by Henry Hath- 
away (The House on 92nd Street, Call 
Northside 777) and Kazan (Boomer- 
ang*) as well as of Lost Boundaries 
(49) and Martin Luther (53). He later 
became a producer for Cinerama and 
Cinemiracle. (See also: mark hellinger) 

DE SANTIS, Giuseppe DIR Italy. (Fondi 
Feb 11, 1917- ) The best film maker of 
the second neorealist period, with a 
forceful, baroque style, dedicated and 
deeply concerned with social and human 
realities. He studied at the Centro Speri- 
mentale and from 1940—44 was an ex- 
cellent film critic. He wrote scripts and 
was Visconti's assistant on Ossessione 
(42) before directing his first feature in 
1947. His Bitter Rice was a worldwide 
commercial success but is inferior to his 
masterpieces, Caccia Tragica and Rome, 
Ore 11. As a young critic, he wrote in 
1941: "We are fighting for the dawn of 
an awareness that will lead towards real- 
ism. We have learned to scan the un- 
limited horizons of an imagination that 
is forever opposed to the miserable con- 
ditions of man, his solitude, his diffi- 
culties in escaping, and which finds, even 
in escapism, the imposing strength of 
reciprocal human communication. Our 
sympathies are joined always with a 
cinema that breathes the intimate essence 
of reality through historical education. 
Art is the reincarnation of history. The 
level of civilization cannot be separated 
from the land that gave birth to it." In 
this way, during a Fascist regime, he 
defined the basic tenets of what was to 
become neorealism and of which he was 
to become one of the masters. However, 
his work in the Fifties was less brilliant: 
he often encountered censorship prob- 
lems and could not resist accepting new 
productions — not always with success. 
scene: Visconti's Ossessione* (42), Ros- 
sellini's Desiderio* (43), Vergano's // 
Sole Sorge Ancora* (46), and all his 
own films. 

assist: to Visconti, Ossessione* (42); 
to Vergano, // Sole Sorge Ancora* (46). 
dir: Caccia Tragica* (47), Riso Amaro* 
(49), Non C'è Pace tra gli Ulivi* (50), 
Roma, Ore 11* (51), Un Mari to per 
Anna Zaccheo/A Husband for Anna 
(53), Giorni d'Amore (54), Uomini e 



Lupi/Men and Wolves (56), Cesta 
Duga Godinu Dana* (Yugos58), La 
Garçonnière (60), Italiani brava gente 
(USSR/H64). 

DE SETA, Vittorio DIR Italy. (Paler ma Oct 
15, 1923- ) Dedicated Sicilian-born di- 
rector, who made independent documen- 
taries before directing his first feature, 
the significant Banditi a Orgosolo. He 
writes and photographs all his own films. 
dir (shorts): Isole de Fucco (54), Lu 
Tempu di li Pisci Spata (54), S id} a tar a 
(55), Pasqua in Sicilia (55), Contadini 
del Mare (56), Parabolo d'Oro (56), 
Pescherecci (57), Pastori di Orgosolo 
(58), Un Giorno in Barbagia (58), / 
Dimenticati (59). 

dir (features): Banditi a Orgosolo* 
(61), Un Uomo a Metà/ Almost a Man 
(65), L'lnvitata (70). 

DE s ICA, Vittorio dir Italy. (Sora July 7, 
1902- ) In association with Zavattini 
(q.v.), he played a major role in the 
development of neorealism 1944-52, 
creating the often imitated Bicycle 
Thieves and a vast tableau of life in 
postwar Italy in Sciuscià, Umberto D, 
Miracle in Milan, and, later, in // Tetto. 
He was well known in Italy in the Thir- 
ties as an actor (notably in several of 
the films of Mario Camerini), directed 
his first film in 1939, and made several 
more films before creating his first sig- 
nificant film, Sciuscià (46). His style 
failed to evolve in the Fifties and his 
work fell into obscurity. He returned to 
acting, largely in mediocre films, con- 
tributed to the vulgarization of neo- 
realism by producing Comencini's Bread, 
Love, and Dreams and resumed directing 
only in 1960 with Two Women, whose 
commercial success does not outweigh its 
faults. His films in the Sixties have been 
slick pastiches, often featuring Sophia 
Loren; most of them are sex comedies 
or romantic melodramas. Nonetheless, 
his earlier work still merits André Bazin's 
words of 1954: "To explain De Sica, we 
must go back to the source of his art, 
namely his tenderness, his love. The 
quality shared in common by Miracle 
in Milan and Bicycle Thieves is the 
author's inexhaustible love of his char- 
acters." "His Neopolitan graciousness 
becomes, by virtue of the cinema, the 
greatest love message our period has 
had the good fortune to hear since 
Chaplin. I have used the word love. I 

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snouia rainer nave saia poetry, roetry is 
bat the active and creative form of love, 
its projection into the world.** 
Dm: Rose scarlatte (39) (co-dir: Giu- 
seppe Amato), Maddaleno zero in con- 
dotta (40), Teresa Venerdi (41), Un 
Garibaldi no a I Convento (42), / Bam- 
bini ci Guardino (43), La Porta del 
Cielo (44), Sciuscià* (46), Ladri di 
Biciclette/Bicyle Thieves* (49), Miracolo 
a Milano* (50), Umberto D* (52), 
Stazione Termini /Indiscretion (53), L'Oro 
di Napoll (54), // Tetto (55), La Cio- 
ciaria/Two Women (60), // Giudizio 
Universale (61), Boccaccio 70 (61) (one 
episode), / Sequestrati di Altona (It/ 
Fr62), 11 Boom (63), Ierl, Oggi, Do- 
mani /Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow 
(It/Fr63), Matrimonio all Italian a (It/ 
Fr64), Un monde nouveau (Fr65), 
Caccia alla Volpe/ After the Fox (65), 
La Streghe/The Witches (It/Fr66) (one 
episode), Woman Times Seven (USA/ 
Fr67), Gli Amantl/A Place for Lovers 
(It/Fr68), / Girasoli/ Sunflower (It/ 
Fr69), Le Coppie (70) (episode), // 
Giardino del Finz Contint (71). 

DES LAW, Eugène DIR France. (Kiev Dec 
8, 1900- ) An outstanding Russian- 
born member of the French avant-garde 
from 1925, originally interested in ab- 
stract films and constructivism, who con- 
tributed to the movement's development 
into documentary. 

Dm: La Marche des machines (28), 
Montparnasse (29), La Nuit électrique 
(30), Le Monde en parade (31), Négatifs 
(32) (co-dir: Jean Darroy), La Cité 
universitaire de Paris (33). 

DEVIUE, Michel Dm France. (Boulogne- 
sur-Mer April 13, 1931- ) A specialist 
in lighthearted, romantic, situation com- 
edies, often elegant but always insub- 
stantial. He was Henri Decoin's (q.v.) 
assistant on 13 films before making his 
first feature alone in 1960. 
Dm: Une balle dans le canon (58) (co- 
dir: C. Gérard), Ce soir ou Jamais (60), 
Adorable menteuse (61), A cause, à 
cause d'une femme (62), L'Appartement 
des filles (63), Lucky Jo (64), On a 
volé ta J oc onde (66), Martin Soldat 
(66), Benjamin (67), Bye, Bye, Barbara 
(68), L'Ours et la poupée (69). 

DIAMANT-BERGER, Henri PROD/DIR France. 
(Paris June 9, 1895- ) He has directed 
and/or produced over 100 films since 



1920, including Les Trois Mousquetaires 
(21) and Monsieur Fabre (51); in 1918 
he published Le Cinéma, one of the 
first meaningful monographs on the 
seventh art 

•DICKINSON, ThoroM Dm Britain. (Bristol 
Nov 16, 1903- ) A major talent of the 
British cinema who has, unfortunately, 
directed relatively few fiction films. He 
worked (since 1925) as assistant, editor, 
scriptwriter, and producer before es- 
tablishing his reputation as a director 
with the remarkable Gaslight*-* film 
whose negative was destroyed to make 
way for the American remake. As head 
of the Army Kinematograph Service film 
unit during the war he produced 17 
short documentaries. After the semi- 
documentary thriller on the dangers of 
careless talk during war, The Next of 
Kin (42) -a film that anticipated the 
Louis de Rochemont (q.v.) films in the 
USA -and Men of Two Worlds (46), 
he created the stylized, brilliantly at- 
mospheric The Queen of Spades (49) 
from the Pushkin story. In Israel in 1955 
he made the semidocumentary Hill 24 
Doesn't Answer. He was head of the 
United Nations Film Service from 1956- 
60 and was professor of cinema at the 
Slade School of Fine Art, University Col- 
lege, London, until 1971. At the UN he 
wrote and supervised the feature-lenjrth 
documentary, Power Among Men (58). 
Dm: The High Command (37), Spanish 
ABC (38) (documentary), The Arsenal 
Stadium Mystery (39), Gaslight* (40), 
Westward Ho! (40) (short), Miss Grant 
Goes to the Door (40) (short), Yester- 
day is Over Your Shoulder (40) (short), 
The Prime Minister (41), The Next of 
Kin (42), Men of Two Worlds (46), 
The Queen of Spades (49), Secret Peo- 
ple (52), Hagiva/Hlll 24 Doesn't An- 
swer* (Israel55). 

DICKSON, William Kennedy laurie TNVEN- 
tor/dir USA. (Britain 1860-1937) The 
inventor of perforated 35mm film around 
1890 and more responsible for the de- 
velopment of the Kinetoscope and ensu- 
ing cinematographic devices patented by 
Edison (q.v.) than Edison himself, who 
took little active interest in his work 
after his initial ideas. He also directed 
the first Kinetoscope films in 1893-94 
and from 1895-1900 those of American 
Biograph, of which he was one of the 
founders. 



Uopy riQhtod material 



DIETERLE, Winiam (Wllfc.Im) Dm USA/ 
Germany. (Ludwigshafen July 15, 1 893— 
) Originally an actor with Max Rein- 
hardt (q.v.) in Berlin, he was brought 
into films by E. A. Dupont (q.v.) and di- 
rected his first film in 1923, Der Mensch 
am Wege. After several more films in 
Germany, he moved to Hollywood in 
1931 and again collaborated with Max 
Reinhardt on A Midsummer Night's 
Dream* (35). He established a reputa- 
tion in the late Thirties with his series 
of "biographical" films: The Story of 
Louis Pasteur (35), The Life of Emile 
Zola* (37), Juarez (39), Dr. Ehrlich's 
Magic Bullet (40). During this period 
he also directed several other interesting 
films -Satan Met a Lady* (36), Block- 
ade (38), The Hunchback of Notre 
Dame (40), All That Money Can Buy 
(40), Kismet (44)— before descending 
into routine, facile melodramas. He re- 
turned to Germany in 1958 and has 
directed several films there. 

DINESEN, Robert dr Denmark. (Copen- 
hagen Oct 23, 1874-circa 1940) Good 
director during the most creative period 
of the Danish cinema, 1910-20. After 
making bis screen debut alongside Asta 
Nielsen, he directed a considerable num- 
ber of society dramas and thrillers with 
his friends Psilander, Olaf Fônss, Lily 
Beck, Gunnar Tolnaes, etc. His best film 
is De Fire diaevle/The Four Devils 
(11). 

DISNEY, Woh ANiM/PROD USA. (Chi- 
cago Dec 5, 1901 -Dec 15, 1966) This 
most famous of cartoon producers de- 
serves neither the fulsome praise show- 
ered on him by critics in the Thirties 
nor the universal opprobrium of the 
Fifties. He made enormous technical and 
esthetic contributions to the development 
of animation, 1927-37, and was usually 
the first to adapt any technical advance to 
the cartoon field: sound, color, stereo- 
phony, multiplanar photography, and 
later, CinemaScope. [He began his career 
as a commercial artist and transferred 
to cartoon production in the early Twen- 
ties. With the money from his first films 
he moved to Hollywood with his col- 
laborator Ub Iwerks (tf.v.) and made 
several films in the Alice in Cartoon- 
land series and the Oswald the Rabbit 
series.] In 1927 he introduced Mortimer 
Mouse who, after two films, grew into 
the famous Mickey Mouse* series in 



whose animation Ub Iwerks seems to 
have played a major role. Later, Disney 
introduced a whole menagerie of an- 
thropomorphic characters, including Don- 
ald Duck, Pluto, Minnie Mouse, and 
Goofy, plus the more free-ranging Silly 
Symphonies* series. His shorts in the 
Thirties have a remarkable sense of 
rhythm, of visual comedy, of unconven- 
tional technical effects and of sound as 
an integrated element. They are true 
works of the imagination and, although 
the product of collective endeavor, carry 
the mark of Disney's hand. However, 
after the international success of his first 
feature, Disney increasingly turned his 
attention to administration and super- 
vision of his studio's many side lines: the 
copyright reproduction of his characters 
on everything from soap to children's 
furniture, a TV series, Disneyland, a ski 
resort, and Disney World in Florida. His 
films, made on an assembly line, ceased 
to reflect any real personality and after 
the artistic failure of Fantasia, Disney 
no longer took an interest in creation. 
On the later films he is little more than 
the credited executive producer and the 
films, for all their technical expertise, be- 
came largely insipid, cliche-ridden, and 
sentimental without true sentiment In 
1948, he produced the first of the gim- 
micky series of nature documentaries and 
in 1953, The Living Desert. He began 
making live-action fiction features in 
1950 with Treasure Island, and these 
have largely dominated the Disney Stu- 
dios production since. The familiar Dis- 
ney style has continued to be evident in 
the output of the studios since Walt Dis- 
ney's death in 1966. 

[The following filmography is not com- 
plete: a complete Disney filmography 
has never been published. It is in three 
parts: "animated shorts," "animated fea- 
tures," and "features'* (live-action docu- 
mentaries and fiction films). As indicated 
above, Disney played a more important 
creative role in the earlier films than the 
later but they have been included here 
for the sake of convenience. Directors 
are not given, but James Algar (tf.v.) 
was responsible for many of the docu- 
mentaries and Robert Stevenson for many 
of the fiction films.] 

anim (shorts): Little Red Riding Hood 
(23), Jack the Giant Killer (23), The 
Town Musician of Bremen (23), The 
Three Bears (23), Goldilocks (23), Alice 
in Cartoonland series (24-25) Oswald 



Copyrighted material 



the Rabbit scries (25-26) (26 films), 
Plane Crazy (27), Galloping Gaucho 
(28), Steamboat Willie (28), The Barn 
Dance (28), Skeleton Dance (29), Carni- 
val Kid (29), Mickey's Follies (29), Sum- 
mer (30), Autumn (30), Tfce Picnic 
(30), AfofAer Go<we Melodies (31), 
Affctey Sfep* Owf (31), The Ugly Duck- 
ling (31), The Grocery Boy (32), 77ie 
Mad Dog (32) (Pluto), Flowers and 
Trees (32), Mickey's Melodrama (33), 
JAr*e li/l/e Pfef (33), Mickey's Gala 
Premier (33), Bond Concert (34), Tne 
Grasshopper and the Ants (34), Gulliver 
Mickey (34), Tne Tortoise and the Hare 

(34) , T/We Orp/uw (35), Mick- 
ey's Man Friday (35), Music Land 

(35) , Mickey's Circus (36) (Donald 
Duck), Donald and Pluto (36), TViree 
JM/n4 Mouseketeers (36), Wno Killed 
Cock Robin? (36), 77ie Country Cousin 

(36) , Don D<wia/d (37), Tne Old Mill 

(37) , 77ie Four Seasons (37), Ctoc* 
Cleaners (37), Donald and the Magnet* 
(37), TAe Baf//e Between Classic and 
Jazz (37), Ferdinand the Bull (38), 
Wlnken, Blinken, and Nod (38), Donald's 
Nephews (38), 7/ie Autograph Hound 
(39), J/ie t/g/y Duckling (39), Tugboat 
Mickey (39), P/u/o'j Dream //owe (40), 
Lend a Paw (41), Z)cr Fuhrer's Face 
(42), Chicken Utile (43), Tfeer 7/rottW* 
(44), Donald's Double Trouble (46), 
Cfowt o/ rAe Jungle (47), Toy 7/w**rj 
(49), Home Made Home (50), Father's 
Day Off (52), Afe/ody (53), Toot, Whis- 
tle, Plunk, and Boom (53), Pigs is Pigs 
(56), The Conquest of Space (54), 
Atom the Good Genie (56), The Truth 
About Mother Goose (57). 

anim (features): Snow White and the 
Seven Dwarfs* (37), Pinocchio (39), 
Fantasia* (40), The Reluctant Dragon 
(41), Dwmoo (41), Bambl* (42), 
Saludos Amigos (42), 77œ 7/Aree Ca&a/- 
/*raf (45) (anim and live action), Make 
Mine Music (46), Song of the South 
(46), Fun and Fancy Free (47), Melody 
Time (48), Cinderella (49), 5o Dear 
To My Heart (50), Ichabod and Mr. 
Toad/Wind in the Willows (50), Alice 
in Wonderland (51), Peter Pan (53), 
The Lady and the Tramp (55), Sleeping 
Beauty (58), JO/ Dalmatians (60), TVie 
Sword /n the Stone (63), Wmn/e /ne 
Pooh and the Honey Tree (65), The 
Jungle Book (67), Winnie the Pooh and 
the Blustery Day (68). 
live ACTION PROD: Jungle Cat (48), 
Pent (48), Seal Island (48), Araver 



Valley (50), Treasure Island (50), No. 
tare'* ^cre (51), Water Birds (51), 
TAe Lfv/ng Desert* (53), 20,000 
Leagues Under the Sea (53), 27i« -d/as- 
kan Eskimo (53), FF«rivari ffo the 
Wagons (56), Davy Crockett (56), O/d 
r*//er (57), tfW/c Wilderness (58), T/ie 
Absent-Minded Professor (60), Zn Searc/i 
o/ rAe Castaways (61), Em// and 
Detectives* (63), 77te Miracle of the 
White Stallions (63), Afary Poppins 
(64), 27ic AfonJky'* t/nc/e (65), That 
Darn Cat (65). 

*DI VENANZO, Gianni PHOTOO Italy. 
(Teramo Dec 18, 1920-Rome Feb 1966) 
One of the most notable postwar Italian 
cinematographers who collaborated on 
many of Antonioni's (q.v.) films and was 
especially skillful in controlling the tone 
of images. He began his career as assis- 
tant to Aldo Tonti {q. v.) and Otello 
Martelli (q.v.). His most inspired work 
was on Fellini's ZVi and Antonioni's La 
Notte and L'Eclisse. 

PHOTOO (notably): for Antonioni, Amore 
in Città* (53), Le Amiche* (55), // 
Grido* (57), La None* (60), L'Eclisse* 
(62); for Carlo Lizzani, Achtung! 
Banditil (51), Cronache dl Poveri 
Amanti* (54), Amore in Città* (53); 
for Francesco Rosi, Kean (56), La Sfida 
(58), / Magliari (59), Salvatore Giu- 
liano* (61), Le Mani sulla Città* (63), 
// Momenta della Verita (64); for Mario 
Monicelli, / Soliti Ignoti (58), Alta In- 
fidel ta (64) (one episode); for Losey, 
Eva (62); for Fellini, 8M* (63), Giu- 
lietta degli Splriti* (65); for Comencini, 
La Ragazza di Babe (63); for Elio Petri, 
La Decima vittima (65); for Joseph 
Mankiewicz, The Honey Pot (66). 

DMYTRYK, Edward DK USA/Britain. 
(Grand Forks Sept 4, 1908- ) After 
a long career (1930-39) as editor and 
later as director of B-pictures (1935-43), 
he developed into one of the best post- 
war Hollywood directors, revealing an 
original approach to thrillers with Fare- 
well My Lovely and Give Us This Day, 
and to social films with Crossfire. [He 
was fired by RKO in late 1947 for his 
alleged Communist sympathies, became 
one of the renowned "Hollywood Ten" 
cited for contempt of Congress, and was 
sentenced to six months in jail. In late 
1950, apparently as a result of the 
Korean War, he changed his mind and 
agreed to testify before the House Com- 

65 



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mittee on Un-American Activities. On 
March 10, 1951 he recanted his earlier 
political beliefs. He returned to Holly- 
wood in 1952 and has since become a 
prolific director of relatively uninter- 
esting commercial films — though some 
of them betray a certain uneasiness. 
dir: The Hawk (35), Television Spy 
(39), Emergency Squad (40), Golden 
Gloves (40), Mystery Sea Raider (40), 
The First Romance (40), The Devil 
Commands (41), Under Age (41), 
Sweetheart of the Campus (41), Blond 
from Singapore (41), Confessions of 
Boston Blackie (41), Secrets of the Lone 
Wolf (41), Counter Espionage (42), 
Seven Miles from Alcatraz (42), Hitler's 
Children (43), The Falcon Strikes Back 
(43), Behind the Rising Sun (43), Cap- 
tive Wild Woman (43), Tender Com- 
rade (44), Farewell My Lovely* (44), 
Back to Bataan (45), Cornered (46), 
Till the End of Time (46), Crossfire* 
(47), So Well Remembered (Brit47), 
The Hidden Room /Obsession (Brit48), 
Give Us This Day (Brit49), Mutiny (Fr 
52), The Sniper (USA52), Eight Iron 
Men (52), The Juggler (Israel53), The 
Caine Mutiny (54), Broken Lance (54), 
The End of the Affair (Brit55), Soldier 
of Fortune (55), The Left Hand of God 
(55), The Mountain (56), Raintree 
County (57), The Young Lions (58), 
Warlock (59), The Blue Angel* (59), 
The Reluctant Saint (It61), A Walk on 
the Wild Side (62), The Carpetbaggers 
(63), Where Love Has Gone (64), Mi- 
rage (65), Alvarez Kelly (65), Anzio 
(67), Shalako (68).] 

DOLIN, Boris dir USSR. (Aug 2, 1903- ) 
A former assistant to Alexander Zguridi 
(q.v.) who developed into his peer as a 
director of nature films. Notable among 
his many films are Zakon velikoi lyubvi/ 
The Law of the Great Love (45), about 
a family of foxes in Siberia, and Istoria 
odnogo kolza/The Tale of a Link (48) 
on bird migration. [Since 1959 he has 
been director of the children's film studios 
in Moscow, where he made The Surpris- 
ing Hunt (60), Blind Bird (62), and 
More Amazing Than a Fairy Tale (64).] 

*DONEN, Stanley dir USA/Britain. (Co- 
lombia, South Carolina April 13, 1924- 
) One of the greatest directors of 
American musicals of the Fifties whose 
On the Town, Singin' in the Rain, and 
Funny Face are masterpieces of the 



genre. He began his career as a Broad- 
way chorus dancer in 1940, became 
choreographic assistant to Gene Kelly 
in 1941, and in 1942 went to Hollywood 
with Kelly and the Broadway cast to 
work on the film version of Best Foot 
Forward. During the next five years he 
worked as dance director or assistant on 
14 films (10 of which were for MGM). 
In 1949 he and Kelly wrote the script 
and directed some of the numbers for 
Busby Berkeley's Take Me Out to the 
Ball Game and the same year he di- 
rected his first feature (with Kelly), On 
the Town, a film that broke away en- 
tirely from stage-bound dance conven- 
tions and returned somewhat to the ap- 
proach of the early Lubitsch {q.v.) and 
Ma mo ul i an (q.v.) musicals. In 1952, 
again with Kelly, he created his best 
film, Singin' in the Rain, which contains 
some gently ironic and nostalgic mem- 
ories of Busby Berkeley (q.v.) musicals. 
His exuberant and wild Seven Brides for 
Seven Brothers (54) was followed by It's 
Always Fair Weather (55), a superbly 
choreographed musical about postwar 
disillusion that was not a complete suc- 
sess. It marked the end of his "realistic" 
musicals for MGM and the following 
year he made the glamorous, satirical 
fantasia, Funny Face. Since 1958 (apart 
from Damn Yankees), Donen has con- 
centrated on making fast-moving, modish 
comedies and comedy-thrillers in a con- 
sciously artificial style. Of his recent 
films, Two for the Road (67) stands 
out as a deeply personal, bittersweet por- 
trait of the difficulties of human rela- 
tionships. 

assist: Best Foot Forward (43), Cover 
Girl (44), Hey Rookie (44), Jam Ses- 
sion (44), Kansas City Kitty (44), 
Anchors Aweigh (45), Holiday in Mex- 
ico (46), No Leave, No Love (46), Liv- 
ing in a Big Way (47), This Time for 
Keeps (47), Killer McCoy (47), The 
Big City (48), Date with Judy (48), 
The Kissing Bandit (48), Take Me Out 
to the Ball Game (49) (also script). 
dir: On the Town* (49) (co-dir: Gene 
Kelly), Royal Wedding/Wedding Bells 
(50), Love is Better than Ever /The 
Light Fantastic (51), Singin' in the 
Rain* (51) (co-dir: Gene Kelly), Fear- 
less Fagan (52), Give a Girl a Break 
(53), Deep in My Heart (54), Seven 
Brides for Seven Brothers (54), It's Al- 
ways Fair Weather (55) (co-dir: Gene 
Kelly), Funny Face* (57), Kiss Them 



66 



i 



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for Me (57), The Pajama Game (57) 
(co-dir: George Abbott), Indiscreet (58), 
Damn Yankees/What Lola Wants (59) 
(co-dir: George Abbott), Once More, 
With Feeling! (59), Surprise Package 
(Brit60), The Grass is Greener (Brit60), 
Charade (63), Arabesque (66), Two for 
the Road (67), Bedazzled (Brit67), 
Staircase (68). He has produced his own 
films since 1958. 

DONIOl-VALCROZE, Jacques DIR France. 
(Paris March 15, 1920- ) Co-founder 
with André Bazin of Cahiers du Cinéma 
in 1952 and an actor and scriptwriter 
for Pierre Kast (q.v.), he developed 
later into an intelligent director of satiri- 
cal comedies (L'Eau à la bouche) and 
dramas (Le Viol). 

dir: Bonjour, monsieur la Bruyère (56) 
(short), L'Oeil du maître (57) (short), 
Les Surmenés (58) (short), L'Eau à la 
bouche (59), Le Coeur battant (60), La 
Dénonciation (62), L'Enlèvement d'An- 
toine Bigut (64) (TV), Jean-Luc Godard 
(64) (TV), La Bien-aimée (66) (TV), 
Le Viol (67), La Maison des Bories 
(69). 

DONSKOY, Mark (a/so Mark Donskoi) DIR 

USSR. (Odessa March 6 1901- ) A 
good, if not always consistent, director, 
who achieved well-merited international 
renown with the Gorki trilogy (38-40) 
and who had a special gift with literary 
adaptations (The Rainbow, A Village 
Schoolteacher, At Great Cost). His Gorki 
trilogy is especially remarkable for its 
atmospheric re-creation of life in Tsarist 
Russia at the turn of the century. Origi- 
nally a musician and writer, he wrote the 
script for The Last Stronghold (25), was 
G. Roshal's assistant on His Excellency 
in 1927, and directed his first films the 
same year. He has said a film maker 
"must be faithful to his artistic calling, 
to his artistic honesty. The starting point 
and aim of all artistic creation is the en- 
richment of mankind; the development of 
an esthetic of life in order to render it 
more beautiful in creating beauty for 
and between men; the discovery of the 
beauty and goodness hidden in the soul 
of every man." 

dir: Zhizn/Life (27) (short), V bolshoi 
gorode/In the Big City (27) (co-dir: 
M. Averbach), Tsena cheloveka/The 
Value of Man (28) (co-dir: M. Aver- 
bach), Pizhon/The Fop (29), Chuzhoi 
beregl Alien Shore/The Other Shore 



(30), Ogon/Fire (30), Pesn o schaste/ 
Song of Happiness (34), Detstvo Gor- 
kovo/The Childhood of Maxim Gorki* 
(38) V lyudkyakh/My Apprenticeship/ 
Among People/Out in the World* (39), 
Moi universiteti/My Universities* (40), 
Roman tiki /Children of the Soviet Arctic 
(41), Fighting Film Album No. 9: Bea- 
con (41), Kak zakalyalas stal/How the 
Steel Was Tempered* (42), May ak /The 
Lighthouse (42), Raduga/ Rainbow* 
(43), Nepokorenniye/Unconquered (45), 
Seklskaya uchitelnitsa/A Village School- 
teacher* (46), Alitet ukhodit v gory/ 
Alitet Leaves for the Hills (48), Nashi 
chempiony / Our Champions I Sporting 
Fame (50), Mat/Mother* (55), Dorogoi 
tsenoi/At Great Cost/ At a High Price* 
(57), Foma Gordeyev/Foma Gordeyev 
(59), Zdravstvyite deti/ Hello, Children 
(62), Serdze mater i/ Heart of a Mother 
(66), Vernost mated/ A Mother's De- 
votion (66), Chaliapin (70). 

DOS SANTOS, Nelson Pereira see SANTOS, 
Nelson Pereira dos 

DOUY, Max art dir France. (Issy-les- 
Moulineaux June 20, 1914- ) One of 
the best French designers who has as- 
sisted or collaborated with Meerson 
(q.v.), Eugène Lourié, and Trauner 
(q.v.) and who exec lis in the creation of 
distinctive interiors and period films. 
[art dir (notaby): for Autant-Lara, Le 
Diable au corps*, L'Auberge rouge*, 
Occupe-toi d'Amélie*, Le Blé en herbe, 
Le Rouge et noir, Margeurite de la nuit, 
La Traversée de Paris, En cas de mal- 
heur, Le Jouer, La Jument verte, Le Bois 
des amants, Non Uccidere*, Vive Henry 
IV, vive l'amour, Le Comte de Monte 
Cristo, Le Meurtrier, Le Magot de 
Joséfa, Le Journal d'un femme en 
blanc; for Jean Grémillon, Le Ciel est à 
vous*, Lumière d'été*; for Becker, 
Dernier a tout, Falbalas; for Bresson, Les 
Dames du Bois de Boulogne*; for Clouzot, 
Quai des Orfèvres*, Manon; for Le 
Chanois, Sans laisser d'adresse*; for 
Renoir, French Cancan*; for Astruc, 
Les Mauvaises rencontres* ; for Bunuel, 
Cela s'appelle l'aurore*; for Dassin, 
Topkapi.] 

DOVZHENKO, Alexander DIR USSR. 
(Ukraine Sept 11, 1894-Moscow Nov 25, 
1956) The cinema's greatest epic poet who 
interwove the eternal themes of love, life, 
fertility, and death in a series of lyrical 



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hymns dedicated to his native Ukraine. 
The son of Ukrainian peasants, he had 
been a teacher and diplomat before tak- 
ing up painting. But, as he recalled: "In 
June 1926. after a sleepless night of 
soul-searching, (I) started for Odessa 
where I joined a cinema studio. The 
cinema, I thought, was the one art that 
was fresh and new ... I knew little 
about it — indeed, I very rarely saw 
films." His first three films were of un- 
even quality, but his next film was Zveni- 
gora (28), at whose legendary screening 
in Moscow Eisenstein and Pudovkin rec- 
ognized, "There was a new film person 
among us." Then came Arsenal, which 
is not far from equaling his masterpiece, 
Earth. His sound films, though always 
appealing in some respects, are less per- 
fect; many of them ran the gauntlet 
of political interference. Unforgettable, 
nonetheless, are the lyrical images of 
Ivan, the impassioned drama of Aerograd 
in the wild Siberian taiga, the earthy 
power of Shchors, and the extraordinary 
cantata to love and death, youth and old 
age, which is the heart of Michurin. 
Worn out by life and the various strug- 
gles he had had to fight during his 
career, he died at 62 as he was about 
to commence shooting Poem of the Sea. 
However, his widow, Yulia Solntscva 
(1901- ), who had worked closely 
v/iih him, was able to complete this from 
his original script and created a lyrical 
epic that is almost throughout worthy of 
Dovzhenko's genius. She has continued 
to make films based on scripts and other 
material he left: The Flaming Years, 
The Enchanted Desna, Unforgettable. 
He has said of himself and his work: 
"I am the knight, the partisan of con- 
temporary problems. Our life today can 
never be spoken of too often. One 
shouldn't debase oneself contemplating 
the past or the folie de grandeur but 
turn towards everyday man. Let us un- 
derstand that a dewdrop can by itself 
reflect the entire world and the whole 
of society. And, also that if our country 
is great it is because the ordinary peo- 
ple are great." "In order to upset, it is 
necessary to be upset. In order to bring 
joy and clarity to others it is necessary 
to have clarity in one's heart and lift it 
up on high." "Let us not treat the theme 
of ordinary man as an ordinary theme. 
A film that is not steeped in human 
feeling is like a planet without atmo- 
sphere. As the Chinese proverb says: a 



warrior with faults is still a warrior but 
a gnat without faults is only a gnat." 
"Let us not be so scared of depicting the 
delicacy of the human spirit, loving 
attentions and understanding, kisses. 
'Love is wise and perspicacious' says the 
proverb: it elevates man, embellishes 
and inspires him, gives him happiness. 
And if it is contrary it brings a deep 
spiritual suffering that is found among 
men wherever they live." "I am not 
one of those who prepare a detailed 
script in advance, a shot by shot design. 
I am a painter by training and the spatial 
composition of people is not in fact a 
problem for me that involves this kind 
of preplanning of my images. I bring in 
my camera and set it down on the 
chosen spot. The harmony of particular 
images is perhaps explained by their 
close integration with the land." 
dir: Yagodka Liubvi/The Fruits of 
Love I The Marriage Trap I Jean Kol- 
basink The Hairdresser (26) (short), 
Vasya-Reformator/Vasya the Reformer 
(26) (co-dir: F. Lopatinsky), Sumka 
dipkuriera/The Diplomatic Pouch (27), 
Zvenigora* (28), Arsenal *(29), Zemlya/ 
Earth* (30), Ivan* (32), Aerograd* 
(35), Shchors* (39), Osvobozhdeniye/ 
Liberation (40) (co-dir: Solntseva) 
(documentary), Bitva za nasha Soviet- 
skaya Ukrainu/The Fight for Our Soviet 
Ukraine (43) (co-dir: Solntseva, Y. Av- 
deyenko under supervision of Dovzhen- 
ko) (documentary), Pobeda na Pravo- 
berezhenoi Ukraine i izgnaniye nemetsikh 
za predeli ukrainskikh sovietskikh zemclf 
Victory in the Ukraine and the Expul- 
sion of the Germans from the Boundaries 
of the Ukrainian Soviet Land (45) (co- 
dir: Solntseva) (compilation documen- 
tary), Michurin/ Life in Blossom* (47), 
Poema o more /Poem of the Sea* (58) 
(completed by Solntseva). 
scen: Povest' plamennykh let /The 
Flaming Years* (61), Zacharovannaya 
Desna/ The Enchanted Desna (65), 
Nezabuvaiemoe/ Unforgettable (69) (all 
dir: Solntseva) and all his own films. 



DREVILLE, Jean dir France. (Vitry-sur 
Seine Sept 20, 1906- ) Excellent crafts- 
man whose prolific output includes sev- 
eral successful films: Autour de l'argent 
(28), La Cage aux rossignols (45), Le 
Visiteur (47), La Bataille de Veau 
lourde /Operation Swallow (47), Les 
Casse-Pieds (48), Horizons sans fin (53), 



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Normandie-Niémen (60), Lafayette 
(61). 

DREYER, Carl Theedor DIR Denmark/Swe- 
den/Germany /France. (Copenhagen Feb 
3, 1889-March 20, 1968) One of the 
world's greatest film makers, a man who 
created in La Passion de Jeanne d'Arc 
one of the "ten most beautiful films in 
the world" and whose style is charac- 
terized by exacting, expressive design 
and subtle camera movements and by a 
concentration on the physiognomy and 
inner psychology of his characters. Orig- 
inally a journalist, he became a title 
writer for Nordisk Film in 1912 and 
from 1912-18 wrote some 25 scripts for 
August Blom (q.v.), Holger-Madsen 
(q.v.), A. W. Sandberg, Karl Mantzius, 
and others. It was on his initiative that 
the company began adapting literary 
works into films. He was also an editor. 
In the years between Vampyr and Day 
of Wrath he was in Britain and North 
Africa and then returned to journalism 
in Denmark. The expressive visual qual- 
ity of his first films quickly developed 
into an exacting style of realism in 
which the tiniest detail of the human face 
or the background became expressive. 
His increasingly abstract style often re- 
flected a concrete reality; his symbolism 
is above all a reflection of a spiritual 
and human condition. The themes of 
love and death (poetically summarized 
in Gertmd) recur in all his films. He 
was obsessed by sorcery (Day of Wrath, 
Vampyr) and mysticism (Ordet)\ in 
some respects he was a man from an 
earlier epoch, but, despite their medieval 
qualities, his films never seem divorced 
from contemporary realities. He has 
said of himself and his work: "There is 
a close resemblance between a work of 
art and a human being: both have a 
soul — which is expressed through style. 
The creator, through style, fuses the dif- 
ferent elements of his work and makes 
the public see the theme through his 
eyes." "Only artistic truth has any 
validity, that is to say, the truth ex- 
tracted from real life and purged of all 
secondary aspects. What takes place on 
the screen is not, and couldn't be, reality. 
Naturalism is no longer art." "I am not a 
rebel. I don't believe in revolutions. Too 
often they carry us many steps back- 
wards. I am more inclined to believe in 
'evolutions' with small steps forward 
. . . Simplification should transform an 



idea into a symbol. With symbolism one 
begins to move toward abstraction be- 
cause symbolism works through sug- 
gestion. Abstraction might sound like a 
bad word to the ears of film makers. But 
my only desire is that it brings to life the 
world of the imagination beyond a sterile 
and tiresome naturalism.** "What I seek 
in my films ... is a penetration to my 
actors' deepest thoughts by means of their 
most subtle expressions. For these are 
the expressions that reveal the charac- 
ter of the person, his unconscious feel- 
ings, the secrets that live in the depths 
of his soul . . . That is why I always 
look for actors who are capable of re- 
sponding to this quest" 
DIR (features): Praesidenten/The Presi- 
dent (Denl9), Blade of Satans Bog/ 
Leaves from Satan's Book* (Dcnl9), 
Pràstânken/The Parson's Widow (Swed 
20), Die Gezeichneten/Love One An- 
other* (Ger22), Der Var Engang/Once 
Upon a Time (Den22), Michaël (Ger 
24), Du Skal Aere din Hustru I Master of 
the House* (Den25), Glomsdalsbruden/ 
The Bride of Glomsdale (Norway 25), 
La Passion de Jeanne d'Arc* (Fr28), 
Vampyr* (Ger/Fr31), Vredens Dag/ Day 
of Wrath* (Den43), Tva Mdnniskor 
(Swed45), Ordet* (Den55), Gertmd* 
(Den64). 

der (shorts): Modrehyelpen/Good Moth- 
ers (42), Water for the Countryside 
(45), Den Danske Landsbykirke/The 
Danish Village Church (47), De Garnie/ 
The Seventh Age (47), De Naede Far- 
gen/They Caught the Ferry (48), Thor- 
valdsen (49), Th* Childhood of Radio 
(49), Storsstroembroen/Storstrom Bridge 
(49), Shakespeare og Kroenberg (50), 
Ronne og Nexos Genoplyging/The Re- 
construction of Ronne and Nexos (54), 
Noget om Nordem (59), all for the 
Danish film board. 

DUARTE, Anselme Dm Brazil. (Lisbon Oct 
17, 1859- ) Former Brazilian actor 
who became a director and won the 

Palme d'or at Cannes for his O Pagador 
de Promessas/The Given Word* (61). 

DUDOW, Slotan Dm Germany /German 
Democratic Republic. (Zaribrod, Bul- 
garia Jan 30, 1903-Berlin Aug 12, 1963) 
One of the best German film makers, he 
studied theater in Berlin (1922), became 
assistant to Lang (q.v.) and Pabst (q.v.), 
and made an experimental short before 
directing the remarkable socialist docu- 



Copy righted material 



ment Kuhle Wampe (32) from Brecht's 
script. This was banned in Germany 
as an insult to Hindenberg and Dudow 
himself was exiled from Germany in 
1933. He was active as a writer in 
Switzerland from 1933 to 1946 and then 
returned to the German Democratic 
Republic and directed many good films, 
including Stronger than the Night, a 
portrait of the anti-Nazi struggle at 
the height of Hitler's power. He scripted 
all his postwar films. 

dir: Seifenblasen/Soap Bubbles (29), 
Kuhle Wampe* (32), Unser taglich Brot/ 
Our Daily Bread* (49), Familie Ben- 
thin (50) (co-dir: Kurt Maetzig), Fra- 
uenschicksale (52), Starker als die 
Nacht/ Stronger than the Night* (54), 
Der Hauptman von Kôln (56), Verwir- 
rung der Liebe (59), Christine (unfin- 
ished, 63). 



DU LAC, Germaine (Germaine Sais»et-Schnei- 
der) dir France. (Amiens 1882-Paris 
July 1942) One of the first in France 
to take the cinema seriously as a major 
art form, she was a sensitive, indepen- 
dent, liberal-minded film maker, passion- 
ately devoted to experiment and new 
ideas. Originally a drama critic and au- 
thor and a militant women's liberationist, 
she dedicated her whole life after 1916 
to the cinema. After manifesting her 
emotional gifts and visual sense in Les 
Soeurs ennemies (16) and Vénus Victrix 
(17), she directed La Fête espagnole 
(19), based on a script by her friend 
Del lue (q.v.) and established her name 
as one of the strongest forces in the 
French impressionist school. After several 
more films, including, notably, La Mort 
du soleil, she created her masterpiece: 
La Souriante Madame Beudet (22), a 
critique of middle-class married life 
(what would today be called "lack of 
communication"). Her later features were 
so hampered by commercial restrictions 
that she joined the "second avant-garde" 
with her La Coquille et le Clergyman 
(based on Antonin Artaud's script) and 
her short visual symphonies set to music, 
Disque 927 and Thème et Variations. 
When the introduction of talking films 
brought independent production to a 
halt, she decided to devote herself to 
newsreels and became head of France- 
Actualités (1930-40). However, she 
never gave up her love for the cinema 
and for spreading the word; from 1924 



on she played a major role in the de- 
velopment of film societies in France. 
dir: Les Soeurs ennemies (16), Géo, 
le mystérieux (17), Vénus Victrix/ Dans 
l'ouragan de la vie (17), Ames de fous 
(18), La Cigarette (19), La Fête es- 
pagnole* (19), Malencontre (20), La 
Belle Dame sans merci (21), La Mort 
du soleil (22), La Souriante Madame 
Beudet* (22), Gosette (22-23) (six 
episodes), Le Diable dans la ville (24), 
Ame d'artiste (25), La Folie des vaillants 
(25), Antoinette Sabrier (27), La 
Coquille et le Clergyman* (28), Princess 
Mundane (28), Disque 927 (29), Ara- 
besque (29), Thème et variations (30). 

dunayevsky, itaac mus USSR. (Ukraine 
Jan 30, 1900-Moscow Dec 25, 1955) 
Alexandrov's (q.v.) close collaborator on 
his musical comedies, the composer of 
the catchy and popular music and lyrics 
of Jazz Comedy*, Circus*, Volga Volga, 
Spring*, of the scores for Ivan Pyriev's 
(q.v.) Kuban Cossacks (49), and The 
Rich Bride (38), and for Pyriev's and 
Ivens' Friendship Triumphs (GDR/ 
USSR52). 

DUNCAN, F. Martin see MARTIN-DUNCAN, F. 

DUNNE, Philip scen/dir USA. (New York 
Feb 11, 1908- ) For many years an 
esteemed Hollywood scriptwriter and for 
12 years script supervisor at 20th Cen- 
tury-Fox, he worked with Ford, Man- 
kiewicz, and Preminger (all q.v.) and on 
every kind of film, from Ford's How 
Green Was My Valley* and Kazan's 
Pinky (49) to Allan Dwan's Suez (38), 
John Cromwell's Son of Fury (42), 
Henry King's David and Bathsheba 
(51), and Henry Koster's The Robe* 
(53). In 1955 he decided to become a 
director and producer and has since 
made several polished, skillful films. 
[dir: The View from Pompey's Head 
(55), Prince of Players (55), Hilda 
Crane (56), Three Brave Men (57), 
Ten North Frederick (58), In Love and 
War (58), Blue Denim (60), Wild in 
the Country (61), Lisa/The Inspector 
(62), Blindfold (66).] 

* dunning, George an i m Canada/Brit- 
ain. (Toronto 1920- ) An imaginative 
animator whose career began in 1943 
with the National Film Board of Canada, 
where he worked on, notably, J'ai tant 
dansé (in the Chants Populaires series) 

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and Cadet Rouselle (46) (with Colin 
Low) a visualization of a French folk 
song using cut-out metal shapes and 
evocative backgrounds. In 1949 he set 
up his own company, Graphic Associates. 
In 1956 he moved to England, where 
he made many sponsored films and TV 
commercials as well as The Apple, The 
Wardrobe, and The Flying Man, the last, 
a film using blobs of watercolor in a 
manner derived from Bartosch's (q.v.) 
approach in L'Idée. After the three- 
screen cartoon for Expo '67 in Montreal, 
Canada is My Piano, he returned to 
Britain to direct the entrancing feature, 
Yellow Submarine. His personal films 
have strongly irrational, surrealistic 
themes. 

anim (notably): Chants Populaires 
(Canada44) (two sequences: No. 2, J'ai 
tant dansé, No. 4, Auprès de ma blonde), 
Grim Pastures (44), Three Blind Mice 
(45), Cadet Rouselle (46) (co-dir: Colin 
Low), The Adventures of Baron Mun- 
chausen (47) (co-dir: Colin Low), 
Family Tree (Canada 47) (co-dir: 
Evelyn Lambart), The Story of the 
Motorcar Engine (Brit58), The Ward- 
robe (59), Mr. Know-How (61), The 
Apple (61), The Flying Man (62), 
The Ever Changing Motorcar (62), 
Visible Manifestations (63), The Adven- 
tures of Thud and Blunder (62-65), Dis- 
covery-Penicillin (64), The Beatles 
(66) (TV series), Cool McCool (66) 
(TV series), Canada is My Piano (Can- 
ada67), Yellow Submarine* (Brit68). 

* DUPONT, Ewald André (Andreas) DIR Ger- 
many/Britain/USA. (Zeitz, Sachsen Dec 
25, 1891-Hollywood Dec 12, 1956) Orig- 
inally a writer, he became one of Ger- 
many's first film critics in 1911. He was 
brought into films by Erich Pommer 
(q.v.) and made his first films before 
1917. He directed some 30 films in Ger- 
many, but his most successful period 
was at the end of the silent era when 
he directed his best film, Variety (25). 
He moved to Britain in 1927 as a pro- 
ducer-director at Elstree and made sev- 
eral, somewhat ponderous, quasi-expres- 
sionistic films before moving to Holly- 
wood in 1933. His work there is of little 
interest. He was a talent scout and agent 
1940-49 and returned to directing in 
1950 with, again, mediocre results. 
DIR (notably): Das Alte Gesetz (Ger23), 
Die griine Manuela (Ger23), Baruch 
(Ger24), Der Demiitige und die Sangerin 



(Ger25), Variété* (Ger25), Love Me 
and the World is Mine (Brit27), Moulin 
Rouge* (Brit28), Piccadilly (Brit29), 
Atlantik (Ger/Brit29), Two Worlds (Brit 
30), Menschen im Kdfig/Cape Forlorn/ 
Love Storm (Ger30), Der Laufer von 
Marathon (Ger33), Forgotten Faces 
(USA36), Hell's Kitchen (39), The Scarf 
(50), Return to Treasure Island (54). 

DURAND, Jean DIR France. (Paris Dec 15, 
1882-Paris 1946) The greatest French 
director of silent comedies — the maker 
of some 400 films — whose "cartesian- 
ism of the absurd" dominates the Oné- 
sime*, Calino, and Zigoto series (09-14) 
that feature the Pouitte troupe of acro- 
bats and students he had trained. He 
was also a specialist in adventure and 
animal films for his wife, the animal 
trainer, Berthe Dagmar, and made west- 
erns in the Camargue region in collabo- 
ration with Joe Hamman. He made no 
more films after the arrival of talkies, 
but before this he had said: "One should 
be careful of formulas, each script should 
be treated according to its spirit and each 
script must have a spirit." 

DUVIVIER, Julien DIR France/Britain/USA/ 
Italy/Germany. (Lille Oct 8, 1896-Oct 
31, 1967) The director of some 65 films 
over 50 years whose best period was in 
the Thirties. He began as an actor, then 
became assistant to, among others, 
Feuillade, André Antoine, and Marcel 
L'Herbier (all q.v.). His first films were 
mediocre but with the introduction of 
sound he developed into a good director 
of actors and demonstrated an ability 
to create an effective atmosphere. From 
1934 to 1938, swept along on the cur- 
rent of French poetic realism, he devel- 
oped an international reputation with La 
Bandera, Pépé le Moko, and Carnet de 
bal and was considered by some critics 
to be the equal of Renoir, Clair, Feyder, 
or Carné (all q.v.). After 1940 he re- 
turned to his mediocre beginnings but, 
taken altogether, has directed several 
craftsmanlike successes with good casts 
and in collaboration with some excellent 
writers like Charles Spaak (q.v.) and 
Henri Jeanson (q.v.). His two Italian 
Don Camillo films were major interna- 
tional box-office successes. 
[Dre: Haceldama/Le Prix du sang (19), 
Les Roquevillard (22), L'Ouragan sur la 
montagne (22), Der Unheimliche Gast/ 
Le Logis de Vhorreur (Ger22), Le Reflet 

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de Claude Mercoeur (23), Credo ou la 
tragédie de Lourdes (23), Coeurs fa- 
rouches (23), L'Oeuvre immortelle (Bel- 
gium24), La Machine à refaire la vie 
(24) (documentary, co-dir: Henry Le- 
page), L'Abbé Constantin (25), Poil 
de carotte (25), L'Agonie de Jérusalem 

(26) , L'Homme à VHispano (26), Le 
Mariage de Mademoiselle Beulemans 

(27) , Le Mystère de la Tour Eiffel (27), 
Le Tourbillon de Paris (28), La Vie 
miraculeuse de Thérèse Martin (29), 
La Divine croisière (29), Madame Coli- 
bri (29), Au bonheur des dames (29), 
David Golder (30), Les Cinq gentlemen 
maudits (31), Alio, Berlin? Ici Paris 
(32), Poil de carotte (32) (remake), 
La Venus de collège (32), La Tête d'un 
homme (32), Le Petit roi (33), Le 
Paquebot, Tenacity (34), Marie Chapde- 
laine (34), Golgotha (35), La Bandera* 
(35), Le Golem/The Legend of Prague* 
(Czeeh35), La Belle Équipe* (36), Pépé 
le Moko* (36), L'Homme du four (36), 
Carnet de bal /Christine* (37), The 
Great Waltz (USA38), La Fin du jour 
(39), La Charrettee fantôme (39), Un 
tel père et fils/ Heart of a Nation (40, 
completed in USA), Lydia (Brit40), 
Tales of Manhattan (USA42), Flesh and 
Fantasy (USA43), The Impostor (USA 
43), Panique (46), Anna Karenina 
(Brit47), Au Royaume des deux/ Woman 
Hunt (49), Black Jack (50), Sous le ciel 
de Paris/Under the Paris Sky (50), // 
Piccolo mon do di Don Camillo/The Lit- 
tle World of Don Camillo (It51), La 
Fête à Henriette /Henriette (52), II Ri- 
tor no di Don Camillo/The Return of 
Don Camillo (It53), L'Affaire Maurizius/ 
On Trial (53), Marianne de ma jeunesse 
(54), Voici le temps des assassins/ Mur- 
der a la carte (55), L'Homme à t im- 
perméable/The Man in the Raincoat 
(50), Pot-Bouille /The House of Lovers 
(57), La Femme et le pantin/ A Woman 
Like Satan (58), Marie-Octobre (58), 



Das Kuntstseldene Madchen/La Grand 
Vie (GFR59), Boulevard (60), La 
Chambre ardente/The Curse and the 
Coffin (61), Le Diable et les dix com- 
mandements/The Devil and the Ten 
Commandments (62), Chair de poule/ 
Highway Pick-up (63), Diaboliquement 
votre /Diabolically Yours (67). 
scen: L'Agonie des Aigles (20) (dir: 
Bernard Deschamps), Crépuscule d'épou- 
vante (21) (dir: Henri Etiévant), 
Amours, délices et Rogues (46) (dir: 
André Berthomieu), and most of his 
own films.] 

dwan, Allan dir/scen USA. (Toronto, 
Canada April 3, 1885- ) The most 
prolific of all American directors, no- 
table for having directed some 400 films 
and who scripted or produced as many 
more. His most creative period was 
1916-23 when he was working with 
Douglas Fairbanks. From 1909 to 1915 
he made numerous films for Essanay 
and from 1915-17 worked under Grif- 
fith's (q.v.) supervision at Triangle. He 
has since been a competent director of 
every type of commercial film. 
dir (notably): The Good Bad Man 
(16), The Half-breed (16), Manhattan 
Madness* (16), A Modern Musketeer 
(18), Bound in Morocco (18), Robin 
Hood* (22), The Iron Mask (29) (all 
with Douglas Fairbanks), Human Cargo 
(36), Heidi (37), Suez (38), The Three 
Musketeers (39), Frontier Marshall* 
(39), The Sands of Iwo Jima (49), 
Montana Belle (52), Hold Back the 
Night (56), The Most Dangerous Man 
Alive (58, released 61). 

DZIGAN, Yefim Dm USSR. (Moscow 1898- 
) Routine Soviet director whose best 
film was We from Kronstadt* (36), a 
success partly owing to his excellent 
scriptwriter, Vsevolod Vishnevsky (g.v.). 



72 



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EASTMAN, Geore» INVENTOR USA. (Wa- 

terville July 12, 1854-Rochester, N.Y. 
March 14, 1932) A major industrialist, 
the inventor of roll film, who built the 
Eastman-Kodak Company into a for- 
midable international monopoly based on 
the sale of raw film stock. Originally 
employed in a bank, he established in 
1884 a factory for photographic prod- 
ucts specializing in roll film, at first on 
paper, then, in 1888, on celluloid. That 
same year he introduced the famous 
Kodak camera, designed to use the new 
film. From 1889 to 1892 he perfected 
perforated 35mm celluloid film stock 
for Edison (f.v.), and on these founda- 
tions built up a world-wide monopoly of 
photographic film and equipment that 
made him a millionaire. 1907-08: Sup- 
ported the establishment of the powerful 
Motion Picture Patents Company, the 
Film Trust. 1908: Industrial struggle 
with Pathé in which he supported the 
establishment of a European monopoly. 
1909c Pathé and Agfa broke his inter- 
national film monopoly. 1924: Bought 
control of Pathé's French and British 
film stock interests. 1920-30: Introduced 
16mm and 8mm film for noncommer- 
cial and amateur use (and eventually 
largely forced the other film gauges, 
from 9.5mm to 28mm, off the market). 
1932: Committed suicide leaving a large 
part of his immense fortune to the East- 
man Foundation. George Eastman House 
in Rochester, N.Y., now contains a mu- 
seum of photography and cinematog- 
raphy. 

EAUBONNE, Jean d' art Dm France. (Ta- 
lence 1903-May 1971) Set designer, art 
director, trained by Meerson (q.v.), with 
a stylish, baroque approach seen at its 
best in the postwar French films of Max 
Ophuls (q.v.). Notable work: for Carné, 
Jenny; for Becker, Rue de VEstrapade, 



Casque d'Or*, Touchez pas au Grisbi*, 
Montparnasse 19; for Cocteau, Le Sang 
d'un poète*, Orphée*; for Ophîils, De 
Majerling à Sarajevo, La Ronde*, Le 
Plaisir*, Madame de . . . *, Lola Mon- 
tés*; for Feyder, La Loi du nord. 

•EDESON, Arthur PHOTOG USA. (New 
York Oct 24, 1891-Feb 1970) One of 
the greatest of Hollywood cameramen, 
a master of controlled lighting effects 
and trick work (notably in several Uni- 
versal horror films of the Thirties), but 
equally at home with Douglas Fairbanks' 
spectaculars and thrillers. 
photoo (notably): for John Emerson, 
Wild and Woolly (17); for Fred Niblo, 
The Three Musketeers (21); for Allan 
Dwan, Robin Hood* (22); for Raoul 
Walsh, The Thief of Bagdad (24); for 
Harry Hoyt, The Lost World (25); for 
Henry King, Stella Dallas* (25); for 
Roland West, The Bat (26); for Lewis 
Milestone, All Quiet on the Western 
Front* (30); for James Whale, Franken- 
stein* (31), The Old Dark House (32). 
The Invisible Man* (33); for Frank 
Lloyd, Mutiny on the Bounty (35); for 
Howard Hawks, Sergeant York* (41); 
for John Huston, The Maltese Falcon* 

(41) ; for Michael Curtiz, Casablanca* 

(42) ; for Jean Negulesco, The Mask of 
Dimitrios (44). 

EDISON. Thorn nt Alva INVENTOR USA. 

(Milan, USA Feb 11, 1847-West Orange, 
New Jersey Oct 18, 1931) The most 
well-known American inventor, devel- 
oper of the phonograph and the incan- 
descent lamp among numerous other 
devices, who very quickly understood 
the possibilities of using moving pictures 
as a visual complement to his phono- 
graph. He took little interest in the tech- 
nical and experimental work involved, 
which was the responsibility of W. K. L. 



73 



Dickson (q.v.) and Eugène Lauste( q. v.), 
bot made a major contribution to the 
later industrialization of the equipment. 
He invented the phonograph in 1879; 
from 1888-94 he developed an interest 
in "moving** pictures and on Jan. 2, 1891 
patented the Kinetoscope. When the 
Lumière (q.v.) Cinématographe was re- 
leased in 1895, he purchased the patents 
of Thomas Armat, presented his Vita- 
scope projector on April 23, 1896, and 
founded his own production company. 
From 1897-1907 he was involved in 
legal battles over patent rights with 
several competitors (the "Patents War'*). 
[In 1907 the Edison Licences group was 
formed (including Kale l, Vitagraph, 
Lubin, Selig, Essanay, Méliès, and Pathé) 
in which all the members agreed to make 
royalty payments to Edison. In 1908 
the group and other patent holders 
pooled their resources and established 
the Motion Picture Patents Company, a 
powerful monopoly. From 1909 until 
the trust was broken by court decisions 
of Oct 15, 1915 and April 9, 1917, Edi- 
son was involved in continuing legal bat- 
tles with the "Independents.** After these 
cases were lost, Edison lost interest in 
the cinema and in 1918 closed his studios 
in the Bronx.] 

EFFENDY, BosuU DIR Indonesia. (1927- ) 
A sensitive and humanistic film maker 
in the developing Indonesian cinema, 
notable for Si Menje (50), Si Melati 
(54). 

•EGGEUNG, Viking ANiM Sweden/Ger- 
many. (Lund 1880-Berlin 1925) Swedish 
painter, one of the co-founders of dada 
in Zurich, whose schematic, formal ab- 
stractions are related to constructivism. 
In 1919 in Berlin he collaborated with 
Hans Richter (q.v.) in exploring the 
rhythmical interrelationships of forms 
and colors in scroll paintings, and in 
1921 they both began experimenting 
with making abstract films. Diagonal 
Symphony, begun in 1921 but not com- 
pleted until 1924, is an attempt to dis- 
cover the nature of time in film "analo- 
gous to but in no sense dependent upon, 
the abstract designs of Malevich and 
Klee.** In 1924, he made the somewhat 
similar Parallels and Horizontal. 

EISENSTEIN, Sergei Mtkhaitovich DIR USSR. 

(Riga Jan 23, 1898-Feb 11, 1948) A 
titan, a cinematic genius, a Renaissance 



man with a deep understanding of the 
arts, he was at once a creator and a 
theoretician. fThe son of a prosperous 
ship builder, he was educated in engineer- 
ing and architecture (14-17), but after 
two years as an engineer with the Red 
Army during the Civil War, he decided 
to become an artist. He had long been 
interested in the stage and in 1921 took 
a job as designer at Foregger*s experi- 
mental theater and later as director at 
the Proletkult Theater. He was also de- 
veloping his own theoretical approach 
to esthetic problems and was deeply in- 
terested in the psychological problems of 
artistic creation.] His stage work was 
based on what he called "the montage 
of attractions"; for the Proletkult he di- 
rected a free adaptation of Ostrovsky*s 
Enough Simplicity in Every Wise Man 
(which included a short film parody 
Gloumov's Diary), S. Tretiakov's Listen 
Moscow!, and Gas Masks -the latter 
staged in an actual factory. This expe- 
rience led him to the cinema as a pos- 
sible better solution for his esthetic prob- 
lems and in 1924 he directed the ebul- 
lient Strike. In two months (Sept-Nov, 
25), the 27-year-old director filmed The 
Battleship Potemkin. "A feature of this 
film,** he wrote, "was that close-ups, 
which usually served as explanatory de- 
tails, became the parts capable of evok- 
ing the whole in the perception and 
feelings of the spectator. This was how 
the surgeon's pince-nez was utilized: 
the dangling eyeglasses were made to 
symbolize their owner ... I compared 
this method of treating close-ups with a 
figure of speech known as synecdoche.** 
This approach he felt allowed him to 
bring out "the importance of the great 
events of 1905, of which the Potemkin 
was no more than an individual episode, 
but one reflecting the greatness of the 
whole." His theories of "montage of at- 
tractions** (not used in Potemkin) be- 
came "intellectual montage" in October 
(shot without professional actors and 
studio sets) and "harmonic montage" 
in The General Line. Though these latter 
films are not the equal of Potemkin, 
Eisenstein was at the peak of his artistic 
powers when he set out with Alexandrov 
(<7.v.) and Tisse (q.v.) in August 1929 
to travel to Europe and the USA. After 
working on several abortive projects for 
Paramount in Hollywood, he signed a 
contract with Upton Sinclair to film, 
with Alexandrov and Tisse, the extraor- 



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dinary epic, Que Viva Mexico! in Mexico. 
The year 1932 marked the beginning of 
a difficult period for him. Sinclair took 
the Mexican film (which, when edited, 
might have surpassed Potemkin) out of 
his hands. He was deeply depressed on 
his return to the USSR and spent some 
time in seclusion before returning to 
Moscow to teach at the Film Institute. 
[He suffered under official opprobrium 
that culminated in 1937 in a bitter de- 
nunciation by the head of the Soviet 
cinema of his Bezhin Meadow — a project 
begun in 1935 whose script had been 
several times rewritten under govern- 
ment orders and whose filming was twice 
interrupted by Eisenstein's illnesses. Pro- 
duction of the film was halted in March 
1937. (In 1966 a 25-minute compilation 
of stills from fragments of the film was 
put together using the original script) 
After Eisenstein's public excoriation of 
himself and his errors in this film, he 
was entrusted with the production of a 
large-budget epic, Alexander Nevsky.] 
This was his first sound film, an experi- 
ment in the orchestration of images and 
Prokofiev's score, operatic in effect with 
stylized, expressive acting. His last film, 
Ivan the Terrible, was planned as a 
trilogy in 1942: the first part was filmed 
in Alma Ata during the most difficult 
period of the war; the second completed 
but banned by Stalin and released only 
in 1958; the third prepared but never 
filmed. Ivan the Terrible is a monumental 
operatic tragedy that continued Eisen- 
stein's experiments in the contrapuntal 
use of image and music and suggested 
major new possibilities for the cinema's 
development He died in 1948 from a 
heart attack, two weeks after his fiftieth 
birthday. Two years earlier, ever aware 
of the cinema's enlarging perspectives, 
he had offered this prophecy: "No 
sooner have we mastered the color tech- 
nique than we have to deal with the 
problems of volume and space, set us 
by the stereoscopic cinema that is hardly 
out of its diapers. Then there is the 
miracle of television -a living reality 
staring us in the face, ready to nullify the 
experience of the silent and sound cin- 
ema, which itself has not yet been fully 
assimilated. There, montage, for instance, 
was a mere sequence (more or less per- 
fect) of the real course of events as 
seen and creatively reflected through the 
consciousness and emotions of an artist 
Here, it will be the course of events it- 



self, presented the moment they occur. 
This will be an astonishing meeting of 
two extremes. The first link in the chain 
of the developing form of histrionics is 
the actor, the mime. Conveying to his 
audiences the ideas and emotions he 
experiences at that moment he will hold 
out his hand to the exponent of the high- 
est form of future histrionics - the TV 
magician — who quk't as a flash will 
expertly use camera ves and angles to 
enthrall the millions-strjng TV audiences 
with his artistic interpretation of an 
event taking place at that very moment 
. . . The cinema is fifty years old . . . 
but how immeasurably little the world of 
esthetics has achieved in mastering the 
means and potentialities of the cinema!** 
Dm: Stachka/ Strike* (24), Bronenosets 
Potyomkin/ Battleship Potemkin* (25), 
Oktyabff October /Ten Days that Shook 
the World* (27), Staroye i Novoye/Old 
and New/The General Line* (29), Que 
Viva Mexico!* (Mex31/32) (unfinished, 
footage later released in Thunder over 
Mexico and Time in the Sun, etc), 
Bezhin lug/ Bezhin Meadow (35-37) 
(unfinished, compilation of fragments 
produced in 1966 by Nahum Kleimann 
and Sergei Yutkevich, music by Prokof- 
iev), Alexander Nevsky* (38), Ivan 
Grosny/Ivan the Terrible, Part I* (44), 
Ivan Grosny/Ivan the Terrible, Part II/ 
The Boy or i Plot* (46, released 58). Al- 
though credited as co-director, Eisenstein 
had little to do with Alexandrov's Ro- 
mance sentimentale (Fr30). 

EISIER, Hanns mus Germany/USA. (Leip- 
zig July 6, 1898-Berlin Sept 6, 1962) 
A composer with a deep understanding 
of the cinema who worked with Brecht 
Chaplin, Feyder, Resnais, Ivens, and 
Lang (all q.v.) t among others. He stud- 
ied music in Vienna and was a pupil of 
Arnold Schoenberg. He left Berlin in 
1933, traveled through various coun- 
tries, and in 1938 moved to the USA, 
where he scored several Hollywood films. 
His political beliefs led to his deporta- 
tion in 1947 and he settled in the Ger- 
man Democratic Republic. 
mus (notably): for Victor Trivas, Nie- 
mandsland* (31); for Slatan Dudow, 
Kuhle Wampe* (32), Unser taglich Brot* 
(GDR49); for Joris Ivens, Pesn o gery- 
akh/Song of Heroes (USSR32), Nieuwe 
Gronden/New Earth* (Neth34), The 
400 Million* (USA38), Our Russian 
Front (USA41) (co-mus: Shostakovich); 

75 



Uopy riQhtod mstcnsl 



for Jacques Feyder, Le Grand jeu* (Fr 
34); for Joseph Losey, Pete Roleum and 
His Cousins (USA39); for Fritz Lang, 
Hangmen Also Die* (USA43); for Clif- 
ford Odets, None But the Lonely Heart 
(USA43); for Chaplin, Monsieur Ver- 
doux* (USA47); for Jean Renoir, The 
Woman on the Beach (USA47); for 
Louis Daquin, Bel Ami (Aust54), Triibe 
Wasser (GDR60); for Pabst, Hen Pun- 
tila und sein Knecht Matti* (Aust55); 
for Raymond Rouleau, Les Sorcières de 
Salem (Fr/GDR57); for Erich Engel, 
Geschwader Fledermaus (GDR59); for 
Alain Resnais, Nuit et Brouillard* (Fr 
55). 

scen: Fidelio (Aust56) (dir: Walter 
Felsenstein), Gasparone (Aust56) (dir: 
Karl Paryla). 

ekk, Nikolai dir USSR. (Moscow 1898- 
) A director associated with only one 
major film: Putyovkha v zhizn/Road to 
Life* (31). Originally an actor with 
Vsevolod Meyerhold, he made docu- 
mentary films from 1928-30 and later 
directed the first Soviet color feature 
Grunya Kornakova (36). His other work 
is mediocre. 

El SHEIKH, Kanral DIR Egypt (Feb 5, 1918- 
) The director of some fifty films of 
uneven quality, but, notably, a film in- 
fluenced by neorealism, Hayat ou Maut/ 
Life or Death (55). 

EMERSON, John Dm/SCEN USA. (May 29, 
1878-March 9, 1946) Originally a stage 
actor, director, and dramatist, he joined 
the cinema and directed and wrote such 
films as Geronimo's Last Raid (12). He 
joined Triangle (under D. W. Griffith's 
supervision) and made many of Douglas 
Fairbanks's first films, often from scripts 
by his wife, Anita Loos. He also directed 
films with Mary Pickford, e.g., Less 
Than Dust (16), Constance Talmadge, 
and Norma Talmadge, and took on Erich 
von Stroheim (q.v.) as his assistant, giv- 
ing him his first major acting opportu- 
nity. After 1920, he gave up directing 
and joined his wife in a scriptwriting 
team, e.g., on The Love Expert (20), 
Dulcy (23). 

EMMER, Luciano dir Italy. (Milan Jan 19, 
1918- ) A major contributor to the 
field of art documentaries from 1942-54 
who brought to life, through editing and 
evocative music, the works of Giotto, 



Hieronymus Bosch, Carpaccio, etc. He 
moved into the fiction field and made a 
successful debut with the nonchalant 
and charming Domenica d'Agosta (50). 
He has scripted all his own films. 
dir (documentaries): // Covo (41), 
Racconto di Affresco (41), Romanzo du 
un* Epoca (42), Destini dAmore (42), 
Cantico de lie Creature (43), // Conte 
di Luna (45), Guerrieri (46), Blanchi 
Pascoli (47), Isole nella Laguna (47), 
Sulla Via di Damasco (48), Romantici 
a Venezia (48), // Dr am ma di Crista 
(48), La Leggenda di SantOrsola (49), 
Piero Delia Francesco (49), Goya (50), 
Leonardo da Vinci (52), Picasso (54). 
All except the last two (which are me- 
dium-length features), co-dir: Enrico 
Gras. 

dir (features): Domenica d'Agosta (50), 
Parigi è sempre Parigi (51), Ragazze di 
Piazza di Spagna (52), Camilla (54), 
// Bigamo (56), 7/ Momento pui Bella 
(57), Paradiso Terrestre I A chacun son 
paradis (51) (co-dir: Robert Enrico), La 
Ragazza in vetrina (60). 

enei, Yevgeni art dir USSR. (Hungary 
1890- ) Designer for many of the best 
Leningrad film makers, notably, Kozint- 
sev, Trauberg, and Ermler (all q.v.), to 
whose films he contributed many strik- 
ing sets, including those for The Cloak*, 
Club of the Big Deed*, Fragment of an 
Empire*, The New Babylon*. 

•ENFIELD, Cyril Raker (Cy Endfield) DDI 

USA/Britain. (USA 1914- ) Former 
scenarist and a director of a dozen or 
so obscure second features for Mono- 
gram until Underworld Story (50), a 
thriller with liberal pretensions, and his 
best film, The Sound of Fury (51), an 
authentic story of a lynching. McCarthy- 
ism forced him to leave the USA in 1952 
and he spent several years as an obscure 
writer and director in Britain before mak- 
ing the excellent Hell Drivers (57). 
Though his work is extremely uneven, 
he has made several tough adventure 
films and a delightful Jules Verne adap- 
tation, The Mysterious Island. 
DIR (after 1950): Underworld Story 
(USA50), The Sound of Fury (USA51), 
Tarzan' s Strange Fury (USA50), The 
Limping Man (Brit53), The Master Plan 
(54), The Secret (55), Impulse (55), 
Child in the House (56), Hell Drivers 
(57), Sea Fury (58), Jet Storm (59), 
The Mysterious Island (60), Hide and 
Seek (62), Zulu (63), Sands of the Kola- 

76 



Copyrighted material 



hari (65), De Sade (69), Universal 
Soldier (71). 

ENGEL, Morris DiR USA. (New York April 
8, 1918- ) Interesting and sensitive film 
maker of the independent New York 
school, originally a photographer, who 
established an international reputation 
with The Little Fugitive* (53) and fol- 
lowed this with Lovers and Lollipops 
(55). His Weddings and Babies (58), 
shot on location, was the first feature to 
be made with a portable camera with 
synchronous sound attachment and led 
to Ricky Leacock's (q. v.) work with 
such equipment. 

EPSTEIN, Jean om France. (Warsaw March 
26, 1897-Paris April 2, 1953) Abel 
Gance said of him: "He preferred to die 
a victim rather than live by prostituting 
his art. I still sec his so expressive rhora- 
boidal face whose hair seemed to burn 
like a black flame from his forehead. I 
hear his slow, singular voice, chary of 
words, picking his listeners. Must not 
this voice still be heard from the depths 
of the abyss?" His first contacts with the 
cinema came when he worked on biblio- 
graphical research with Auguste Lumière, 
then briefly with Germaine Dulac, Louis 
Delluc, and Abel Gance (all q.v.) in the 
early Twenties. The following is a sum- 
mary of his work and contribution to 
the cinema based on Henri Langlois' ac- 
count: "He never left the cinema. His 
work began in 1922 with Pasteur and 
ended in 1947 with Le Tempe staire. His 
films described as commercial could be 
signed by him without shame." "Coeur 
fidèle (23) is the triumph of impres- 
sionism in motion but also the triumph 
of the modern spirit. La Belle Nivernaise 

(23) is one of his most pure, most clas- 
sical, most exquisite works, with its skill- 
ful, spare style, its subtle rhythm that 
cannot be analyzed. After the stresses 
of Le Lion des Mogols (24), his inspira- 
tion deserted him and he didn't develop 
beyond his earlier films." "With L'Affiche 

(24) and Le Double amour (25) he be- 
gan to feel the weight of commercial 
pressures. La Chute de la maison Usher 

(28) was 'the intensification of acting 
through the use of slow motion.' Then 
he turned his back on success and left 
for Brittany to make what no one in 
France had made before: Finis Terrae 

(29) and L'Or des mers (32), which 
were made under the particular influence 
of Soviet films and were attempts to dis- 



cover a much more realistic sense of 
wonder." But the sense of wonder born 
of reality found its most complete ex- 
pression only in M or' V ran (31). His 
work during the sound period was totally 
unappreciated and misunderstood. During 
the occupation, under the Vichy regime, 
Epstein was shut off from the studios 
and the forced inactivity only added to 
his other persecutions. Their names and 
Polish origin made him and his sister, 
Marie Epstein (who collaborated on 
many of his films), suspect. They were 
arrested by the Gestapo and only saved 
from deportation by the Red Cross and 
several friends. After the war, he worked 
for the Red Cross, finished his two most 
famous books, L'Intelligence d'un ma- 
chine (46) and Le Cinéma du diable 
(47), and directed two shorts in Brit- 
tany, Le Tempest aire (47) and Les Feux 
de la mer (48), the latter for the United 
Nations. 

dir: Pasteur (22) (co-dir: Benoît-Lévy), 
Les Vendanges (22), L'Auberge rouge* 
(23), Coeur fidèle* (23), La Montagne 
infidèle (23), La Belle Nivernaise* (23), 
Le Lion des Mogols (24), L'Affiche (24), 
Le Double amour (25), Les Aventures 
de Robert Macaire (25), Mauprat (26), 
Au pays de George Sand (26), Six et 
demi-onze* (27), La Glace à trois faces 

(27) , La Chute de la maison Usher* 

(28) , Finis terrae* (29), Sa tête (29), 
Le Pas de la mule (30), Mor'Vran/La 
Mer des corbeaux/The Sea of Ravens 
(30), Notre-Dame de Paris (31), La 
Chanson des peupliers (31), Le Cor (31), 
L'Or des mers* (32), Les Berceaux 
(32), La Villanelle des rubans (32), Le 
Vieux Chaland (32), L'Homme à l'His- 
pano (33), La Châtelaine du Liban (33), 
Chanson a" Armor (34), La Vie d'un 
grand journal (34), Coeur de Gueux 
(36), La Bretagne (36), La Bourgogne 
(36), Vive la vie (37), La Femme du 
bout du monde (37), Les Bâtisseurs 

(38) , Eau vive (38), Artères de France 

(39) , Le Tempestaire (47), Les Feux 
de la mer (48 ) . 

ermler, Friedrich dir USSR. (Lettonie May 
13, 1898-1967) A major film maker, 
who, after his first films in what would 
later be called the "neorcalistic" man- 
ner (Children of Storm, Katka's Reinette 
Apples, The Parisian Cobbler), began 
directing psychological films with Frag- 
ment of an Empire and gave to this dif- 
ficult but cinematic genre two master- 
pieces: The Great Citizen and The Great 



Uopy riQhtod matcnsl 



Turning Point. He has said of himself 
and his work: "I have been driven by 
a taste for reality since my first films. 
This realism could be innate in me, but 
I nonetheless had to learn it In the 
beginning I worked without thinking. I 
had only the desire to create. However, 
my films are set out like a reflection of 
the various Soviet periods. The Civil 
War is the theme of The House in the 
Snow Drifts, Katka describes particular 
social strata during the New Economic 
Policy (NEP) period, The Parisian Cob- 
bler poses moral problems about young 
people during the reconstruction, Coun- 
terplan is the beginning of the Five Year 
Plans, Peasants depicts the struggle of the 
poor peasants against the kulaks, The 
Great Citizen the fight of the opposition 
against the Party, The Great Turning 
Point, the last war, the fighting of the 
partisans of Stalingrad." "The basis of 
my films generally comes from me, but 
to develop it, I have always used a script- 
writer. I never adapt a script during film- 
ing. I don't have enough talent to im- 
provise. I study it carefully then use it 
like a conductor uses a music score, 
knowing what I must draw from the 
actors and the sets. It is men who matter 
the most to me and, with actors, their 
faces." "When I consider what I have 
made of my life, I would single out The 
Great Citizen and The Great Turning 
Point. They are worth more than all 
my other films." 

dir: Deti buri/Children of Storm (26) 
(co-dir: Eduard Johanson), Katka- 
bumazhnyr anyot/Katka's Reinette Ap- 
ples* (26), Dom v sugrobakh/The House 
in the Snow Drifts (28), Parizhsky sa- 
pozhnik/The Parisian Cobbler (28), 
Oblomok imperii /Fragment of an Em- 
pire* (29), Vstrechnyi/ Counter plan* 
(32) (co-dir: S. Yutkevich), Krestya- 
niyel Peasants* (35), Veliki grazhdanin/ 
A Great Citizen* (Part I, 38; Part II, 
39), Ona zashchishchayet rodinu/She 
Defends Her Country* (43), Veliki pere- 
lom/The Great Turning Point* (46), 
Neokonchennaya povest/An Unfinished 
Story* (55), Pervi den/The First Day 
(58), Under the Trial of History (64), 
and various films for TV. 

ERTUGRUL, Moshin dir/prod Turkey. (Is- 
tanbul 1888- ) The founder of the 
Turkish cinema, stage dramatist and pro- 
ducer, director of the municipal theater 
in Istanbul and of the state theater in 



Ankara. He directed his first film in 
1922, the first Turkish color film in 
1953 and has made some thirty features 
in his career and produced many others. 

ESCOFFIER, Marcel COSTUMES France. 

(Monaco Nov 29, 19 10- ) Notable 
costume designer, mainly for period 
films: for Cocteau, La Belle et la Bête* 
(with Bérard), Ruy Bias, L'Aigle à deux 
têtes, Orphée*; for Christian-Jaque.Car- 
men*, Fanfan la Tulipe*, Nana*; for 
Ophiils, Lola Montés* (with Georges 
Annenkov); for Visconti, Senso* (with 
Piero Tosi). 

ESPINOSA, Julio Garcia DIR Cuba. (193?- 
) Young Cuban film maker who began 
under the Batista dictatorship with an 
interesting social document, El Megano, 
(banned by the censors), and directed 
the second postrevolution feature, Cuba 
Baila (60). 

ETAIX, Pierre dir France. (Roanne Nov 
23, 1928- ) Excellent comedian, former 
circus clown, TV and music-hall actor, 
and gag writer for Jacques Tati (^.v.) 
on Mon Oncle*. He acts in and scripts 
all his own films. 

dir: La Rupture (61), Heureux anniver- 
saire (61) (both shorts, co-dir: J.-P. Car- 
rière), Le Soupirant* (62), Insomnie 
(63) (short), Nous n'irons plus au bois 
(63) (short), Yoyo (65), Tant qu'on 
a la santé (66), Le Grand amour (68), 
Pays de Cocagne (70). 

EVEIN, Bernard art dir France. (Saint- 
Nazaire Jan 5, 1929- ) Designer who 
is closely associated with many nouvelle 
vague directors and who has a delicate, 
poetic sense of reality. He has designed 
all of Jacques Demy's (q.v.) films, which 
alone marks him as a major talent. Also, 
notably, for Louis Malle, Les Amants*, 
Zazie dans le Métro*, Vie privée, Le Feu 
follet*, Viva Maria!; for Chabrol, Les 
Cousins*, A double tour; for Philippe 
de Broca, Les Jeux de l'amour, L'Amant 
de cinq jours*; for Agnès Varda, Cléo 
de 5 à 7*; for Godard, Une femme est 
une femme; for Alain Cavalier, L'In- 
soumis (64); for Serge Bourguignon, 
Les Dimanches de ville d'Avray; for 
René Clément, Le Jour et Yheure. Also 
designed costumes for Resnais L'Année 
dernière à Marienbad*. Jacques Saul nier 
has collaborated with him on some of 
the above. 

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FABRl, ZoHan dir Hungary. (1917- ) 
One of the best Hungarian directors [who 
built an international reputation on his 
films portraying country life, notably in 
Merry-Co-Round. He began his career 
as actor, stage manager, and set designer 
and often acts as his own art director.] 
Dm: Colony Underground (51), Vihar/ 
The Storm (52), Eletjel/ Fourteen Lives 
in Danger (54), Kôrhinta/ Merry-Go- 
Round* (55), Hannibal tanar ur /Profes- 
sor Hannibal* (56), Bolond aprilis/ 
Summer Clouds (57), Edes Anna/ Anna 
(58), Duvad/The Brute (59), Ket felido 
a pokolban/The Last Goal (61), Nap- 
pait sôtetseg/ Darkness in Daytime (63), 
Husz ora/Twenty Hours (64), Viziva- 
rosi nyar/A Hard Summer (65) (TV), 
Utoszezon/Late Season (67), a Pal utcai 
fiuk/The Paul Street Boys (68), The 
Tot Family (69). 

FANCK, Arnold dir Germany. (Franken- 
thal March 6, 1889- ) A pioneer in 
the field of "mountain'* films who worked 
with several talented cameramen (Sepp 
Allgeier, Richard Angst, and Hans 
Schneeberger) and whose favorite ac- 
tress was Leni Riefenstahl (q. v.). A doc- 
tor of geology, he directed his first short 
documentaries in 1920 with Dr. Taurn, 
eventually moved into fiction films, and 
successfully continued bis career under 
the Nazi regime. 

Dm: Wunder des Schneeschuhs (20) (co- 
dir: Taurn), I m Kampf mit dem Berg 
(21) (co-dir: Taurn), Pomperlys Kampf 
mit dem Schneeschuh (22) (co-dir: 
Holger Madsen), Der Berg des Schichsals 
(24), Der Heilige Berg (26), Der Grosse 
Sprung (27), Die Weisse Hôlle vom Piz 
Palu/The White Hell of Pitz Palu (29) 
(co-dir: G. W. Pabst), Sturme Uber dem 
Montblanc (30), Der Weisse Rausch 
(31), S.OJS. Eisberg (33), Der Ewige 
Traum/Konlg des Mont-blanc (34), Die 



Tochter des Samurai (37), Ein Robinson 
(40). 

FAULKNER, William SCEN USA. (1897-July 
6, 1962) Famous American novelist, 
several of whose works have been filmed 
{Sanctuary by Tony Richardson, In- 
truder in the Dust* by Clarence Brown, 
The Sound and the Fury by Martin Ritt, 
Tarnished Angels (from Pylon) by 
Douglas Sirk, The Reivers by Mark Ry- 
dell) who also worked in Hollywood, 
[notably in an intermittent collaboration 
with Howard Hawks (q.v.): Today We 
Live (33), The Road to Glory (36), To 
Have and Have Not (45), The Big 
Sleep* (46), Land of the Pharaohs (54) 
(all co-scenario). Also Slave Ship (36) 
(dir: Tay Garnett) and numerous con- 
tributions to other scripts during the 
Thirties and Forties.] 

FAUSTMANN, Erik "Ham P «" Dm Sweden. 
(Stockholm July 3, 1919-1961) Swedish 
actor in the Forties and Fifties and a 
film maker of the Swedish "middle gen- 
eration'' with a dedicated concern for 
portraying social themes. 
Dm: Natt i Hamn/Night in the Harbor 
(43), Sonfa (43), VI Behôver Varann/ 
We Need Each Other (44), Flickan och 
Djdvulen/The Girl and the Devil (44), 
Brott och Straff /Crime and Punishment 

(45) , Harold Handfaste (46), Ndr An- 
gârna Blommar/When Meadows Bloom 

(46) , Krigsmans Erinran/A Soldier's 
Duties (47), Lars Horde (48), From- 
mande Hamn/Foreign Harbor (48), 
Smeder pa Luff en/ Vagabond Blacksmiths 
(49), Restaurant lntim (50), Kvlnnan 
bakom allt/ Woman Behind Everything 
(51 released 56), Ubat 39/U-Boat 39 
(52), Hon kom som en Vind/She Came 
Like a Wind (52), Kvlnnohuset/ House 
of Women (53), Gud Fader och Tat- 
taren/God and the Gypsy (54), Cafe 



79 



oopy riQnico 



Lunchrasten (54), Resa I Natten/Night 
Journey (55), Ingen sa Tokig som Jag/ 
No One Is Crazier Than I Am (55). 
Also three short films in 1951. 

•feher, Friedrkh Dm Germany /Britain. 
(Vienna March 16, 1889-Hollywood 
1945) The director of the curious, 
baroque Robber Symphony about whom 
little is known. He began as an actor 
and played Alan in The Cabinet of Dr. 
Caltgari* (for which he claimed artistic 
responsibility after Weine's death). He 
made several period and horror films in 
Germany before leaving there in 1933 
because of his Jewish origin, and directed 
The Robber Symphony in Britain. He 
then moved to the USA, where he acted 
in minor films. All his films feature his 
wife, Magda Sonja. 

Dm (notably): Dos Blutgeld (13), Der 
Unsichtbare Gast (19), Die Rote Here 
(20), Tyrannei des Todes (20), Die Tdn- 
zerin Marion (20), Carrière (21), 
Marionetten des Teufels (23) (2 parts, 
co-dir: J. Brandt), Sanin (25), Dos 
Graue H au s (26), Verbotene Uebe (26- 
27), Mata Hari (27), Die Geliebre des 
Gouverneurs (27), Maria Stuart (27), 
Hotelgeheimnisse (28), Ihr Junge/ 
Wenn die Geigen kiingen (Ger/Aust/ 
Czech 31 ), Le Loup Garou (32), Gehettte 
Menschen/Steckbrièf Z 48 (32), The 
Robber Symphony* (Brit36). 

FEJOS, Paul (Pal) Dm Hungary/USA/Den- 
mark, etc (Budapest 1898-1963) An 
oddly changeable film maker whose work 
has ranged from the mediocre to the 
brilliant and from experimental to docu- 
mentary. He began as a set designer, 
made his directorial debut on commer- 
cial films in Hungary, moved to the 
USA in 1923 to work in bacteriological 
research, made the experimental low- 
budget evocation of a suicide, The Last 
Moment (27), and the pre-neorealist 
masterpiece, Lonesome (28), He re- 
turned to Europe and made films in 
France, Austria, Hungary, and Denmark. 
His films in the Thirties are of lesser 
interest, despite the undeniable qualities 
of Spring Shower. He became interested 
in ethnological documentaries and in 
Thailand in 1939 made a fictionalized 
portrait of peasant life, A Handful of 
Rice, for a Swedish producer. Earlier he 
had made several short anthropological 
documentaries in Madagascar (35-36) 



for Nordisk and in the East Indies (37' 
38) for Svensk Filmindustri before re- 
turning to the USA in 1939 to devote 
himself entirely to anthropological re- 
search. 

[dir: Fekete kapitang/The Black Captain 
(Hung20), Joslatl Prophecy (Hung20), 
Pan (Hung20), Lldercnyomas/ Night- 
mare (Hung20), Ujraelok/ Revived 
(Hung21), Egri csillagok (Hung23) (un- 
finished), The Last Moment (USA27), 
Lonesome* (USA28), Broadway (USA 
29), Erik the Great Illusionist /The Last 
Performance (USA29), The Big House* 
(USA30), (French and German versions 
only), Fantômas (Fr31), L'Amour à 
l'Américaine ( Fr31), Tavaszi Zapor/ 
Spring Shower/Marie* (Hung/Fr32), 
Itel a Balaton/The Verdict of Lake Bala- 
ton (Hung32), Sonnenstrahl (Aust33), 
Fruhlingstimmen (Aust33), Flugten fra 
millionerne (Den33), Fange Nr. I /Pris- 
oner No. 1 (Den35), Fredlos (Den35), 
Den Gyldne Smil/The Golden Smile 
(Den35), The Bilo (36), Dance Contest 
in Esira (36) (documentaries for Nor- 
disk, made in Madagascar), Tambora 
(37), Att Sagla ar Nordvantigt (38) 
(documentaries for Svensk Filmindustri, 
made in the East Indies), Man och 
kvinna/A Handful of Rice* (Swed/Thai- 
land39).] 

FELUNi, Ftdtrice Dm Italy. (Rimini Jan 
20, 1920- ) Film maker with a power- 
ful personality and an exuberant style, 
sometimes inconsistent in quality, but 
who possesses the somewhat rare talent 
of being able to bring "types** to life. His 
film career began as a gag writer in 1939 
and progressed to scriptwriting. He 
gained experience during the most crea- 
tive period of neorealism, working with 
Rossellini (q.v.) on Rome, Open City, 
and Paisà, during which period he said 
he discovered "an Italy unknown to us 
because for 20 years we had been 
prisoners of a political regime that had 
truly blindfolded us.** Lattuada (q.v.) 
gave him his first opportunity to direct 
on Luci del Varietà (50). The satire of 
"heart-throb" heroes, The White Sheik, 
and the autobiographical / Vitelloni 
were both orthodox neorealist films, as 
was his episode in A more in Città. But 
La Strada (54) marked his break with 
the movement. "Neorealism had been a 
major impetus,** he said in 1960, "a 
truly sacred and hallowed guide for 
everyone. But soon its errors became 



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very serious. If its humble attitude before 
life was extended also to the camera, 
then direction was no longer needed. 
Now as far as Tm concerned, the cinema 
bears a very close similarity to the 
circus." La Strada is a kind of symbolic 
circus, with its three heroes — the strong 
man, the acrobat, and the female clown 
— its traveling caravan, and its shows. 
"Astronomical distances separate peo- 
ple," he said then, "they live alongside 
each other without being aware of their 
solitude, without ever establishing real 
relationships among themselves." A kind 
of mysticism is also evident in his films 
of which he said: "If by Christian you 
mean love thy neighbor, then all my 
films focus on this theme. They show a 
world without love, people who exploit 
others, a world in which there is always 
an ordinary person who wants to give 
love and lives for love." This idealism 
does not exclude social criticism. // 
Bidone is a satire in the Monsieur Ver~ 
doux manner, depicting the falsity of a 
social attitude and structure by placing 
it in another context Gelsomina in 
Nights of Cabiria is a kind of Don 
Quixote fighting, lance raised, against the 
ogres of a corrupt world — a fresco 
which Fellini painted in La Dolce Vita, 
[His next film, 8 1 2, marked a new de- 
velopment in Fellini's work, more per- 
sonal, full of dazzling images, whose 
blend of comic and poetic fantasy gives 
an insight into Fellini's preoccupations 
with memories, life, love, and death. 
Juliet of the Spirits, in many ways his 
best film, is a profound exploration of 
the mental world of woman, a fantasy 
in the most complete sense of the term. 
Fellini Satyricon, for all its imagism, fails 
to convey his intentions, but his inven- 
tive TV document, The Clowns, is de- 
lightful in its blend of autobiographical 
elements (the clown with whom Fellini 
identifies) and its entertaining visual 
fireworks.] 

scen (notably): (all in collaboration) 
for Rossellini, Roma, Città Aperta*, 
Paisà*, Il Miracolo, Francesco, Giullare 
di Dio, Europa 51*; for Alberto Lattuada, 
// Delitto di Giovanni Episcopo, Senza 
Pietà*, 11 Mulino del Po; for Pietro 
Germi, In Nome délia Legge*, 11 Cam- 
mino delta Speranza*, La Città si Di' 
fende, 11 Brlgante di Tacca del Lupo; 
for Mario Bonard, Avante c'i Porto (42), 
Campo de Fiori (42); for Riccardo 
Freda, Tutta la Città Conta (43); for 



Eduardo Felippo, Fortunetta (58); and 
all his own films. 

dir: Lucl del Varietà* (50) (co-dir: 
Lattuada), Lo Sceicco Bianco* (52), / 
Vitelloni* (53), Amore in Città* (53) 
(one episode), La Strada* (54), // Bi- 
done* (55), Le Notti di Cabiria* (56), 
La Dolce Vita* (60), Boccacio '70 (62) 
(one episode), %¥»* (63), Giulietta 
degli Spiriti* (65), A Tre Passi dal 
Delirio I Histoires extraordinaires (67) 
(one episode), Fellini Satyricon (69), / 
Clowns (70) (TV). 

FERNANDEZ, Emilie DIR Mexico. (Hondo, 
Coahuila March 26, 1904- ) Mexican 
film maker (who has also acted in the 
USA and Mexico) who, during the 
most creative period in the Mexican 
cinema in the Forties, established an in- 
ternational reputation with Maria Can- 
delaria. He followed this with a series 
of major national portraits, like the 
murals of Diego Rivera and Siqueiros, 
reflecting both the Spanish and Indian 
traditions and a certain popular taste 
for melodrama: Flor Silvestre, the some- 
what cold Perla (from a script by Stein- 
beck), the fiery Enamorada, the violent 
Rio Escondido and the stylish and mov- 
ing Pueblerina. But, on the other hand, 
his work also contains touristic folklore 
elements and a taste for crudely melo- 
dramatic plots that gradually took over 
from his better qualities. And, when the 
Mexican film industry drifted into com- 
mercialism in the Fifties, he found him- 
self outmoded. All his films from 1943- 
50 PHOTOG Gabriel Figueroa (fl.v.), ex- 
cept for Pépita Jiminez. 
dir: La Isla de la Pasion (41), Soy puro 
Mexicano (42), Flor Silvestre (43), Las 
Abandonados (44), Bugambilia (44), 
Maria Candelaria/Xochimilco* (45), 
Pépita Jiminez (46), la Perla (46), Ena- 
morada (46), Rio Escondido* (48), 
Maclovia (48), Salon Mexico (49), 
Pueblerina (49), La M ai que rida (49), 
Duelo en la Mont anas (49), The Torch 

(50) , Victimas del Pecado (50), Un 
Dia de Vida (50), Islas Marias (50), 
Suave Patria (51), La Bien Amada 

(51) , Acapulco (52), Tu y el Mar (52), 
Cuando levanta la Niebla (52), La Red/ 
The Net (53), El Rapto (53), La Rosa 
blanca (54), La Re be lion de los CoU 
gados (54), Nosotros dos (Sp54), La 
Tierra del Fuego se Apaga (Argentina 
55), Una Cita de Amor /The Rebel 
(56), El Impostor (57), Pueblito, o el 

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Amor (61), A Loyal Soldier of Pancho 
Villa (66). Also directed several ex- 
teriors for Huston's The Unforgiven. 

FERRERI, Marco DR Spain/Italy. (Milan 
1928- ) Former journalist who was in 
Spain from 1955-60 and directed there 
two remarkably ferocious, acerbic satires 
El Pisito and El Cochecito. His first 
Italian feature Ape Regina, a satire on 
Christian marriage, was equally corro- 
sive but his later films have not matched 
it 

Dm: El Pisito (Sp58), Los Chicos (Sp 
59), El Cochecito* (Sp59), Le Italians 
è YAmore (It61) (one episode), Ape 
Regina/The Conjugal Bed (It63), La 
Donna Scimmia (It64), Controsesso 
(It64) (one episode), Oggi, Domanl, 
Dopodomani/ Paranoia (It/Fr65) (one 
episode), Marcia Nuziale (It65), Dillin- 
ger è morto (It68), // Seme dell'Uomo 
(69), L'Udienza (71). 

FERREYRA, Jot* A. Dm Argentina. (Buenos 
Aires 1889-Buenos Aires 1943) Pioneer 
of the Argentinian cinema who created 
its artistic foundations. Originally a 
painter and designer, he was a somewhat 
bohemian artist with an understanding 
of popular life, a sure and supple style, 
and a sense of characters and characteri- 
zation. 

dir: Una Noche de Garufa (15) (short), 
El Tango de la Muerte (17), Campo 
Ajuera (19), Mientre Buenos Aires 
duerme (21) , La Guacha (21), la Chic a 
della Calle Florida (21), Buenos Aires 
(22), Ciudad de Ensueno (22), El Or- 
ganito de la Tarde (24), El Arriero de 
Yacanto (24), Mi Ultimo Canto (24), 
Muchachita de Chiclana (26), Perden 
Viejita (27), El Cantar di mi Ciudad 
(30), La Canciân del Gaucho (30), 
Munequitas Portenas* (31), C ailes de 
Buenos Aires (34), Puente Alsina (35), 
Ayudame a Vlvir (36), Besos Brujos 
(37), Muchachos de la Ciudad (37), La 
Ley que Olvidaron (38), Chimbella (39), 
El Hijo del Barrio (40), La Mujer y la 
Selva (41). 

FERRY, Joan scEN France. (Capens June 
16, 1906- ) Scriptwriter and dialogue 
writer, with a background in surrealism, 
who has written some 50 films, notably 
those of Clouzot (<?.v.) and Christian- 
Jaque (q.v.). 

FESCOURT, Herat dir France. (Béziers Nov 
23, 1880-Neuilly Aug 9, 1966) Sensi- 



tive, cultured, and with a real sense of 
visual design, he is one of the great 
French film makers. Originally a mu- 
sician, journalist, and lawyer, he began 
directing for Gaumont in 1912 and later 
directed many tasteful, forceful adapta- 
tions of literary works, including an 
excellent Les. Misérables. However, his 
talents were never given the recognition 
they deserved. He lectured on film at 
JJ3HEC after 1942. 

Dm: Numerous films for Gaumont 191 2— 
14, including: La Méthode du professeur 
Neura, Un mari à l'essai, La Lumière 
qui tue, La Mort sur Paris, Fille de 
Prince. Also (notably): Mathias San- 
dorff (20), Rouletabille (22), Mandrin 
(23), Les Grands (24), Les Misérables* 
(25), La Maison du Maltais (27), L'Oc- 
cident (27), Le Comte de Monte-Cristo 
(29), La Maison de la flèche (32, in 
Brit), Serments (Swed31), Pour service 
de nuit (Swed31), L'Occident (37), Bar 
du Sud (38), Retour de Flamme (42). 

FEU ILIADE, Loub Dm France. (Lunel Feb 
19, 1873-Nice Feb 26, 1925) A major 
pioneer of the French cinema who, in 
his twenty-year film career, made some 
800 films of all types without claiming 
to be the great artist which, in fact, he 
was. He was in the cavalry from 1891 
to 1895 when he married, became a wine 
broker and later, a journalist and poet 
for La Croix, La Revue mondiale, etc. 
He approached Léon Gaumont {q.v.) in 
1905 with some film scripts, was warmly 
encouraged by Gaumont's artistic direc- 
tor, Alice Guy (q.v.) and in 1906 
directed his first films. When Alice Guy 
left Paris to go to Berlin with her hus- 
band she recommended Feuillade as 
her replacement. His first films were trick 
films in which he took the camera into 
the streets to create comedy that often 
ended in a chase and that included ex- 
travagant special effects. Over the next 
years he worked industriously, directing 
period films, adventure films, melo- 
dramas, "art'* films, religious filins, and 
serials. Some 502 films have been iden- 
tified as his and he certainly made many 
more. (The filmography below is ex- 
tremely abridged.) He was also responsi- 
ble for shaping the careers of Emile 
Cohl, Jean Durand, Léonce Perre, Musi- 
dora, René Cresté, René Navarre, Henri 
Fescourt, Jacques Feyder, and even 
René Clair. Abel Gance wrote his first 
script for Feuillade in 1908. In 1911 



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Feuillade made his first major contribu- 
tion with the La Vie telle qu'elle est series, 
which he described as "an attempt, for the 
first time, to transpose realism into litera- 
ture, the theater, and the arts." He reached 
the peak of his artistic development with 
the superb blend of realism, fantasy, and 
visual poetry in his episode films: Fan- 
tômas (13-14), Les Vampires (15-16), 
Judex (16), and Tih Minh (18). Though 
largely dismissed at the time by es- 
tablished critics, Breton and Aragon (the 
future founders of surrealism) were un- 
stinting in their enthusiasm: "It is in 
Les Vampires that the great reality of 
our century will be found. They are be- 
yond fashion, beyond taste." In 1920 
Feuillade wrote: "With rare exceptions I 
have written all my own scripts. Just as 
one needs cinematic actors, it is neces- 
sary to have writers who specialize in 
this art. Good adaptations of plays and 
novels are exceptional. In fact, they are 
usually desecrations." After the war, 
when he was worn out with overwork 
and too little rest, his work lost its earlier 
imaginative and innovative qualities and 
he found himself among the "old guard" 
and was treated like a Philistine. He died 
in 1925 in Nice, where he had gone to 
complete his last film, Le Stigmate. His 
work was largely forgotten until after 
the Second World War, when it was 
resurrected, largely through screenings at 
the Cinémathèque Française. Seen there 
by many young critics (and future 
nouvelle vague directors), Feuillade's 
work was re-examined and rehabilitated. 
The one-time "honest artisan" became 
classed as one of the great masters of 
the cinema. 

dir (notably): Le Billet de banque (06), 
C'est papa qui prend la purge (06), 
l'Homme aimanté (07), La Légende de 
la fileuse (07), Une dame vraiment bien 
(08), La Récit du colonel (08), Le Tic 
(08), Promethée (08), Le Collier de la 
reine (09), La Mort de Mozart (09), 
Mater Dolorosa (09), La Légende des 
Phares (09), Les Sept péchés capitaux 
(10) (7 films in color), Le Pater (10), 
Bébé series (10-13) (74 films), La 
Vierge dArgos {U),La Vie telle qu'elle 
est series (11-13) (17 films), Dans la 
brousse (12), Le Noël de Francesco 

(12) , Le Mort vivant (12), L'Anneau 
fatal (12), Le Detective Der vieux series 
(12-13) (5 films), Bout-de-Zan series 
(12-16) (53 films), L'Agonie de Byzance 

(13) , Fantômas series* (13-14) (5 



films), La Vie drôle series (13-18) (35 
films), Les Fiancés de 1914 (14), Union 
sacrée (15), Les Vampires series* (15- 
16) (10 films), Le Double jeu (16), Le 
Noël de Poilu (16), Judex* (16) (12 
episodes), La Nouvelle Mission de Judex* 

(17) (12 episodes), Herr Doktor (17), 
Le Bandeau sur les yeux (17), La Fugue 
de Lily (17), L'Homme sans visage 

(18) , Les Petites marionnettes (18), 
Vendémiare (18), Tih Minh (18) (12 
episodes), Barrabas (19) (12 episodes), 
L'Engrenage (19), Le Nocturne (19), 
L'Énigme (19), Les Deux gamines (20) 
(12 episodes), L'Orpheline (21) (12 
episodes), Parisette (21) (12 episodes), 
Le Fils de Flibustier (22) (12 episodes), 
Belle humeur series (21-22), Vindicta 
(23) (5 episodes), L'Orphelin de Paris 
(23) (6 episodes), La Gosseline (23), 
Le Gamin de Paris (23), La Fille bien 
gardée (24), Pierrot, Pierrette (24), 
Luce t te (24), Le Stigmate (24) (6 epi- 
sodes). Almost all his films 08-15 
photog Guérin; 16-24, L. Morizet. 

FEYDER, Jacques (Jacques Frédérix) DIR 

France/USA. (Belgium July 21, 1885- 
Switzerland May 25, 1948) A film maker 
who remained on the fringes of impres- 
sionism in the Twenties and was one 
of the major creators of poetic realism 
in the Thirties. The son of a Belgian 
bourgeois family who intended a mili- 
tary career for him and who insisted 
he change his name when as a young 
man he moved to Paris to enter the 
theater. After numerous small roles (in- 
cluding film ones for M dies, 1911, and 
Louis Feuillade, Gaston Ravel, etc.) he 
got his first chance to direct for Léon 
Gaumont in 1915 when the war created 
a shortage of directors. His wife, Fran- 
çoise Rosay, the star of many of his 
best films, was seen first in his second 
film. After some dozen films on which 
he learned his profession, he established 
an international reputation in the Twen- 
ties with L'Atlantide, Crainquebille 

(which Griffith greatly admired), Visage 
d'enfants, Gribiche, and especially his 
Zola adaptation, Thérèse Raquin. Fol- 
lowing the excellent satire, Les Nouveaux 
Messieurs, he moved to Hollywood as 
sound films were being introduced and 
spent a rather unproductive four years 
there, during which he worked on melo- 
dramas, including two Greta Garbo ve- 
hicles {The Kiss, Anna Christie). He 
returned to France, marking his return 

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with the excellent Le Grand jeu, and 
followed this with Pension Mimosas, a 
characteristic example of poetic realism. 
The following year he made what is per- 
haps his most famous film, La Kermesse 
héroïque, a visually rich tribute to the 
great painters of his native Flanders. 
His work thereafter fell into decline with 
Knight without Armour (for Korda in 
London), Les Gens du voyage, and La 
Loi du nord. He made the mediocre 
Une femme disparait in Switzerland dur- 
ing the war and acted as artistic super- 
visor for two films by other directors be- 
fore he died. He always felt that the 
secret of film-making lay in the selection 
of a story that would appeal to the pub- 
lic, and of a milieu and atmosphere, and 
in carefully bringing these to life. In 
1925 he wrote: "Everything can be 
translated into screen terms. Everything 
can be expressed through images. It is 
possible to make an appealing and mov- 
ing film as easily from the 10th Chapter 
of Montesquieu's L'Esprit des lois as 
from a novel by Paul de Kock. But in 
order to do that one must have a cine- 
matic soul." His predilection for melo- 
drama did not always serve him well on 
works that were derived from the tra- 
ditions of Zola and Maupassant (and on 
which his best collaborators were Marcel 
Carné (q.v.) as assistant and Charles 
Spaak (q.v.) as scriptwriter). Marcel 
Carné wrote of him: "He dreams of 
bringing to the screen such-and-such a 
satirical farce or such-and-such a conflict 
between workers and management, but 
he found it necessary always to have 
recourse to a romantic story. He was 
minutely careful in his shooting script. 
Everything was weighed and propor- 
tioned with a disconcerting knowledge." 
He said to Charles Spaak: "To direct is 
to defend oneself against all those who 
fuss about around us and to bring back 
to an intellectual design that which tends 
to escape." He added that the cinema, 
which needed life and real people, was 
often fed on the colorless and the ersatz 
— a forecast of the sad end of his own 
career, a career that Abel Gance has 
rightly said puts him among the cinema's 
martyrs. 

dir: M. Pinson, policer (15), Têtes des 
femmes, femmes de tête (16), Le Pied 
qui étrient (16) (four episodes), Le 
Bluff (16), Un conseil d'ami (16), 
L'Homme de compagnie (16), Tiens, vous 
êtes à Poitiers (16), L'Instinct est maître 



(16), Le Frère de lait (16), Le Billard 
casse (16), Abrégeons les formalités (16), 
Le Trouvaille de Bûchu (16), Le Par- 
dessus de demi-saison (17), Les Vieilles 
femmes de l'hospice (17), La Faute 
d'orthographe (19), L'Atlantide* (21), 
Crainquebille* (22), Visages d'enfants 
(23-25), L'Image (23-25), Gribiche 
(25), Carmen* (26), Au pays de roi 
lépreux (27), Thérèse Raquin/Du Sollst 
Nicht Ehebrechen* (Ger/Fr28), Les 
Nouveaux Messieurs* (28), The Kiss 
(USA29), Anna Christie (USA29), The 
Unholy Night (USA30) (French version 
only), His Glorious Night (French and 
German versions only: Olympia), Son 
of India (USA31), Daybreak (USA31), 
Le Grand jeu* (Fr34), Pension Mimo- 
sas* (35), La Kermesse héroïque* (35), 
Knight without Armour (Brit37), Fahr- 
endes V oik I Les Gens du voyage (Ger 
38), La Loi du Nord /La Piste du Nord 
(Fr39-42), Une femme disparaît (Switz 
41); and artistic director for Maturareise 
(Switz43) (dir: S. Steiner), Macadam 
(Fr46) (dir: Marcel Blistène). 
scen: Gardiens de Phare* (29) (dir: 
Jean Grémillon), and all his own films. 

FIGUEROA, Gabriel PHOTOG Mexico/USA. 
(Mexico 1907- ) Cameraman steeped 
in the best Mexican traditions who 
worked as assistant to Gregg Toland 
(q.v.) in Hollywood, 1935-36. His elab- 
orate, sometimes ornate, visual style, 
inspired by the frescoes of Diego Rivera 
and Siqueiros, was a major factor in the 
best films of Emilio Fernandez (^.v.), 
but he was also able to adopt a sparse 
style for Bunuel's (q.v.) Mexican master- 
pieces. In recent years he has worked on 
several Hollywood films. 
photog (notably): for Fernando de 
Fuentes, Alla en el Rancho Grande (36); 
for Chano Urrueta, Noche de los Mayas 
(39); for Fernandez, Flor Silvestre (43), 
Maria Candelaria* (45), Las Abandon- 
adas (44), La Perla (46), Enamorada 
(46), Rio Escondido* (48), Maclovia 
(48), La Malquerida (49), The Torch 
(50), La Rosa blanca (55), La Tierra 
del Fuego se apago (55) and others; 
for Bunuel, Los Olvidados* (50), El* 
(52), Nazarin* (58), La Fièvre mont à 
El Pao (59), The Young One* (60), 
El Angel Exterminador* (62), Simon del 
Desierto (65); for John Ford, The Fugi- 
tive (USA47); for John Huston, Night 
of the Iguana (USA64); for Don Siegel 
Two Mules for Sister Sarah (USA70); 



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for Brian Hutton, Kelly's Heroes (USA 
70). 

•FISCHER, Gunnar PHOTOO Sweden. (Ljung- 

by 1910- ) Brilliant cameraman, with 
a special flair for chiaroscuro effects and 
evocative outdoor work, who is most 
famous for his work on 12 of Bergman's 
(q.v.) best films. He joined the industry 
in 1935 as assistant to Julius Jaenzon 
(q.v.) and photographed his first film 
in 1939. 

PHOTOO (notably): for Erik Faustmann, 
Natt i Hamn (43), Krigsmans erinran 

(47) ; for Dreyer, Tva Manniskor (45); 
for Lars-Erik Kjellgren, Soldat Bom 

(48) , Lek pa Regnbagen (58); for Berg- 
man, Hamnstadt (48), Tôrst* (49), Till 
Glddfe (50), Sant hànder Inte Hot (50), 
Sommarlek (51), Kvinnors Vantan (52), 
Sommaren med Monika* (52), Som- 
marnattens Leende* (55), Det Sjunde 
Inseglet* (56), Smultronstallet* (57), 
Ansiktet (58), Djdvulens Oga (60); for 
Hasse Ekman, Gabrielle (54), Egen 
ingdng (56); for Alf Kjellin, Lustgarden/ 
Pleasure Garden (61), Siska (62); for 
Arne Sucksdorff, Pojken i trddet/Boy in 
the Trees (61); for Vilgot Sjoman, 491 
(64); for Lars-Magnus Lindgren, Svarta 
palmkronor/The Black Palm Trees (68); 
for Goran Gentele, Miss and Mrs. Swe- 
den (70) and three episodes of Stimu- 
lante (65-67). 

FISHER, Terenca Dm Britain. (London 
1904- ) An editor in the Thirties who 
graduated to directing melodramas for 
the Gainsborough studios and then hor- 
ror films for Hammer in the Fifties and 
Sixties. He has made numerous films, 
from the well-tried stories of Dracula*, 
Frankenstein*, the Phantom of the Op- 
era, Dr. Jekyll, etc., but is far from being 
a new Tod Browning (q.vv.). 

•FISCHINGER, O<kor ANIM Germany /USA. 
(Gelnhausen, Germany 1900-1967) Im- 
aginative pioneer in the field of abstract 
animated interpretations of musical 
themes, a disciple of Ruttman (q.v.) in 
the Twenties, who made his first Film 
Studies prior to 1925. He worked on the 
special effects of a number of films (in- 
cluding Fritz Lang's Frau im Mond) 
and several film commercials. His earlier 
films have a remarkable unity of sound 
and image in which geometric forms 
move in synchronization to the music. 
In 1933, he made his first color film (in 



Gasparcolor), Circles, and when his 
Composition in Blue won a special prize 
at Venice in 1935 he was invited to 
Hollywood by Paramount. There he con- 
tinued his abstract experiments and de- 
signed the Bach sequence in Disney's 
Fantasia* (though his contribution was 
not used in the final film). In 1947, he 
made the prize-winning Motion Paint- 
ing No. 1 using oil painting on glass and 
invented the Lumigraph "color organ.** 
In the Fifties he made a number of TV 
commercials and experimented with ste- 
reoscopic abstract films. His most notable 
films include (music source in paren- 
theses): Study No. 5 (Ger28) (jazz), 
Study No. 6 (Ger30) (Guerrero's "Vaya 
Veronica"), Study No. 7 (Ger31) 
(Brahms's "Hungarian Dance No. 5"), 
Study No. 8 (Ger31) (DukaVs "The 
Sorcerer's Apprentice"), Study No. 9 
(Ger31) (Brahms's "Hungarian Dance 
No. 6"), Study No. 10 (Ger31) (Verdi's 
M Aida"),SWy No. 11 (Ger32) (Mozart's 
minuet "Divertissement"), Study No. 12 
(Ger32) (Rubinstein's "Lichtertanz"), 
Coloratura (Ger32) (trailer for fea- 
ture film), Circles (Ger33) (Grieg, Wag- 
ner), Composition in Blue (Ger33) 
(Nicolai's Merry Wives of Windsor), 
Allegretto (USA36) (jazz), An Optical 
Poem (USA37), An American March 
(USA39) (Sousa's "Stars and Stripes"), 
Motion Painting No. 1 (USA47) (Bach's 
"Brandenberg Concerto No. 3"). 

Flaherty, Robert dir. USA/Britain. (Iron 
Mountain, Michigan Feb 16, 1884-New 
York July 23, 1951) The Jean-Jacques 
Rousseau of the cinema, and one of its 
greatest geniuses, who created the "nar- 
rative documentary" — a method of film- 
making whose stories, actors, and settings 
were taken from life itself. His films have 
a deep human warmth, an understand- 
ing of what he called the true spirit of 
man, and reflect his passionate attention 
to detail and his interest in everyday 
behavior and the common feelings of 
mankind. They demonstrated that every 
man is capable of "acting out" his own 
life for the camera. Though he did not 
use the "camera eye" as a technique for 
instantaneous documentation and though 
he used reconstructed scenes, he can jus- 
tifiably be called the first master of 
cinéma-vérité. He took infinite pains with 
his work and once said: "Film is the 
longest distance between two points." 
After studies at Upper Canada College 

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in Toronto, he became a mineralogist, 
developed an interest in the Canadian 
Arctic, and began exploring there, backed 
by Sir William Mackenzie, in 1910. In 
1917 he took a film camera with him and 
filmed the expeditions to Baffinland and 
Belcher Islands, but the negative of this 
was burned in a fire in Toronto (a print 
survived but was later lost). In 1920 he 
decided to return to the North and, 
backed by a fur company, filmed the 
daily life of an Eskimo family in Nanook 
of the North. It was a great worldwide 
success and led to his being offered a 
completely free hand by Jesse L. Lasky 
(q.v.) of Paramount to make a film any- 
where in the world. The result was the 
admirable portrait of Samoan life, Moana, 
a major critical success, but a film whose 
modest commercial success did not match 
Paramount^ expectations. For MGM he 
began production of White Shadows 
in the South Seas with W. S. Van Dyke 
(q.v.), but withdrew when the film was 
turned into romanticized fiction. With 
F. W. Murnau (o.v.) he began pro- 
duction of the independent Tabu, but 
again withdrew when it appeared they 
had totally different approaches to the 
same material. Flaherty left for Europe 
and was invited by John Grierson to 
join the British documentary movement. 
In Britain, with the enthusiastic support 
of Michael Balcon (q.v.) of Gaumont- 
British, he was able to visit the Aran 
Islands off the coast of Ireland and 
create Man of Aran with its theme of 
the struggle of man against the sea. It 
received more praise than any other 
Flaherty film since Nanook and Alex- 
ander Korda (q.v.) agreed to back his 
next film, Elephant Boy, in India. But, 
after filming was completed in India, the 
studio took over his material, added 
completely new studio-shot dialogue 
scenes (directed by Zoltan Korda) and 
edited the whole to play up the melo- 
drama. In 1939, Pare Lorentz (<?.v.), 
head of the US Film Service, invited 
Flaherty to return to the USA to make a 
film on the problems of erosion. The 
result was the epic, The Land, a film 
that was given only limited nontheatrical 
circulation in the USA and none abroad. 
Then, backed by Standard Oil, he re- 
turned to the dreams of his childhood 
with the lyrical Louisiana Story, his 
last film. In 1926 he wrote: "The truly 
great films have yet to be made. They 
will not be the work of the large studios 



but of amateurs in the literal sense, 
of passionate people who will tackle 
something without commercial aims. And 
these films will be made with art and 
truth." Jean Grémillon said of him: 
"In his so clear eyes he had an in- 
tensity and a gentleness which was that 
of the child he had been, falling asleep 
in his moccasins, dreaming of Indian 
country where there was gold. He found 
that gold: it is what he gave to us. He 
always searched for the same thing: the 
mark of man, both in the struggle with 
nature that he could only master in the 
enchanted world of childhood and in 
the sense of wonder at the natural world 
of Moana and Louisiana Story. No other 
film maker spent more time than he in 
studying and understanding the elements 
of his theme and in drawing out its 
profound and basic subject matter." 
dir: Nanook of tthe North* (20-21), 
Moana — a Romance of the Golden 
Age* (25), The Pottery Maker (25) 
(short), The Twenty-Four Dollar Island 
(26) (short). Tabu* (31) (co-dir: F. W. 
Murnau), Industrial Britain (Brit32) 
(completed and ed: John Grierson), 
Man of Aran* (Brit34), Elephant Boy 
(Brit37) (co-dir: Zoltan Korda), The 
Land* (42), Louisiana Story* (48). 
Flaherty also worked on White Shadows 
in the South Seas* (28), but little of the 
final film is attributable to him. [Also, 
photog: Guernica (49) (ed: David 
Flaherty), prod American version of 
The Titan: Story of Michelangelo (Switz 
40) (dir: Curt Oertel), What's Hap- 
pened to Sugar? (50), The Gift of Green 
(50) (both, dir: David Flaherty).] 

* FLEISCHER, David PROD USA. (New York 
June 14, 1894- ) Younger brother of 
animator Max Fleischer, director on sev- 
eral of his brother's films, and adminis- 
trative head of the Fleischer Studios in 
Florida in its heyday. He also claims to 
have patented in 1929 a technique for 
drawing sound directly onto film. 

* FLEISCHER, Max anim/prod USA. (Aus- 
tria July 17, 1889- ) A major Ameri- 
can cartoonist who was the only serious 
rival to Disney in the Thirties. Though 
Austrian-born, he came to the USA as 
an infant. He worked first as a news- 
paper cartoonist and during the First 
World War made instructional cartoons 
for the Army. After the war he created 
his first character, Koko the Clown in 



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the Out of the Inkwell* scries, which 
mixed animation and live action. One of 
his other early characters was Betty 
Boop, the first and only cartoon vamp, 
who was modeled on the singer Helen 
Kane and had continuing problems with 
the censor over her sexiness. He made 
the first Popeye the Sailor film in 1933 
based on a comic-strip character created 
by the cartoonist Segar, the plots of 
which followed a common pattern in 
which Popeye would become invincible 
after eating spinach. (Fleischer is said 
to have had a financial agreement with 
spinach canning interests.) He also made 
a series of animated songs with the fa- 
mous bouncing ball. In 1936 the first 
medium-length film from the Fleischer 
Studios (headed by his younger brother) 
appeared: Popeye the Sailor Meets Sin- 
bad the Sailor. Apparently encouraged 
by the success of Disney's (q.v.) Snow 
White and the Seven Dwarfts*, Fleischer 
made the full-length Guillivefs Travels* 
in 1939. It was not a success and his 
next feature Mr. Bug Goes to Town/ 
Hoppity Goes to Town (41) was a flop. 
Unable to keep up with developments in 
animation, he stopped independent 
work and became production chief of 
Paramount's cartoon division, from which 
Popeye cartoons continued to flow in an 
uninspired stream for some years. 

FLEISCHER, Richard Dm USA. (New York 
Dec 8, 1916- ) The son of Max Flei- 
scher (q.v.), he studied medicine and 
dramatic art, joined RKO in 1940 as pro- 
duction assistant, and directed a num- 
ber of documentaries from 1942 to 1946. 
(This is America series, Flickers Flash- 
back series, etc.). His work, though of 
varied quality, has been largely under- 
estimated, perhaps because he had to 
work under the thumb of such highly 
individualistic producers as Stanley 
Kramer, Walt Disney, and Darryl F. 
Zanuck (all q.v. ) . His virtuosity and skill 
are evident in The Vikings and even in 
20,000 Leagues Under the Sea, despite 
their large budgets; but the large budget 
of the tiresome and solemn Barabbas 
overwhelmed him. The erotic and stylish 
Girl in the Red Velvet Swing, the cou- 
rageous, violent, and antimilitaristic Be- 
tween Heaven and Hell, and the inter- 
esting Violent Saturday and Bandido 
are ample compensations for the medi- 
ocre intellectual pretentiousness of Com- 
pulsion or Crack in the Mirror. [His 



Fantastic Voyage owes more credit to its 
designer than to Fleischer but the box- 
office success of Dr. Dolittle inspired 
producers' confidence in him and he has 
since made several original films: The 
Boston Strangler and 10 Rillington Place, 
both carefully drawn re-creations of ac- 
tual crimes with excellent performances, 
stand out against the somewhat bloated 
Che! and Tora! Toral Toral] 
dir: Child of Divorce (46), Banjo (47), 
So This is New York (48), Make Mine 
Laughs (48), Trapped (49), The Happy 
Time (49), Follow Me Quietly (49), 
The Clay Pigeon (50), The Armored- 
Car Robbery (50), The Narrow Margin 
(52), Arena (53), 20,000 Leagues Under 
the Sea (54), Violent Saturday (55), 
The Girl in the Red Velvet Swing (55), 
Bandido (56), Between Heaven and Hell 
(56), The Vikings (58), These Thou- 
sand Hills (59), Compulsion (59), Crack 
in the Mirror (60), The Big Gamble 
(61), Barabbas (62), The Fantastic Voy- 
age (66), Dr. Dolittle (67), The Boston 
Strangler (68), Che! (69), Tora! Tora! 
Tora! (USA/Jap70), 10 Rillington Place 
(Brit70), Buff (71), The Last Run (71). 

Fleming, Victor Dm USA. (Pasadena Feb 
23, 1883-Phoenix Jan 6, 1949) A con- 
scientious technician who began his ca- 
reer as a cameraman, won his spurs with 
Douglas Fairbanks, developed into a 
director of melodramas and spectaculars 
—Red Dust (32), Treasure Island (24), 
The Wizard of Oz (38), Dr. lekyll and 
Mr. Hyde (41), Joan of Arc* (48)- 
and won his marshal's baton with Gone 
With the Wind*, the credit for which is 
mainly due to its producer David Selz- 
nick (q.v.). 

florey, Robert dir USA. (Paris Sept 14, 
1900- ) French-born film maker who 
has worked largely in Hollywood since 
1921. He was originally a journalist in 
Paris and worked as Feuillade's assistant 
in 1920. In 1921 he moved to Holly- 
wood, worked for some years as press 
agent for Under and Fairbanks and as 
assistant to Louis Gasnier, Sternberg, 
Vidor, and Henry King (all q.v.), and 
then made two experimental short films 
with Slavko Vorkapich (q.v.) in 1928- 
29. He directed the first Marx Brothers 
film, Cocoanuts (29), collaborated with 
Chaplin, and has made some 70 films, 
mostly second features. He was a great 
enthusiast for the American cinema, 

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writing three books on it in the Twenties 
and two later. Since 1950 he has directed 
about 100 films for TV. He also col- 
laborated on the script of the original 
Frankenstein*. 

dir (notably): The Life and Death of 
9413, a Hollywood Extra (28) (short), 
The Loves of Zero (29) (short), Johann 
the Coffin Maker (29) (short), Co- 
coanuts (29) (co-dir: J. Santley), La 
Route est belle (Brit30) (musical in 
French!), Le Blanc et le noir (Fr31) 
(co-dir: M. AUégret), The Murders in 
the Rue Morgue (32), Ex-Lady (33), 
The Woman in Red (34), Smarty (34), 
Hollywood Boulevard (36), Hotel Im- 
perial (38), The Face Behind the Mask 
(40), Desert Song (42), Lady Gangster 
(42), God is My Co-Pilot (44), The 
Beast With Five Fingers (46), Mon- 
sieur Verdoux* (47) (as associate dir), 
Tarzan and the Mermaids (47), Rogues' - 
Regiment (48), Outpost in Morocco 
(48), Johnny One-Eye (49), Vicious 
Years (50), The Gangster We Made 
(50). 

FORD, Alexander DIR Poland. (Lodz NOV 

24, 1908- ) The most significant force 
in the artistic development of the Polish 
cinema, who stubbornly, and despite of- 
ficial opposition, directed several films of 
international class in the prewar years 
(Lenin of the Street, Awakening) and 
has made many notably postwar films. 
He studied art in the Twenties, began 
directing in 1928, made his first feature 
in 1930, and was an active member of 
the Start group after 1932. During the 
war he worked in the USSR with Bossak 
(q.v.) and organized the Polish Army 
Film Unit, the basis of the postwar 
Polish nationalized cinema. He has made 
several outstanding and highly praised 
films: Border Street, The Youth of 
Chopin, Five Boys from Barska Street, 
and Knights of the Teutonic Order. As 
artistic director of the Studio film group 
after 1955 he played a major role in the 
encouragement of young directors and 
the development of the new Polish cin- 
ema. 

dir: Nad Ranem (29) (short), Tetno 
Polskiego Manchesteru/Lodz, the Polish 
Manchester (29) (short), The Mascot 
(30), Legion ulicy/The Legion of the 
Street (32), Przebudzenie /Awakening 
(34), Sabra (Palestine34), Forward, Co- 
operation (35) (documentary), Grand- 
mother Had No Worries (35) (co-dir: 



M. Waszinsky), Ludzie Wisly/ People of 
the Vistula (37) (co-dirs: J. Zarzycki, 
Helena Boguszewska, J. Kornacki), 
Maiden ek (44) (short, co-dir: J. Bos- 
sak), Bitwa o Kolobrzeg/The Battle of 
Kolberg (45) (short, co-dir: J. Bossak), 
Ulica Granicznal Border Street* (48), 
Mlodosc Chopina/The Youth of Chopin 
(52), Piatka z ulicy Barskiej/Five Boys 
from Barska Street* (53), Osmy dzien 
tygodnia/The Eighth Day of the Week 
(GFR/P0158), Kryzacy/ Knights of the 
Teutonic Order (60), Pierwszy dzien 
wolnosci/The First Day of Freedom 
(64), Der Arzt stellt fest (Switz/GFR 
66), Good Morning Poland (69) (docu- 
mentary). 

FORD, John (Sean Aloysius O'Fearna) DIR 

USA. (Cape Elizabeth, Maine Feb 1, 
1895- ) A titan of the American cin- 
ema, the director of over 125 films, 
whose works at their best have mirrored 
the vast saga of the West and the Ameri- 
can Dream. Under the name, Jack Ford 
(John from 1923) he moved to Holly- 
wood in 1913 as assistant to his bother, 
Francis. In 1917 he was hired by Uni- 
versal to write and direct westerns fea- 
turing Harry Carey and made about 
thirty of these until 1921. He continued 
making westerns during the Twenties 
(notable among which is The Iron 
Horse) and established an international 
reputation in the early Thirties with 
The Lost Patrol, The Whole Town's 
Talking, and, especially, The Informer. 
After a bad period he reaffirmed his 
qualities with Stagecoach The Grapes of 
Wrath, and How Green Was My Valley. 
During the war he made several docu- 
mentaries for the US Marines (including 
the patriotic The Battle of Midway with 
its tear-jerking commentary) and has 
since built up a solid reputation, mainly 
on the basis of his best westerns, from 
My Darling Clementine, She Wore a 
Yellow Ribbon, and Wagonmaster to The 
Searchers, and Two Rode Together, even 
though their style, atmosphere, and sense 
of authenticity are sometimes predictable. 
He is a powerful personality, though 
contradictory: an excellent artist, yet 
with a sharp sense of commercial appeal; 
a liberal who dislikes prejudice, yet 
paternalistic; sometimes critical of the 
army, sometimes ultramilitaristic — ho 
often seems the heir of Thomas Ince. 
A common theme is evident in some of 
his best films: that of a group of people 



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facing death or difficult perils. Concern- 
ing this, he told Jean Mi try in 1956: "I 
would think that it is for me a means 
of confronting individuals. The moment 
of tragedy allows them to define them- 
selves, to take stock of who they are, to 
shake off their indifferences, inertia, con- 
ventions, their 'ordinariness.' To find the 
unusual in the commonplace, the heroic 
in the everyday, is a dramatic device 
that suits me. It's like finding comedy 
in tragedy." "A film maker can be iden- 
tified through his manner of telling a 
story, his direction. The plot situations 
are only a starting point. One must go 
beyond them." He has said elsewhere: 
"I am of Irish origin but of Western cul- 
ture. What interests me is the folklore 
of the West, to show the reality almost 
like a documentary. I have been a cow- 
boy. I love the open air, the great 
spaces. Sex, obscenity, perversion, things 
like that don't interest me." And of 
film makers' commercial restrictions: 
"For a director there are commercial 
rules that it is necessary to obey. In our 
profession, an artistic failure is nothing; 
a commercial failure is a sentence. The 
secret is to make films that please the 
public and that also allow the director 
to reveal his personality ... I can't 
count ten films among my work that I 
was able to carry out according to my 
own tastes and attitudes; even being 
one's own producer does not give greater 
freedom, because one must still sub- 
mit to the distributors." Since 1947 he 
has produced most of his own films; 
many of his westerns feature John 
Wayne. 

Dm: 1917-21, some 30 short and me- 
dium-length westerns, including The Tor- 
nado (17), A Woman's Fool (18), Bare 
Fists (19), Marked Men (19), The Wal- 
lop (21). From 1922: Silver Wings (22), 
Cameo Kir by (23), The Face on the Bar- 
room Floor (23), The Iron Horse (24), 
Hearts of Oak (24), Lightnin' (25), Ken- 
tucky Fair (25), The Fighting Heart 
(25), Thank You (25), The Shamrock 
Handicap (26), The Blue Eagle (26), 
Three Bad Men (26), Mother Machree 

(27) , Four Sons (28), Hangman's House 

(28) , Napoleon's Barber (28) (short), 
Riley the Cop (28), Strong Boy (29), 
The Black Watch (29), Salute (30), 
Men Without Women (30), Born Reck- 
less (30), Up the River (30), The Seas 
Beneath (31), The Brat (31), Arrow- 
smith (31), Air Mail (32), Flesh (32), 



Pilgrimage (33), Doctor Bull (33), The 
Lost Patrol* (34), The World Moves 
On (34), Judge Priest (34), The Whole 
Town's Talking* (35), The Informer* 
(35), Steamboat Round the Bend (35), 
The Prisoner of Shark Island (36), 
Mary of Scotland (36), The Plough 
and the Stars (36), Wee Willie Winkie 
(37), The Hurricane (37) (co-dir: Stuart 
Heisler), Four Men and a Prayer (38), 
Submarine Patrol (38), Stagecoach* 
(39), Young Mr. Lincoln (39), Drums 
Along the Mohawk (39), The Grapes 
of Wrath* (40), The Long Voyage 
Home (40), Tobacco Road (41), How 
Green Was My Valley* (41), The Battle 
of Midway (42) (documentary), De- 
cember Seventh (43) (documentary), 
We Sail at Midnight (43) (documen- 
tary). They Were Expendable (45) (co- 
dir: Robert Montgomery), My Darling 
Clementine* (46), The Fugitive (47), 
Fort Apache (48), Three Godfathers 

(48) , Pinky (49) (completed by Elia 
Kazan), She Wore a Yellow Ribbon 

(49) , When Willie Comes Marching 
Home Again (50), Wagonmaster (50), 
Rio Grande (50), This is Korea (51) 
(documentary), What Price Glory (52) 
(remake), The Quiet Man* (52), The 
Sun Shines Bright (53), Mogambo (53), 
Hondo (53) (probably only exteriors, 
dir: John Farrow), The Long Gray Line 

(55) , Mister Roberts (55) (completed & 
co-dir: Mervyn LeRoy), The Searchers 

(56) , The Wings of Eagles (57), The 
Rising of the Moon (57), The Last Hur- 
rah (58), Gideon's Day /Gideon of Scot- 
land Yard (Brit59), The Horse Soldiers 
(59), Korea (59) (documentary), Ser- 
geant Rutledge (60), The Alamo* (60) 
(assist only, dir: John Wayne), Two 
Rode Together (61), The Man Who Shot 
Liberty Valance (61), How the West 
Was Won* (62) (one episode), Dono- 
van's Reef (63), Cheyene Autumn (64), 
Young Cassidy (64) (replaced by Jack 
Cardiff), Seven Women (65). Also PROD 
Mighty Joe Young* and recently a docu- 
mentary on Vietnam for the US Infor- 
mation Agency. 

* FOREMAN, Carl SCEN USA SCEN/PROD/ 
dir Britain. (Chicago July 23, 1914- ) 
Scenarist who played an important role 
in the success of several early Stanley 
Kramer (?.v.) productions: Mark Rob- 
son's Champion and Home of the Brave, 
Zinnemann's The Men* and High Noon*. 
He refused to testify in 1951 for the 

89 



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House Un-American Activities Commit- 
tee and this brought his association with 
Kramer to an end. He moved to Britain, 
wrote the scripts of Losey's The Sleeping 
Tiger (54) (uncredited), David Lean's 
The Bridge on the River Kwai* (57), 
Carol Reed's The Key (58), J. Lee 
Thompson's The Guns of Navarone (60) 
and Mackenna's Gold (67), and his own 
The Victors (63)— which revealed he 
had little directorial talent. In recent 
years he has concentrated his activities 
on production: The Key, The Mouse 
That Roared (59), The Guns of Nava- 
rone, Born Free (65), Mackenna's Gold, 
The Virgin Soldiers (69). 

*FORMAN, Milos rat Czechoslovakia. (Ca- 
slav Feb 18, 1932- ) A young film 
maker of the Czechoslovakia "new 
wave" of the Sixties, who has a warmly 
intimate, gently ironic style and a talent 
for observing the quirks of everyday be- 
havior, perhaps derived from cinéma- 
vérité. He studied drama at the Academy 
of Music and Dramatic Art in Prague 
and while still a student collaborated in 
the script of Martin Fric's comedy, Leave 
It to Me (55). Later he wrote the script 
and assisted Ivo Novak on Puppies (57) 
and assisted Alfred Radok (q.v.) on Old 
Man Motorcar (56). Radok took him 
away from the studios for some years to 
work on Laterna Magic a (Magic Lantern) 
presentations. He shot his first film 
(medium-length on 16mm), Audition/ 
Talent Competition, in 1963 and followed 
this with the medium-length The Glory 
of the Brass Bands/If There Were No 
Music. His first feature, Peter and Pavla, 
a psychological exploration of the mind 
of the modern adolescent, won awards at 
Locarno and Venice, and Forman went 
on to develop his subtle behavioral 
studies in the highly successful Loves of 
a Blonde and Fireman's Ball. He left 
Czechoslovakia in 1968 and eventually 
moved to the USA to direct Taking Off. 
Dm: Konkurs I Audition I Talent Competi- 
tion (63) (two films: Audition and The 
Glory of the Brass Bands/If There Were 
No Music), Cerny Petri Peter and Pavla/ 
Black Peter (64), Lasky jedne plavov- 
lasky/The Loves of a Blonde/ A Blonde 
in Love* (65), Hori, ma panenko/The 
Fireman's Ball/Like a House on Fire/ 
Fire! Fire! (67), Taking Off (USA71). 

FORST, Willi (Wiin Froh*) Dm Austria/Ger- 
many. (Vienna March 7, 1903- ) A 



specialist in Viennese operettas and frilly 
period romances whose films have gobs 
of sentiment and numerous fashionable 
ladies and gentlemen waltzing about dur- 
ing the "good times" of Emperor Franz 
Joseph. His films seemed appealing dur- 
ing the Thirties but have quickly faded. 
A famous handsome lead in numerous 
films from 1922, he directed his first film 
in 1933. 

dir: Leise Flehen meine Lieder (Ger/ 
Aust33), Maskerade (Aust34), Mazurka 
(Ger35), Burgtheater (Aust36), Allotria 
(Ger36), Serenade (Ger37), Ich bin 
Sebastian Otto (Ger39) (co-dir: V. Beck- 
er), Bel Ami/Der Lie b ling schôner 
Frauen (Ger39), Opérette (Ger40), 
Wiener Blut (Ger42), Frauen sind keine 
Engel (Ger43), Wiener Mddeln (Ger45, 
released 49), Die Siinderin/The Sinner 
(GFR50), Es geschehen noch W under 
(GFR51), Dieses Lied bleibt bei Dir 
(GFR54), Kaiserjâger (Aust56), Die 
Unentschuldigte Stunde (Aust57) (re- 
make), Wien, du Stadt meiner Traume 
(Aust57) (remake). Also supervised Die 
Drei von der Tankstelle (GFR55) (dir: 
Hans Wolff, remake). 

POU SEN dir China. (? - ?) Good film 
maker of the Shanghai school who di- 
rected two interesting films in 1947-48: 
The Light of Thousands of Families and 
Humanity's Hope. 

FOX, William (William Friedman) PROD 
USA. (Hungary Jan 1, 1879-New York 
May 1, 1952) Originally in the garment 
industry in New York, he moved into 
exhibition in 1904 by establishing a flour- 
ishing chain of Nickelodeons, headed the 
battle of the independents against the 
Edison {q.v.) Trust, became a producer 
around 1914, and launched Theda Bar a, 
Tom Mix, Buck Jones, Charles Farrell 
and Janet Gaynor. He took an early 
interest in sound as a means of acquir- 
ing more power and his Fox Movietone 
sound system (developed by Theodore 
Case from the De Forest system of 
sound photographed directly onto film) 
was a rival to Warner's (q.v.) Vita- 
phone system. [For a few months in 
1929 he acquired controlling interest in 
Loew's Inc. (owners of MGM) but the 
stock market crash created financial dif- 
ficulties for him and the US Justice De- 
partment instituted a suit against him 
for operating a trust This began his 
downfall: he was forced to relinquish 



Copyrighted material 



control of Fox Theaters Corporation and 
Fox Films to a board of trustees and was 
hounded by creditors. The Fox com- 
panies were eventually merged with 
Twentieth Century in 1935. William 
Fox thereafter had a checkered career 
and went to prison in 1942 for attempt- 
ing to bribe a federal judge. He was one 
of the great power wielders of the in- 
dustry and the ripples of his activities 
took decades to subside.] 

franciolini, Gianni DiR Italy. (Florence 
June 1, 1910-Rome May 1960) He made 
his debut with the interesting Fari nella 
Nebria/ Lighthouse in the Fog (41) but 
thereafter had to work on many com- 
missioned films, notable among which 
is the comedy, Buon giorno elefante! 
(52), from Zavattini's script 

* FRANCIS, Freddie photog/dir Britain. 
(London 1917— ) An outstanding Brit- 
ish cameraman with a fine sense of com- 
position. He began his film career in 
1935 as an assistant and did his best 
work on the films of several of the new 
British directors of the Fifties and early 
Sixties: for Jack Clayton, Room at the 
Top* (59), The Innocents (61 ); for Karel 
Reisz, Saturday Night and Sunday Morn- 
ing* (60); for Jack Cardiff, Sons and 
Lovers (60); for Joseph Losey, Time 
Without Pity* (56). Began directing in 
1962 with less successful results but has 
made several stylish horror films. 
dir: Two and Two Make Six (62), 
Vengeance (62), Paranoiac (63), Night- 
mare (63), The Evil of Frankenstein 
(64), Hysteria (64), Dr. Terror's House 
of Horrors (64), Traitor's Gate (64), 
The Skull (65), The Psychopath (66), 
The Deadly Bees (66), They Came from 
Beyond Space (66), Torture Garden 

(67) , Dracula Has Risen from the Grave 

(68) , Mumsy, Nanny, Sonny, and Girly 

(69) . 

FRANJU, Georges Dm France. (Fougères, 
Brittany April 12, 1912- ) A film 
maker with a mocking sense of anarchic 
black humor and a feeling for unusual 
atmospheres. He was interested in the 
cinema from an early age, made a short, 
Le Métro, in 1934 with Henri Langlois 
(with whom he later founded the Ciné- 
mathèque française), was secretary of 
the International Federation of Film Ar- 
chives from 1938-45, and from 1945- 
53 secretary of Jean Painlevé's (q.v.) 



Institut de Cinématograprr Scien- 
tifique. From 1948-58 he was one of 
the best French documentary directors 
(Le Sang des bêtes, Hôtel des Invalides, 
Les Poussières) . He made his first fiction 
feature in 1958, the remarkable La Tête 
contre les murs, which he followed with 
the atmospheric Eyes Without a Face, 
excellent adaptations of Thérèse Des- 
queroux and Thomas l'Imposteur, a trib- 
ute to Feuillade (q.v.), Judex, and the 
poetic, passionate Zola adaptation, La 
Faute de l'Abbé Mouret (a film he had 
wanted to make for 20 years). He has 
said of himself: "I am a realist through 
the necessity of things. An image on the 
screen has an immediate presence. It is 
perceived as if it were actual. Whatever 
one does, a film is always in the present 
tense. Past time is spontaneously made 
actual by the spectator. That is why 
what is artificial ages badly and quickly. 
Dream, poetry, the unknown must all 
emerge out of reality itself. The whole 
of cinema is documentary, even the 
most poetic. What pleases is what is 
terrible, gentle, and poetic." 
dir (shorts): Le Métro (34) (co-dir: 
Henri Langlois), Le Sang des bêtes* 
(49), En passant par la Lorraine (50), 
Hôtel des Invalides* (52), Le Grand 
Méliès (52), Monsieur et Madame Curie 
(53), Les Poussières (54), Navigation 
marchande/Marine marchande (54), A 
propos d'une rivière /Au fil d'une rivière/ 
Le Saumon Atlantique (55), Mon chien 

(55) , Le Théâtre National Populaire 

(56) , Sur le pont d 'Avignon (56), Notre- 
Dame, Cathédrale de Paris (57), La 
Première nuit (58). 

DiR(features): La Tête contre les murs/ 
The Keepers* (58), Les Yeux sans visage 
(59), Pleins feux sur l'assassin (61), 
Thérèse Desqueroux (62), Judex* (63), 
Thomas T Imposteur (65), Les Rideaux 
blancs (66) (TV), Marcel Allain (66) 
(TV), La Faute de l'Abbé Mouret (70). 

*FRANKEN, Monnui dir Netherlands/In- 
donesia. (1897-1953) Former collabo- 
rator of Joris Ivens (q.v.) on Rain and 
director of several documentaries, in- 
cluding Redding (29) and De Trekschuit 
(32), before leaving for what was then 
the Dutch East Indies. There he made 
the semi-documentary Pareh, Song of 
the Rice* (35) with local nonprofes- 
sional actors, the first notably Indonesian 
film. He made numerous other docu- 
mentaries in the Far East, including 

91 



L/OpyriQhtGd material 



Tanah Sabrang (38) and *t Sal waarach- 
tig wel gaen (39). After the war, he 
assisted J. C. Sol on newsreels and made 
a short film for Philips on musical in- 
struments, Slaet op ten trommle. 

FRANKENHEIMER, John DIR USA. (Malba, 
New York Feb 19, 1930- ) Former 
TV director {Studio One, Playhouse 90) 
whose later films have never fulfilled the 
promise of his first feature. The Young 
Stranger (56), a violent and intense por- 
trait of adolescence. He spent another 
three years in television before devoting 
himself entirely to feature films. Since 
then he has largely offered either con- 
ventional Hollywood melodrama (The 
Birdman of Alcatraz), or unbelievable 
fantasy (The Manchurian Candidate). 
Since 1963 he has produced his own 
films, including the large-budget Grand 
Prix. 

dir: The Young Stranger (56), The 
Young Savages (61), All Fall Down 
(61), Birdman of Alcatraz (61), The 
Manchurian Candidate (62), Seven Days 
in May (63), The Train (65) (begun by 
Arthur Penn), Seconds (66), Grand 
Prix (66) (begun by John Sturges), 
The Extraordinary Seaman (68), The 
Fixer (68), The Gypsy Moths (69), 
/ Walk the Line (70), The Horsemen 
(71). 

FRANKLIN, Sidney dir prod USA. (San 
Francisco March 21, 1893- ) Holly- 
wood pioneer who made his first films 
for Triangle in 1915 and directed his 
best film in 1937, The Good Earth*. 
After Goodbye Mr. Chips (39), he be- 
came a producer: Waterloo Bridge (40), 
Mrs. Miniver (42), The Yearling (46), 
Young Bess (54). 

FREDA, Riccarde dir Italy. (Alexandria 
Feb 24, 1909- ) A specialist in Italian 
period spectaculars who is better than 
his colleague Cottafavi (q.v.), at these 
exploitation films. 

dir (notably): Tutti la Città Canta 
(42), / Miserabli* (46), The Black 
Eagle (46), Count Ugolin (49), Sparta- 
eus (52), Theodora, Slave Empress (53), 
/ Vampiri (54), Beatrice Cenci (56), 
The Giant of Thessaly (61), The Terror 
of Dr. Hitchcock (62), The Spectre 
(63), Coplan FX18 casse tout /The Ex- 
terminators (Fr/It65), Tamar, Wife of 
Er (Israel/It69). 



* FREED, Arthur (Arthur Grossman) PROD 

USA. (USA Sept 9, 1894- ) Lyricist 
on many musicals (all the songs of 
Singin' in the Rain arc by him) who, as 
a producer at MGM, exercised consider- 
able influence on the development of 
postwar musicals, notably those of Stan- 
ley Donen (q.v.), and Vincente Minnelli 
(Q.v.). 

prod (notably): The Wizard of Oz (39), 
For Me and My Gal (42), Dubarry Was 
a Lady* (43), Meet Me In St. Louis* 
(44), Yolanda and the Thief* (45), 
Ziegfield Follies (46), The Pirate (48), 
Easter Parade (48), Take Me Out to 
the Ball Game (49), On the Town* 
(49), Annie Get Your Gun (50), Royal 
Wedding (51), Show Boat (51), An 
American in Paris* (51), Singin' in the 
Rain* (52), Band Wagon (53), Briga- 
doon* (54), It's Always Fair Weather 
(55), Kismet (55), Silk Stockings* (57), 
Gigi (58), Bells are Ringing (60). 

frend, Charles dir Britain. (Pulborough 
Nov 21, 1909- ) Former editor in the 
Thirties (Hitchcock's Secret Agent, Sabo- 
tage) who moved to Ealing under 
Michael Balcon (q.v.) and Cavalcanti 
(q.v.) and demonstrated a particular 
flair for forceful, semidocumentary ac- 
tion sequences in his early films: The 
Foreman Went to France (42), San 
Demetrio, London (43), and Johnny 
Frenchman (45). But, after the com- 
mercial failure of Scott of the Antarctic* 
(48), he made no important films except 
The Cruel Sea (53). 

FREUND, Karl photog Germany/USA dir 
USA. (Kôniginhof, Bohemia Jan 16, 
1890-HolIywood 1969) The greatest 
cameraman of the German silent cin- 
ema, whose contributions rank alongside 
those of Fritz Lang (q.v.) and Carl 
Mayer (q.v.) and who was equally at 
ease with expressionism or actuality. He 
joined the cinema in 1906 and originally 
(08) worked as a newsreel cameraman. 
He emigrated to the USA in 1930, pho- 
tographed numerous films and even 
directed a few horror films, but his work 
in Hollywood was merely that of a good 
craftsman. After 1950 he confined his 
activities largely to TV, including the 
/ Love Lucy series. 

[photog (notably): in Germany for Ur- 
ban Gad, Engelein/Den Lille Engels 
(Ger/Denl3); for Murnau, Satanas 
(19), Der Bucklige und die Tdnzerin 

92 



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(20), Der Januskopf (20), Marizza, 
gennant die Schmugglermadonna (21), 
Der Brennende Acker (22), Die Finan- 
zen des Grossherzogs (23), Der Leizte 
Mann* (24), Tartuff (25); for Max 
Reinhardt, Venezianische Nacht (14); 
for Paul Wegener, Der Golem* (20), 
Der Verlorene Schatten (21), Lukrezia 
Borgia (24); for Fritz Lang, Die Spin- 
nen, II (20), Metropolis* (26); for 
Carl Dreyer, Michael (24); for E. A. 
Dupont, Variété* (25); for Ruttmann, 
Berlin, die Symphonie einer Grosstadt* 
(27); for Paul Czinner, Dona Juana 
(27), Fraulein Else (29). In USA: for 
Mamoulian, Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde 
(31), Golden Boy (39); for John Ford, 
Air Mail (32); for Tod Browning, Drac- 
ula* (31); for Robert Florey, Murders 
in the Rue Morgue (32); for John 
Stahl, Back Street (32), Parnell (37); 
for Cukor, Camille (35); for Sidney 
Franklin, The Good Earth* (37); for 
Clarence Brown, Conquest /Marie Wa- 
lewska (37); for James Whale, Green 
Hell (40); for Jules Dassin, A Letter 
for Evie (44), Two Smart People (46); 
for Minnelli, Undercurrent (46); for 
Zinnemann , The Seventh Cross (44); for 
Huston, Key Largo (48). 
dir: The Mummy (32) (also photog), 
Moonlight and Pretzels (33), Madame 
Spy (33), Mad Love (35).] 

fric, Martin dir Czechoslovakia. (Prague 
March 29, 1902- ) The dean of 
Czechoslovakian film makers, active in 
films for over 40 years (since 1928) and 
with more than 100 films to his credit 
He is known abroad mainly for Janosik 
(36), Past/The Trap (50) and the two- 
part color period comedy based on the 
Golem legend, The Emperor's Baker and 
The Baker's Emperor (51). 

FROELICH, Carl dir/prod Germany. (Ber- 
lin Sept 5, 1875-Berlin Feb 12, 1953) A 
pioneer of the German cinema who be- 
gan to work in the industry in 1902, 
started producing newsreels in 1918. and 
founded his own production company 
in 1920. From 1908-1951 he directed 
many dozens of films, almost all medi- 
ocre. During the Nazi regime he was 
head of Reichsfilmkammer. 

FUENTES, Fernando do DIR Mexico. (190?- 
) Though after 1945 he was a pro- 
lific commercial director, Fuentes has 
made several notable films: a portrait of 



the (then quite recent) Mexican Revolu- 
tion, Vamanos con Poncho Villa (35); a 
remarkable satire set in the same period, 
El Compadre Mendoza* (54), Cruz 
Diablo (34), and, later, Doha Barbara 
(43), a technically accomplished film 
in which Maria Felix had her first major 
role. He contributed to the commercial 
development of the Mexican film in- 
dustry with Alla en el Rancho Grande 
(36), on which the cameraman, Figueroa 
(q.v.) made his debut, 

FULLER, Samuel dir USA (Worcester, 
Mass Aug 12, 1911- ) Former jour- 
nalist and detective-story writer who be- 
came a scriptwriter (largely of thrillers) 
in 1936 and directed his first film in 
1948. He has written all his own scripts 
and has produced many of them. Since 
1948 he has directed numerous mediocre 
thrillers and adventure films, almost all 
imbued "with heavy anti-Communist pro- 
paganda or racist themes" (Fi/m Lexicon 
degli Autori), or with apologies for mili- 
tarist brutalities — but without any other 
bond than this "ideology" in their direc- 
tion and their extremely incongruous 
styles. His career has been in difficulties 
since the early Sixties and he has worked 
on several abortive projects. 
dir: / Shot Jesse James (48), The Baron 
of Arizona (50), The Steel Helmet (50), 
Fixed Bayonets (51), Park Row (52), 
Pickup on South Street* (53), Hell and 
High Water (54), House of Bamboo 

(55) , Run of the Arrow (57), China 
Gate (57), Forty Guns (57), Verboten! 
(58), The Crimson Kimono (59), Un- 
derworld USA (61), Merrill's Maraud- 
ers (62), Shock Corridor (63), The Na- 
ked Kiss (64), Calne /Shark (Mexico/ 
USA67) (disowned by Fuller). 

FULTON, John p. USA (1902- ) Special 
effects cameraman responsible for the re- 
markable tricks in The Invisible Man* 
(33). He has also worked, notably, on 
The Werewolf in London (35), Scarlet 
Street* (45), The Ten Commandments* 

(56) , and Vertigo* (58). 

•FURTHMAN, Jules SCEN USA. (1888- 

1966) Hollywood scriptwriter of the 
Thirties and Forties, notable especially 
for his work with Sternberg (q.v.) and 
Hawks (q.v.). He had a deep sense of 
irony, of sophisticated, droll dialogue, 
and of the development of character 
within a given dramatic situation. De- 



L/opynyr 



spite his talent for dialogue, his scripts 
are never mere repartee, nor are they 
theatrical, and several of Hawks's best 
films owe much to his contribution. Al- 
though he was active for some 40 years 
and wrote numerous famous scripts, he 
was not a prolific writer. In later years 
he also acted as producer on some of 
his films. 

scen (notably): for Maurice Tourneur, 
Treasure Island (18); for Sternberg, Un- 
derworld* (27), The Dragnet (28), The 
Docks of New York* (28), Morocco* 
(31), Shanghai Express* (32), The 
Blonde Venus (32), The Shanghai Ges- 
ture (41), Jet Pilot (50, released 57) 
(completed by Howard Hughes); for 
Howard Hawks, Come and Get It* (36) 
(co-dir: Wyler), Only Angels Have 
Wings* (37), To Have and Have Not 



(44), The Big Sleep* (46), Rio Bravo* 
(59); for Paul Fejos, Broadway (29); 
for Henry King, Any Woman (25), 
Over the Hill (31); for Raoul Walsh, 
Body and Soul (31), Yellow Ticket 
(31); for Howard Hughes, The Outlaw 
(43); for Edmund Goulding, Nightmare 
Alley (47); for Richard Fleischer, The 
Girl in the Red Velvet Swing (56). 

fusco, Giovanni mus Italy/France. (Sant 
Agata dei Goto Oct 10, 1906- ) An- 
tonioni's (q.v.) favorite composer, his 
atonal sounds have matched well many 
of Antonioni's films. He has also worked 
for Resnais, Hiroshima mon amour* 
(co-mus: Delerue), La Guerre est finie*; 
for Francesco Maselli, / Del fini (60); 
for Mauro Bolognini, La Corruzione 
(64). 



94 



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GAD, Peter Urban Dm Denmark/Germany. 
( Copenhagen 1 879-Copenhagen 1 947 ) 
Notable Danish pioneer film maker who 
directed many of the films of Asta Niel- 
sen (his wife until 1926) from the social 
drama Afgrunden/The Abyss (DenlO) 
to Hanneles Himmelfahrt (Ger22). He 
went with her to Germany, then returned 
to Denmark and made Likkehjulelet 
(27). He usually wrote the scripts for 
these successful dramas, which antici- 
pated many later Hollywood styles and 
genres. 

* gade, Sven(d) Dm Denmark/Germany/ 
USA. (Copenhagen Feb 9, 1877-Copen- 
hagen June 25, 1952) Danish director 
and actor who began with Maharejaens 
Yndlings hustru (16), directed a pomp- 
ously elegant version of Hamlet* (20) 
with Asta Nielsen in Berlin, and 1922- 
29 was in Hollywood as an actor, as 
an art director (e.g., Lubitsch's Rosita), 
and as director on the mediocre Siege 
(25), Peacock Feather (25), The Blond 
Saint (26), Watch Your Wife (26), Into 
Her Kingdom (26), Jazz Mad (28). He 
then returned to Denmark, where he 
made Ballet en Danser (38). 

GAISSEAU, Pierre-Dominique DIR France 
(Mézières March 10, 1923- ) Docu- 
mentary film maker who has taken part 
in many expeditions (the Congo, the 
Amazon, New Guinea, Mali, etc.). He 
made the interesting Forêt sacrée (54) 
in Africa, but his Le Ciel et la boue/ 
The Sky Above, the Mud Below, which 
won an Oscar, sacrifices meaning for 
picturesqueness. 

dir: Des hommes qu'on appelle sauvages 
(50), Pays bassari (52), Naloutai (52), 
Forêt sacrée (54), Survivants de la pré- 
histoire (55), Le Ciel et la boue (61), 
New York sur mer (63), Flame and the 
Fire (65), Round Trip (67). 



*galeen, Henrik scen/dir Germany. 
(Czechoslovakia ? - ?) Perhaps the 
most important single influence on the 
development of film expressionism in 
Germany, he is the scriptwriter and/or 
director of such notable films as Der 
Golem, Nosferatu, Waxworks, The Stu- 
dent of Prague, and Unholy Love. He 
was originally a journalist, then secretary 
to novelist Hans Heinz Ewers (author of 
the script of the first Student of Prague, 
the novel Alraune, and other fantasy 
stories). He began working in the cin- 
ema around 1910. He left Germany with 
the advent of Hitler and apparently 
settled in the USA. 

dir: Der Golem* (14) (co-dir: Wege- 
ner), Die Rollende Kugel (19), Judith 
Trachtenberg (20), Stadt in Sicht (23), 
Die Liebesbriefe der Baronin von S . . . 
(24), Der Student von Prag (26), Al- 
raune /Mandrake /Unholy Love/ A Daugh- 
ter of Destiny (27), Sein grôsster Bluff 
(27) (co-dir: Harry Piel), After the 
Verdict (Brit29), Salon Dora Green/ 
Die F allé (33). 

scen: Peter Schlemil (19) (dir: Stellan 
Rye), Die Geliebte Roswolskys (21) 
(dir: Felix Basch), Der Golem, wie er in 
die Welt Kam* (20) (dir: Wegener), 
Nosferatu* (23) (dir: Murnau), Das 
Wachsfigurenkabinett* (24) (dir: Paul 
Leni), Das Fraulein von Amt (25) (dir: 
C.-H. Schroth), Zigano, der Brigant vom 
Monte Diavolo (25) (dir: Harry Piel), 
Die Dame mit der Maske (28) (dir: 
W. Thiele), Schatten der Unterwelt (31) 
(dir: Harry Piel), and all his own films. 

GALINDO, Alejandro DIR Mexico. (1911- 
) A prolific director whose work is of 
variable quality, mostly mediocre but 
also including some of the best Mexican 
films: Mientras Mexico Duerme (38), 
Campeon sin Corona (45), Esquina 
Bajan (48) and, especially, Espaldos 



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Nojaldas (53) on the exploitation of mi- 
grant Mexican workers in the USA. 

6ALL0, Mario DiR Argentina. (Barletta, 
Italy July 31, 1878-Bucnos Aires May 8, 
1945) The father of the Argentinian cin- 
ema, he was originally a photographer 
and choir director in Buenos Aires before 
directing or producing (from 1908-23) 
films largely based on 19th-century Ar- 
gentinian history, such as El Fusilla- 
miento de Dorrego (08). 

GALLONE, Carmine DIR Italy. (Taggia, Im- 
peria Sept 18, 1886- ) Prolific and 
versatile veteran Italian film maker who 
began with flamboyant "high life" melo- 
dramas with Lyda Borelli, La Donna 
Nuda (13), etc., or Soava Gallone, Ava- 
tar (15), Maman poupée (18), etc. He 
made one of the numerous versions of 
Gli Ultimi Giorni di Pompei/The Last 
Days of Pompeii (26) from Bulwer- 
Lytton's novel, worked in Berlin, Lon- 
don, and Paris — where he made some 
populist films, including Un soir de rafle 
(31) — before returning to Italy to sing 
the praises of fascism in Scipio A f ricanas 
(37), rumored to have been written by 
Mussolini, and Odessa in Flames (42). 
He also made one of the numerous ver- 
sions of "The Two Orphans," Le Due 
Orfanelle* (42), and several opera films, 
e.g., The Dream of Butterfly (39). After 
the war he switched to the side of the 
Italian partisans in Davanti a lui Tre- 
mava Tutta Roma (46) before returning 
to opera films — Rigoletto (47), // Tro- 
vatore (47), Madame Butterfly (55), etc., 
and Roman spectaculars, Messalina (51), 
Carthage in Flames (59), etc. 

GANCE, Abel DiR France. (Paris Oct 25, 
1889- ) One of the giants of the cin- 
ema, a man of monumental talents who 
moved mountains and was almost 
crushed by them, an innovator who suf- 
fered in France as Stroheim did in Holly- 
wood. His roots were in Griffith (q.v.) 
and Thomas Ince (q.v.) but also in the 
French traditions of literature, theater, 
and film and in his own largely self- 
taught cultural knowledge. [Though in- 
tended by his bourgeois family for a 
professional career, he was passionately 
enamoured of the theater and in 1907 
took a job acting in Brussels, whare he 
wrote his first film script. He returned to 
Paris, acted in numerous films, and wrote 
short scripts for directors like Albert 



Capellani (q.v.) and Louis Feuillade 
(<7.v.). In 1911 he formed his own pro- 
duction company and made his first film 
La Digue (ou pour sauver la Hollande), 
a period drama. Then followed several 
routine dramas (but including a black 
comedy, La Folie du Docteur Tube, 
using experimental camera effects).] He 
flirted with film impressionism but his 
talents transcended this school and he 
incorporated its lessons into his own ap- 
proach. With the sophisticated Mater 
Dolorosa (17) and La Dixième Sym- 
phonie (18) he established himself as a 
front-rank director. He then pushed inter- 
cutting as a metaphorical device to its 
extreme limits in J'accuse (19) and La 
Roue (22), both fevered, monumental 
epics, the former on the terrible wastage 
of war, the latter on love, suffering, and 
death among a family of railway workers. 
In the brilliant Napoléon (27) he made 
maximum use of camera mobility and 
rapid intercutting or superimpositions: 
"In certain shots of Napoléon, I super- 
imposed up to 16 images. They played a 
'potential' role like that of fifty instru- 
ments at a concert. This led me to Poly- 
vision, to the triple screen presenting 
many dozens of images at the same 
time." His Fin du monde, which came at 
the beginning of sound, was taken out of 
his hands by the producers and he dis- 
claimed responsibility for it. It almost 
marked the end of his career, even 
though he understood the importance of 
the sound cinema and was the first to 
use stereophonic sound in his sound ver- 
sion of Napoléon (34). Though he was 
able to continue working for some years, 
it was only on cheap, uninteresting pro- 
ductions that did not reflect his true 
talents. In the Fifties he rolled back the 
stone from the tomb in which he had 
been buried alive and once again re- 
vealed his abilities in the multiscreen 
short, Quatorze juillet (53) and in 
Magirama (56). His strange genius was 
marked by a single-minded determination 
that flung caution and restraint to the 
winds; according to Moussinac he was a 
torrent who swept pollutants along with 
him, while Delluc once told him he 
never stopped trying to exceed his own 
grasp. This great film maker has said of 
his strength and weakness: "I have been 
perpetually in unstable equilibrium on the 
rails of a small Decauville train. What 
good is a powerful locomotive if it cannot 
run quickly along somewhat solid rails? 



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Champing at the bit, I have had to leave 
the locomotive in the garage for some 
years, and it would be necessary to have 
strong rails in order to launch Polyvision, 
that supercharged locomotive of the 
future." 

Dm: La Digue (11), Le Nègre blanc 
(12), Il y a des pieds au plafond (12), 
Le Masque d'horreur (12), Les Morts 
reviennent-ils? /Un drame de Château 
d'Acre (14), La Folie du Docteur Tube 
(14), L'Enigme de dix heures (16), La 
Fleur des ruines (16), L'Héroïsme de 
Paddy (16), Strass et compagnie (16), 
Fioritures (16), Le Fou de la falaise 
(16), Ce que les flots racontent (16), Le 
Périscope (16), Barberousse (16), Les 
Gaz mortels (16), Le Droit à la vie (17), 
La Zone de la mort (17), Mater Dolo- 
rosa* (17), La Dixième Symphonie* 
(18), J'accuse* (19), La Roue* (22), 
Au secours/ (23), Napoléon (27), Ma- 
rines (28) (short), CHsteaux (28) 
(short), La Fin du monde (30), Mater 
Dolorosa* (32) (remake), Le Maître de 
forges (33), La Dame aux camélias (34), 
Poliche (34), Napoléon* (34) (sound 
version), Le Roman d'un jeune homme 
pauvre (35), Lucrèce Borgia (35), Un 
grand amour de Beethoven (36), Jérôme 
Perreau, héros des barricades (36), Le 
Voleur des femmes (36), J'accuse* (37) 
(remake), Louise (38), Le Paradis perdu 
(39), La Vénus aveugle (40), Le Capi- 
taine Fracasse (42), Manolette (44), 
Quatorze juillet (53) (multiscreen short), 
La Tour de Nesle/The Tower of Lust 
(54), Magirama* (56), Austerlitz (60), 
Cyrano et D'Artagnan (64), Bonaparte 
et la révolution (71) (new version of 
Napoléon*). 

scen: Mireille (08) (dir: Léonce Perret), 
L'Infirmière (15) (dir: Henri Pouctal), 
several for Feuillade and Capellani (08- 
15), La Reine Margot (54) (dir: Jean 
Dre ville), and all his own films. 

CARDIN, Vladimir DIR USSR. (MOSCOW 

1877-1965) He was already famous in 
the theater as an actor for Fyodor Kom- 
misarzhevsky and Vsevelod Meyerhold 
when he became a director in 1913 with 
Klyuchi shchastya/Keys to Happiness 
(co-dir: Protazanov). After the Revolu- 
tion, he was a member of the Cinema 
Committee, directed some of the first 
Soviet fiction films (including a version 
of Jack London's The Iron Heel, 1919) 
in a typically "prewar" style, and in 1921 
gave Pudovkin (q.v.) and Eduard Tisse 



(q.v.) their first opportunities on Serp i 
molot/Sickle and Hammer (Pudovkin 
assist to Gar din) and Colod . . . go loci 
. . . golod/Hunger . . . Hunger . . . 
Hunger (Pudovkin co-dir). In 1919 he 
founded the All-Union State Institute of 
Cinematography (VGIK). He later ap- 
peared as a lead actor in many notable 
films, e.g., Counterplan*, Peasants*. 

GARMES, L«t PHOTOO USA (Peoria May 
27, 1898- ) One of the great Holly- 
wood cameramen, at his best in the Thir- 
ties when his atmospheric, baroque style 
and mood lighting marked several mem- 
orable romances and gangster films. 
[photoo (notably): for Sternberg, Mo- 
rocco, Dishonored, Shanghai Express*, 
An American Tragedy*; for Mamoulian, 
City Streets*; for Ben Hecht and Charles 
MacArthur, Crime Without Passion*, 
The Scoundrel; for Alexander Korda, 
The Private Life of Helen of Troy, The 
Yellow Lily; for Howard Hawks, Scar- 
face*, Land of the Pharaohs, for Paul 
Czinner, Dreaming Lips; for Julien 
Duvivier, Lydia; for King Vidor, Duel in 
the Sun*; for Ophiils, Caught; for Nor- 
man Z. McLeod, The Secret Life of Wal- 
ter Mitty*; for William Wyler, Detective 
Story, The Desperate Hours; for Alfred 
Hitchcock, The Paradine Case; for Mar- 
tin Ritt, Adventures of a Young Man. 
Also co-dir: Angels Over Broadway with 
Ben Hecht] 

GARNETT, Toy Dm USA. (Los Angeles 
1898- ) Former acrobat, cartoonist, 
aviator, and writer who became a script- 
writer for Hal Roach and directed his 
first film, The Spieler, in 1929. Many 
French critics accepted him as an impor- 
tant director after Her Man (30) and 
One Way Passage (32), but his consis- 
tently mediocre work has belied this. [The 
best of his later work: Seven Sinners 
(40), The Postman Always Rings Twice* 
(46), Wild Harvest (47). Most of his 
work in the Sixties has been in TV: The 

Untouchables, Wagon Train, Death 

Valley Days, and so on.] 

OASNIER, Uub J. dir USA/France. (Paris 
Sept 26, 1882-7) Mediocre director of B- 
pictures and serials (100-200 films from 
1909-14) who originally worked for 
Pathé in France (on many of Linder's 
films, 1905-09), moved to the USA as 
the first director of Pathé's American 
branch, and is best known as the director 



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of Pearl White serials, The Perils of 
Pauline and The Exploits of Elaine*, 
made in the spirit of, and with several 
ideas from, the stories of Eugène Sue. 

GATT1, Armond DiR France. (Monaco Jan 
24, 1924- ) Journalist, poet, and play- 
wright who wrote the script of Moron- 
bong*, contributed a major work to the 
young French cinema with L'Enclos 
(61), a tragedy set in a concentration 
camp, and has since made El Otro Cris- 
tobal (63) in Cuba. 

GAUDtO, Tony (Gottono) PHOTOO USA. 
(Rome 1885-Hollywood 1951) A good 
American cameraman, one of the found- 
ers of his profession in Hollywood, no- 
table especially for his work on period 
films, including The Mark of Zorro* 
(20), The Temptress (both dir: Fred 
Niblo), The Gaucho* (27) (dir: F. Rich- 
ard Jones), The Story of Louis Pas- 
teur (35), The Life of Emile Zola* (36) 
(both dir: William Dieterle), The Ad- 
ventures of Robin Hood (38) (dir: 
Michael Curtiz), Juarez (39) (dir: Wil- 
liam Dieterle). [Also, notably: Little 
Caesar* (30) (dir: Mervyn LeRoy), 
Hell's Angels* (dir: Howard Hughes), 
Anthony Adverse (36) (dir: Mervyn 
LeRoy), The Letter (40) (dir: William 
Wyler), High Sierra (41) (dir: Raoul 
Walsh).] 

GAUMONT, Léon inventor/prod France. 
(1863-1946) A major pioneer of the film 
industry in France, founder of the Gau- 
mont Studios and the Gaumont theaters 
(later Odeon) in Britain, who took a 
great interest in perfecting technical de- 
velopments in sound and color (Chrono- 
phone and Chronochrome, e.g.). The ex- 
cellent productions from his studios in 
France, notably those of Louis Feuillade 
(q.v.), dominated the French cinema 
from 1910-20. 

GAZ1ADIS, Dfmirriot Dm Greece. (Athens 
1897^-1961) The most important pioneer 
of the Greek cinema who directed the 
first Greek features at the same time as 
Orestis Laskos (q.v.). He studied photog- 
raphy in German 1913-16, from 1916-24 
worked as assistant cameraman on the 
films of Lubitsch, Korda, Dupont, etc., 
and made several comedy shorts in Ber- 
lin. In 1925 he returned to Greece and 
established the first major Greek produc- 
tion company. His work is marked by a 



romantic expressionism derived from his 
German experiences. After 1933, he 
restricted his activities to newsreels and 
documentaries. 

dir: The Greek Miracle (21) (docu- 
mentary), Prometheus desmotis (27), 
Eros Ke Kimata (28), To Umani ton 
Dacrion/The Port of Tears (28), / Thi- 
ellalThe Storm (29), Astero (29), / 
Apachides ton Athinon/The Apaches of 
Athens (30), Philise me, Maritsa/Kiss 
Me, Marisa (31), Exo ptochia/Be Happy 
(32), The End of Bad Luck (33). 

gebel, Bruno Dm Chile. (? - 7) The di- 
rector of the only Chilean film of merit 
known outside Latin America, La Caleta 
Olvidida/The Forgotten Cove (58), the 
story of a poor fishing village. 

geesink, Joop anim Netherlands. (La 
Haye May 28, 1913- ) Puppet film 
maker who, since 1936, has produced at 
his Dollywood studios near Amsterdam 
some 100-200 short films (mostly pub- 
licity or sponsored films) in an appealing, 
but not particularly original, manner. 
[For Philips, he has made Gala Concert, 
La Kermesse fantastique (51), and Light 
and Mankind; for General Electric (US), 
The Story of Light; for Life magazine, 
The World We Live In; and such other 
films as Cinderella, The Three Muske- 
teers, A Visit to Bols, and The Four 
Masters.] 

gelabert, Fructuoso Dm Spain. (Barcelona 
Jan 15, 1874-Barcelona Feb 27, 1955) 
Pioneer of the Spanish cinema who made 
numerous fiction films in Barcelona after 
his first, Dorotea, in 1897. 

gelenbevi, Boha Dm Turkey. (Istanbul 
1902- ) Turkish film maker who stud- 
ied in France, was assistant to L'Herbier 
(q.v.) on L'Argent, and returned to Tur- 
key in 1942, where he worked first as a 
cameraman then as a director. He is a 
versatile craftsman, has worked with 
many genres, and contributed to the post- 
war quantitative increase in production. 
dir (notably): Dertli pinar (43), Deniz 
kizi (44), Yanik kaval (46), Cildiran 
kadin (48), Barbaros Hayrettin Posa 
(51), Bos besik (52), Kaldirim cicegl 
(51) f Balikciguzeli(53). 

genina, Augutto Dm Italy. (Rome Jan 28, 
1892-Rome Sept 28, 1957) Highly pro- 
fessional but conventional director who 
made some 150 films in 40 years, moving 



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readily from melodrama or costume 
dramas La Gloria (13), Cyrano de Ber- 
gerac (25), Quartier Latin (Ger29) to 
fascist propaganda, Bengasi (42), or the 
lives of saints Cielo sulla Palude/Heaven 
Over the Marshes (49). He returned to 
his origins with his later films, Tre Storie 
Proibite (52), Maddalena (54), Frou 
Frou (57). 

GERASIMOV, Serge! DIR USSR. (Urals 

1906- ) Originally an actor closely in- 
volved with FEKS and the films of Ko- 
zintsev and Trauberg (tf.v.), he directed 
his first film in 1934 and established his 
reputation with Komsomolsk (38), the 
story of the building of a socialist village 
in the Siberian taiga, and Teacher (39), 
one of his best films. After the war, his 
adaptation of Alexander Fadeyev's novel 
about Ukrainian partisans, Young Guard 
(47), was an undeniable success; he fol- 
lowed this with his three-part adaptation 
of Sholokhov's epic novel, Quiet Flows 
the Don. His Men and Beasts (62) is a 
summation of the experiences of bis 
career and life. 

Dm: Do I Love You? (34), Semero 
smelykh/The Bold Seven (36), Komso- 
molsk (38), Uchitel/The Teacher (39), 
Maskarad/ Masquerade (41), Figh ting 
Film Album No. 1 (41), Invincible (42) 
(co-dir: Kalatozov), Bols hay a zemlya/ 
Mainland/The Great Earth (44), Molo- 
daya gvardiya/The Young Guard* (47) 
Liberated China (50) (documentary, co- 
prod, China), Selskii vrach/The Country 
Doctor (52), Nadezhda/Nadejda (55), 
Tikhi Don/Quiet Flows the Don/ And 
Quiet Flows the Don (57) (in 3 parts), 
Lyudi i zveri/Men and Beasts/ Menschen 
und Tiere (GDR/USSR62) (co-dir: Lutz 
Kohlert), Zhurnalist/The Journalist 
(67), V ozera/By the Lake (69). 

GERLACH, Arthur von DiR Germany, (c. 
1877-1925) Worked mainly in the thea- 
ter but directed two masterly films, both 
based on German ghost legends: the vis- 
ually eloquent and most Stendhalian of 
films, Vanina oder die Galgenhochzeit 
(22), and the bleak Zur Chronik von 
Grieshuus, in which the natural setting of 
the Liincberger Heide in Northern Ger- 
many plays a major role. He also appar- 
ently made two earlier films, now lost, 
for Fern Andra. 

GERMi, Pierro Dm Italy. (Genoa Sept 14, 
1914- ) Although not one of the best 



Italian neorealists, he depicted certain as- 
pects of Sicilian life in In the Name of 
the Law (49) and The Path to Hope 
(50). He later turned to satirical comedy 
— at his best in the acerbic Divorce, 
Italian Style, at his worst in The Birds, 
the Bees, and the Italians, Serafino, and 
Seduced and Abandoned, all full of 
meaningless caricatures. 
[dir: // Testimone (46), Gioventu per- 
duta (47), In Nome della Legge* (49), 
// Cammino della Speranza* (50), 11 
Ferroviere (56), L'Uomo di Paglia (57), 
Un Maledetto Imbroglio/ A Sordid Affair 
(57), Divorzio all'Italiana* (61), Sedotta 
e Abbandonata (63), Signor e Signori/ 
The Birds, the Bees, and the Italians 
(65), La Bomba (66), L'Immorale (67), 
Serafino (68), Le Castagne sono buone 
(71).] 

GERSHWIN, George MUS USA. (New York 
1899-New York 1937) Famous Amer- 
ican composer of popular songs and con- 
cert pieces whose music has been used 
in such films as The King of Jazz (30), 
Shall We Dance? (37), The Goldwyn 
Follies (38), Funny Face* (57), An 
American in Paris* (51), Kiss Me, Stu- 
pid (64), etc. His brother Ira (1896- ), 
wrote lyrics for his songs and the lyrics 
for, e.g., Jerome Kern's music in Cover 
Girl (44). Rhapsody in Blue (45) is his 
film "biography." 

GHAFFARY, Forrokh dir Iran. (Teheran 
Feb 26, 1922- ) After many years in 
France, this Iranian film maker returned 
to the difficult film industry of his own 
country in order to give it a new impetus. 
His first film, Jonube Shahr/ Southern 
Teheran (59), was impounded by the 
authorities after one screening; his second, 
a comedy, Arous Kodume? /Who is the 
Bride? (60) was, he admitted, a mistake. 
He has since directed several documen- 
taries and Shabe Quzi (63). 

GHATAK, RStwik dir India. (Dacca, India, 
now Bangla Desh, 1924- ) Remarkable 
Bengalese film maker, as indicated by his 
picaresque Ajaantrik* (58). Also, no- 
tably, Bari Thekey Pauye/The Vagrants 
(59), Meghey Dhaaka Taar a/The Red 
Star Hidden by the Moon (61), Subarna 
Rekha (64). 

GHIONE, fmlHo dir Italy. (Turin 1879- 
Rome Jan 7, 1930) Major pioneer of the 
Italian cinema who made numerous "high 

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life" melodramas, then turned to thriller 
serials in the Fantômas* manner, no- 
tably: Za la Mort (16), / Topi Grigi (18) 
(8 episodes), Dollari e fraks (19) (4 
episodes), Za la Mort contra Za la Mort 
(21). He was also an actor, e.g., in Gal- 
lone's The Last Days of Pompeii (26). 

•GIBBONS, Cedrie ART DIR USA. (Dublin 
March 23, 1893-1960) The dean of 
Hollywood designers who worked on sets 
for Edison 1915-17, for Goldwyn 1918- 
24, and was chief art director for MGM 
1924-56. His architectural approach is 
evident on many notable MGM films 
during these years, from Greta Garbo 
vehicles to literary adaptations to mu- 
sicals: The Wind* (28), Susan Lennox, 
Her Fall and Rise (31), Private Lives 
(31), Grand Hotel (32), Mutiny on the 
Bounty (36), Romeo and Juliet (36), 
The Good Earth* (37), Pride and Preju- 
dice (40), Blossoms in the Dust (41), 
Gaslight* (44), The Yearling (46), Little 
Women (49), An American in Paris* 
(51). He also co-directed one feature, 
Tarzan and his Mate (34), and is de- 
signer of the Oscar statuette. 

GILLIAT, Sidney dir/scen Britain. (Edgeley 
Feb 15, 1908- ) Originally a script- 
writer in the Thirties (with his usual part- 
ner, Frank Launder) on such films as 
The Lady Vanishes, Jamaica Inn, They 
Came By Night, Kipps, Night Train to 
Munich, he began his directorial career 
with the likeable war film, Millions Like 
Us (43) (co-dir: Frank Launder), and 
the satirical 77ie Rake's Progress (45), 
but has since made many (largely unre- 
markable) comedies, thrillers, and light 
dramas. 

GODARD, Jean-Luc Dm France/Britain. 
(Paris Dec 3, 1930- ) One of the 
strongest forces to come from the nou- 
velle vague, an intellectual, self-analyt- 
ical, impatient film maker who is totally 
dedicated to his art and whose explo- 
ration of all the potentialities of cinematic 
language made him one of the strongest 
influences on the cinema of the Sixties. 
[Originally a critic, he wrote his first 
pieces in 1950, made his first short film 
in 1954, wrote continuously through the 
Fifties, and made several more shorts 
before directing his first feature in 1959, 
A bout de souffle. Since then he has di- 
rected numerous features and his style 
has become increasingly abstract. He 



works rapidly, often on a low budget and 
tends to improvise during shooting, how- 
ever complete or sketchy his original 
scenario.] Though his films were origi- 
nally socially and politically uncommitted, 
he began, almost in spite of himself, to 
ask questions about the anarchistic con- 
ception of life (A bout de souffle), the 
Algerian war (Le Petit soldat), and the 
feminine condition in the modern world 
(Vivre sa vie, Une femme mariée). His 
cynical nihilism has its positive aspect in 
the certain quality of spirit often found in 
his films. [After Bande à part (64), his 
original anarchism developed through 
philosophic social studies, which have 
been increasingly de-dramatized (Une 
femme mariée, Masculin-féminin, Deux 
ou trois choses . . . ), to revolutionary 
political commitment pervaded by a deep 
sense of nihilism (La Chinoise, Le Gal 
Savoir, Weekend, One Plus One). His 
esthetic has become less concerned with 
plot and drama in the usual sense and 
more with dialectic and even with rhe- 
toric—political in intent, phenome no- 
logical in its exploration of perception 
and communication. The following quotes 
from his writings or interviews suggest 
something of his development: "Editing, 
therefore, at the same time that it denies, 
announces and prepares the way for di- 
recting; they are interdependent. To 
direct is to plot, and one speaks of a plot 
as well or poorly knit" (1956). "I con- 
sider myself an essayist. I construct 
essays in novel form and novels in the 
form of essays: except that I film them 
rather than write them ... To my 
mind, there is a profound continuity 
among the various modes of expressing 
oneself" (1962). "Basically (in Vivre sa 
vie), I would like to show what modern 
philosophy calls existentialism as opposed 
to essence. However, thanks to cinema, 
which can demonstrate that the two are 
not really in opposition to each other at 
all, I want to prove that existentialism 
presupposes essence and vice versa" 
(1962). "I believe I start more from the 
documentary, in order to give truth to 
fiction. That's why I've worked with 
excellent, professional actors — without 
them my films would not be as good . . . 
By being a realist one discovers the 
theater and by being theatrical ... As 
in The Golden Coach*: behind the the- 
ater is life and behind life, the theater 
. . . And why not make reconstructed 
newsreels like Méliès (q.v.) did? Today 



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we. should show Castro and Johnson, 
played by actors. ... We would add 
real footage and people would love all 
that. I'm sure of it" (1962). "It seems 
to me that we have to discover everything 
about everything. There is only one solu- 
tion and that is to turn one's back on the 
American cinema . . . We are now in a 
period of rupture. We must turn to life 
again. We must move into modern life 
with a virgin eye" (1966). "You could 
say that Pierrot is not really a film. 
It is an attempt at cinema. And the cin- 
ema, by forcing reality to unfold itself, 
reminds us that we must attempt to 
live" (1965). "(Cinema) belongs to the 
bourgeoisie, to the bourgeois mentality. 
Even in the countries of Eastern Europe. 
Cinema is capitalism in its purest form 
. . . And people don't ask questions 
when they are faced with a film, either. 
They say to themselves: cinema is for 
distraction . . . This is because we live 
and work without questioning the clichés, 
the taboos . . . My film, Le Petit soldat, 
was more or less true with regard to the 
cinema and more or less false with regard 
to everything else and was therefore a 
mediocre film . . . (The theory of cin- 
ema) does in fact enter into La Chinoise 
because cinema itself is called in ques- 
tion. I can't conceive of how its inter- 
vention in the film could be reduced — 
even though, paradoxically, this tends 
toward narcissism" (1967). Godard's 
practice is now to film en groupe (the 
Dziga Vertov Group) and he believes 
that "right ideas come from social prac- 
tice," of which there are three modes — 
scientific experiment by film theorists, the 
struggle for production, and the class 
struggle. He now considers all his work 
prior to Le Gai Savoir to have been only 
on the first of these levels. "My idea of 
film hasn't changed. It has gone Li its 
own direction and needs to find the right 
allies" (1969).] 

dir: Opération Béton (54) (short), Une 
femme coquette (55) (short), Tous les 
garçons s'appellent Patrick (57) (short), 
Charlotte et son Jules (58) (short), Une 
histoire d'eau (58) (short, co-dir: Truf- 
faut), A bout de souffle* (59), Le Petit 
soldat (60), Une femme est une femme 

(61) , Les Sept péchés capitaux (61) (one 
episode), Vivre sa vie* (62), Rogopag 

(62) (one episode), Les Carabiniers* 

(63) , Les Plus belles escroqueries du 
monde (63) (one episode), Le Mépris* 
(63), Paris vu par . . . (64) (one epi- 



sode), Bande à part* (64), Une femme 
mariée* (64), Alphaville* (65), Pierrot 
le fou* (65), Masculin-féminin* (66), 
Made in USA (66), Deux ou trois choses 
; que je sais d'elle (66), Le Plus vieux 
métier du monde/L'Amour à travers les 
âges (67) (one episode), Loin de Viet- 
nam (67) (one episode), La Chinoise 
(67), Vangelo 70 (67) (one episode), 
Weekend (67), Le Gai Savoir (68), One 
Plus One/ Sympathy for the Devil (Brit 
68), Une film comme les autres/ A Film 
Like AU the Others (68), Pravda (69, in 
Czechoslovakia), British Sounds/ See You 
at Mao (Brit69), Le Vent d'est /Vento 
: dell'est (Fr/It69), Struggle in Italy 
(Fr/It69), Vladimir et Rosa (Fr/GFR 
70). Also, One P M.I One Parallel Movie 
(USA70), dir: D. A. Pennebaker) was 
derived from Godard's unfinished One 
A.M. 

•GOLDWYN, Samuel B. (Samuel B. Goldfish) 

prod USA. (Warsaw Aug 27, 1884- ) 
Independent-minded Hollywood producer 
with a forceful personality and great 
ability who emigrated from Poland to the 
States as a youth, became an apprentice 
in a glove factory, prospered, and eventu- 
ally owned a lucrative glove agency. He 
was enamoured of show business since 
he first met and married Blanche Lasky, a 
former vaudeville performer. With her 
brother, Jesse L. Lasky (q.v.), he pro- 
duced his first film in 1913, The Squaw 
Man, directed by Cecil B. DeMille (q.v.). 
Soon after the Lasky company merged 
with Zukor's Famous Players, he re- 
signed to set up his own company (1916) 
with Edgar and Archibald Selwyn (the 
"Goldwyn" name came from a merger of 
Goldfish with Selwy/i). The famous 
MGM Lion trademark was originally 
used by the Goldwyn company. Its first 
films, notably those with Géraldine Far- 
rar, were successful, but after 1919 the 
company, began to run into difficulties 
that eventually led to the removal of 
Samuel Goldwyn from an active role in 
the company. It was acquired by Loew's 
Inc. and on April 17, 1924 merged with 
Metro under Louis B. Mayer's direction, 
soon thereafter officially becoming Metro- 
Golwyn-Mayer. Samuel Goldwyn contin- 
ued as an independent producer (usually 
releasing through United Artists), no- 
tably on: Stella Dallas* (25 and 37), 
Arrowsmith (31), Roman Scandals (33), 
Nana* (34), The Dark Angel (35), 
Come and Get It* (36), Hurricane (37), 

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Dead End* (37), The Goldwyn Follies 
(38), Wuthering Heights* (39), The 
Westerner (40), The Little Foxes* (41), 
North Star I Armored Attack (43), The 
Kid from Brooklyn (46), The Best Years 
of Our Lives* (46), The Secret Life of 
Walter Mitty* (47), A Song is Born 
(48), My Foolish Heart (49), Guys and 
Dolls (55), Porgy and Bess (59). 

goiestan, Ebrahtm prod/dir Iran. (Shiraz 
1923- ) The best Iranian film maker, 
with a background as a writer and intel- 
lectual, whose rigorously constructed doc- 
umentaries, Fire (61), Wave, Coral, and 
Rock (64), and his first feature, Darya 
(64), reflect his keen perception. He is 
also the owner of a film studio. 

GOLOVNYA, Anatoli N. PHOTOO USSR. 
(Simferopol 1900— ) A masterly Soviet 
cameraman who worked with Protazanov 
(q.v.) and on all of Pudovkin's (q.v.) 
films, from Mechanics of the Brain to 
Joukovsky. 

GOPO, Ion Poposcu see POPESCU GOPO, ION 

GOSHO, Heinosuko DiR Japan. (Tokyo Feb 
1, 1902- ) Qne of the greatest Japanese 
directors, the peer of his better-known 
contemporary, Kenji Mizoguchi (q.r.). 
He began as assistant director to Yasujiro 
Shimazu at Shochiku, directed his first 
films in 1925, and has since made many 
dozens of films. According to Iwasaki, 
Gosho's films since 1930 have consider- 
ably influenced the development of real- 
ism in Japanese films, notably, The 
Dancing Girl from Izu (33), Bundle of 
Life (35), and Nameless People (37). 
His films, except for Where Chimneys are 
Seen, Behold Thy Son, and When a 
Woman Loves, are largely unknown 
outside Asia. Donald Richie and J. L. 
Anderson wrote of him: "Gosho always 
tries to get the best possible script, some- 
times writing it himself. In the same way, 
he likes to work closely with his art direc- 
tor, showing an almost fanatical concern 
over details . . . 'Goshoism,' now an ac- 
cepted critical term often used by Japa- 
nese writers on film, has been defined as a 
style incorporating 'something that makes 
you laugh and cry at the same time* . . . 
Gosho's essential concern in both his life 
and films, has been the understanding of 
human life, the purpose of 'the film direc- 
tor's life (being) to describe the real life 
around him and create works which ex- 



press the true feelings of human beings* 
. . . Thus Gosho, in perfecting the form 
of the shomin-geki, the drama of common 
people, raised it to the level of personal 
tragedy. His feelings made it impossible 
for him to create any war films accept- 
able to the government. He would turn 
any subject, no matter how military, into 
a simple love story or a shomln-geki. The 
poor health from which he has suffered 
all his life was all that saved him from 
official wrath . . . Gosho's belief in hu- 
manity is a very genuine thing. He seems 
to set the camera rolling by itself and 
then gently whispers to you that these 
people are worth saving ... No one in 
Gosho's type of film is every really to 
blame for what happens." 
DiR (notably): Sabishii Rambo-mono/ 
The Lonely Roughneck (27), Karakuri 
Musume/Tricky Girl (27), Mura no Ha- 
nayome/The Village Bride (28), Ma- 
damu to Nyobo/The Neighbor's Wife 
and Mine (31), Izu no Odoriko / 'Dancing 
Girl from Izu (33), Hanayome no Ne- 
goto/The Bride Talks in Her Sleep (33), 
Ikitoshi Ikerumono/ Everything that Lives 

(34) , Jinsei no O-nimotsu I Bundle of life 

(35) , Nameless People (37), Mokusekif 
Wooden Head (40), Shinsetsu/New 
Snow (42), Ikite Iru Sugoroku/The Liv- 
ing Sugoroku (43), Izu no Musume- 
tachi/The Girls of Izu (45), Ima Hito- 
tubil Once More (47), Wakare Kumo/ 
Dispersing Clouds (51), Entotsu no 
Mieru Basho /Where Chimneys are Seen/ 
Three Chimneys* (53), Ai to Shi no 
Tanima/The Valley Between Life and 
Death (54), Osaka no Yada/An Inn at 
Osaka (54), Niwatori wa Futataki Naku/ 
The Cock Crows Again (54), Take- 
kurabe I Growing Up I Adolescence (55), 
Kiiroi Karasu/The Yellow Crow/Behold 
Thy Son (57), Banka/ Dirge (57), Ari no 
Machi no Maria/Village Wife /Maria of 
the Ant Village (58), Hotarubi (58), 
Yoku (58), Hibari no Takekurabe (59), 
Waga Ai/When a Woman Loves (60), 
Ryoju (61), Elegy of the North (61), 
Kumo ga Chigireru Toki/As the Clouds 
Scatter (61), Kaachan Kekekon/You 
Must Marry (62), Hyakuman Nin no 
Musume Tachi/A Million Daughters 
(63), Osorezan no Onna/An Innocent 
Witch (66), Our Wonderful Years (66), 
Utage/ Rebellion of Japan (68), Onna to 
Misoshiro (68). 

GOUlDlNG, Edmund scen/dir USA. (Lon- 
don March 20, 1891-Hollywood Dec 24, 



102 



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1959) A former British actor who went 
to Hollywood in 1921 as a scriptwriter 
— e.g., on Fury (23) for Henry King 
and Broadway Melody (29) for Harry 
Beaumont -and became a director in 
1927. He was a prolific director, some- 
times of large-budget films — Dawn Pa- 
trol* (38), Of Human Bondage (46), 
The Razor's Edge (46) -but his films 
are almost all mediocre, though his two 
for Greta Garbo, Love (27) and Grand 
Hotel (32), are worthy of note. 

GRAN G 1ER, Giflas DIR France. (Paris May 
5, 1911- ) A prolific but largely unex- 
citing craftsman who has occasionally 
had good moments in comedy and has 
often worked with Jean Gabin. Notable 
films: Le Cavalier Noir (44), L'Amour, 
Madame (52), Archimède le clochard 
(58), Les Vieux de la vieille (60), Le 
Cave se rebiffe (61), La Cuisine au 
beurre (63), Train d'enfer (65), 
L'Homme à la Buick (67), Fin de 
journée (69). 

GRAS, Enrico DiR Italy. (Genoa March 7, 
1919- ) After collaborating with Lu- 
ciano Emmer (q. v.) on numerous films 
on art (41-49), he moved to Latin 
America, where he made several shorts 
before directing with Mario Craveri 
several pseudo documentaries such as The 
Lost Continent* (54) and Empire of the 
Sun (56). 

GREMIUON, Jean Dm France/Spain/Ger- 
many. (Bayeux Oct 3, 1902-Paris Nov 
25, 1959) Grémillon is one of the great 
French film makers, despite forced pe- 
riods of inactivity and a limited output of 
features (in a 35-year career). He studied 
music (and later wrote the scores for 
many of his own films) until a meeting 
with Georges Périnal (who photographed 
most of his early films) aroused his in- 
terest in the cinema. From 1923 to 1927 
he made a number of industrial docu- 
mentaries and an occasional experimental 
short before making a remarkable fiction 
film debut with Maldone (27) and 
Gardiens de phare (29). His first sound 
film was a failure and he was forced into 
the commercial wilderness for a decade, 
making films in Spain, then (in French) 
at the UFA Studios in Berlin. The pro- 
duction of his first serious film for some 
years, Remorques, was interrupted by the 
outbreak of war and completed in the 
studios in 1941. His brilliant Lumière 



d'été and Le Ciel est à vous dominated 
the worst period of the Nazi Occupation 
but, unhappily, after the war the short- 
sightedness of producers prevented his 
giving full expression to h[s considerable 
talents as director, writer, and musician. 
[His moving, somber documentary, Le 
Six juin à l'aube was mutilated by the 
distributors; his commemoration of the 
1848 Revolution, Le Printemps de la 
liberté, was eventually abandoned by its 
sponsors, the Ministry of Education; and 
other projects evaporated. He spent much 
time on administrative work as president 
of the Cinémathèque française (43—58) 
and of the Syndicat des Techniciens. His 
three features, none made in complete 
freedom, were again not the commercial 
successes Grémillon hoped and he turned 
to documentary. In the last decade of his 
life he made an extraordinary series of 
shorts, mostly films on art; Les Charmes 
de l'existence (49), Au coeur de l'Ile de 
France (54), La Maison aux images 
(55), Haute Lisse (56), and his finest 
achievement in the genre, André Masson 
et les quatre éléments (58), a meditation 
on the mysteries of artistic creation. He 
also wrote the commentary and music 
for Pierre Kast's Les Désastres de la 
guerre (51).] He said of himself and his 
work: "Realism is the discovery of what 
the human eye cannot perceive directly, 
establishing harmonies, unknown rela- 
tionships between objects and beings.** 
"The nature of the cinema, like that of 
architecture, is not to restrict its audi- 
ence. Its function and even its responsi- 
bility is to take stock of our times. It is a 
red herring to avoid encompassing reality 
or to turn back the hourglass in order 
to give the illusion that the times them- 
selves have also been turned back." 
DIR (features): La Vie des travailleurs 
Italien en France (26) (documentary), 
Un tour au large (27) (documentary), 
Maldone* (27), Gardiens de phare* 
(29), La Petite Lise (30), Dàînah la 
métisse (31), Pour un sou d'amour (32), 
G onzague/ L'Accordeur (33), La Dolo- 
rosa (Sp34), Centinella Alerta! (Sp35) 
La Valse Royale (Ger35) (French ver- 
sion of Koenigs Waltzer), Pattes de 
mouches (Ger36), Gueule d'amour (Ger 
37), L'Etrange Monsieur Victor (Ger38), 
Remorques* (41), Lumière d'été* (43), 
Le Ciel est à vous* (44), Le Six juin à 
faube* (45) (documentary), Pattes 
blanches (49), L'Etrange Madame X 
(51), L'Amour d'une femme* (53). 



103 



uopyrigr 



DiR (shorts): Chartres, La Revêtement 
des routes (both 23), La Fabrication du 
fil, Du fil à V Aiguille, La Fabrication du 
ciment artificiel, La Bière, Le Roulement 
à Bille, Les Parfums, L'Etirage des am- 
poules électriques, La Photogénie méca- 
nique (ail 24), L'Education profes- 
sionelle des conducteurs de tramway, 
L Electrification de la ligne Paris-Vierzon, 
L'Auvergne, La Naissance des cicognes, 
Les Aciéries de la Marine et d'Homecourt 
(ail 25), La Croisière de l'Atalante (26), 
Gratuites (27), Bobs (28), Le Petit 
Babouin (32), Les Charmes de Vexistence 
(49) (co-dir: Pierre Kast), Astrologie I 
Le Miroir de la vie (52), Alchimie (in 
Encyclopédie filmée series) (52), Au 
coeur de l'île de France (54), La Maison 
aux images (55), Haute Lisse (56), 
André Masson et les quatres éléments 
(58). 

•grierson, John prod/dir Britain/Can- 
ada. (Deanston Apr 26, 1898-Feb 1972) 
Although he only directed a handful of 
films and was mainly a producer, he has 
been justifiably called the "father of the 
British documentary" and was of con- 
siderable international influence as theo- 
retician, proselytizer for the documentary 
film, and organizer. Among his numerous 
other achievements, he founded the Na- 
tional Film Board of Canada and the 
influence of his teachings was still evident 
there many years after he resigned as its 
head. He brought Cavalcanti {q.v.) and, 
briefly, Flaherty (q.v.) into the English 
documentary and encouraged the talents 
of Len Lye, Basil Wright, Norman Mc- 
Laren, Paul Rotha, Harry Watt, Arthur 
Elton, Humphrey Jennings, and Edgar 
Anstcy, among others. His influence con- 
tinued to be evident in the postwar 
renaissance of the British cinema. 
After graduating in philosophy he spent 
1924-27 in the USA, where his interest 
was aroused in the cinema as a means of 
reaching public opinion — as a social 
force, not as an art form. In 1927 he be- 
came Films Officer to the Empire Mar- 
keting Board (EMB) and in 1929 di- 
rected his first film, Drifters. Its success 
enabled him to further his ideas and he 
devoted his time to building up a film 
unit and training its members. Over 100 
films were produced by the unit 1930-33 
and when the EMB was dissolved in 1933 
the entire unit moved to the General 
Post Office (GPO). In 1938 he prepared 
a survey on the possibilities of film pro- 



duction in Canada, and in 1939 the Ca- 
nadian Government appointed him Film 
Commissioner, head of the new National 
Film Board. There, he again created a 
cadre of trained film makers able to con- 
tinue his sociological approach to docu- 
mentary when he resigned in 1945. He 
joined UNESCO in 1946 and in 1948, 
back in Britain, became Film Controller 
at the Central Office of Information. In 
1951 he became the executive producer 
of Group Three and in 1957 produced his 
own weekly program for Scottish TV, 
This Wonderful World. He later returned 
to Canada to teach film at McGill Uni- 
versity in Montreal. His influence on the 
documentary film ("the creative treat- 
ment of actuality") over some 40 years 
has been profound and while it is impos- 
sible to give an adequate indication of 
the power of his writings in a single 
quote, the following (1933) summarizes 
his approach to the cinema: "I have no 
great interest in films as such. Now and 
again, shapes, masses, and movements so 
disport themselves that I have a brief 
hope that something of the virtue of 
great painting may one day come into 
cinema ... I look on cinema as a pul- 
pit, and use it as a propagandist . . . 
Cinema is to be conceived as a medium, 
like writing, capable of many forms and 
many functions. A professional propa- 
gandist may well be interested in it. It 
gives generous access to the public. It is 
capable of direct description, simple anal- 
ysis, and commanding conclusion, and 
may, by its tempo'd and imagistic powers, 
be made easily persuasive." 
dir: Drifters* (29), Industrial Britain 
(32) (co-dir: Flaherty), The Fishing 
Banks of Skye (33), So This is London 
(34) (co-dir: Edgar Anstey). 



GRIFFITH, David Work DIR USA. (La 
Grange, Kentucky Jan 23, 1875-Holly- 
wood July 23, 1948) A titan of the cin- 
ema, a director who, though he didn't 
invent film language, molded and shaped 
it — particularly editing — into the means 
of expression of a developing art form. 
Originally a stage actor (under the name 
Lawrence Griffith) and occasional play- 
wright, he first entered the cinema as an 
actor in Edwin S. Porter's Rescued from 
an Eagle's Nest (07) and soon after 
joined the Biograph Company as actor 
and scriptwriter. He directed his first film 
The Adventures of Dollie in 1908 and 



104 



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from then until 1913 directed some 50- 
100 films a year, most of them photo- 
graphed by the man who shot all his 
most famous later films, Billy Bitzer 
(q.v.). Griffith was largely self-educated, 
both in the traditional arts and in the 
new art he was helping create, but his 
Biograph films (though not as ambitious 
or famous as his features) quickly made 
their mark, surpassing the competing 
Vitagraph films produced by James 
Stuart Blackton (q.v.). His scripts were 
often based on literary works and in 
them he developed and perfected many 
varied techniques drawn from films 
around the world — close-ups, parallel 
action, suspense cross-cutting, etc. In late 
1913 he joined Reliance-Majestic (which 
released through Mutual) as head of pro- 
duction, directing personally four 5-7 reel 
features and producing a dozen others. 
In 1915 came his first supreme achieve- 
ment, The Birth of a Nation, a film 
whose dramatic and emotional impact 
has not diminished with time. In July 
1915, Harry Aitken persuaded Thomas 
Ince (q.v.), Mack Sennett (q.v.), and 
Griffith to form the Triangle Film Cor- 
poration. There he produced several films 
of directors William Christy Cabanne, 
John Emerson, Allan Dwan (all q.v.), 
and Edward Dillon, until his new proj- 
ect Intolerance (produced on his Birth of 
a Nation profits) grew so ambitious that 
he had no time for Triangle films. This 
extraordinary film was a commercial di- 
saster compared to Birth of a Nation, but 
its exploration of film techniques opened 
new paths of development for the cinema 
and exerted a worldwide influence on 
other directors. Griffith's contradictory 
personality is revealed in his first two 
major films, oscillating between the 
Southern racist attitudes of Birth of a 
Nation and the liberalism of Intolerance. 
With the advent of the war, Griffith made 
two war films, Hearts of the World and 
The Great Love. With the return of 
peace he turned to romantic dramas, no- 
tably with True Heart Susie and, what 
still remains his most perfect masterpiece, 
Broken Blossoms. His intimate and mov- 
ing style transcended the old-fashioned 
melodrama of films like Way Down East, 
but not that of his large-budget spectacle, 
Orphans of the Storm. Once sensitive to 
the best in foreign influences, he finally 
turned to emulating the traditional Holly- 
wood style and desperately searched for 
money-making films, but never truly suc- 



ceeded. The success of his earlier features 
had helped establish Hollywood as the 
world's film capital; now, little by little, 
it crushed him. Though he lived another 
17 years after The Struggle (31), he 
never made another film. His company 
went into receivership after The Struggle 
and though he made half-hearted at- 
tempts at other projects, nothing materi- 
alized. He lived his last years, forgotten 
and withdrawn from the world, in a room 
of the Hollywood Knickerbocker Hotel. 
Though his creative contribution gradu- 
ally diminished after 1920, in his best 
period he unquestionably made major 
advances in the art of cinema, which 
Léon Moussinac summarized in 1924: 
"He is the cinema's first great name . . . 
a master wise enough to concentrate his 
ambition by a continuing effort, tenacious 
creative experimentation. This artist 
creates, every one of his productions re- 
veals to us some noble truth. Thus his 
genius asserts itself in concern for serious 
emotions . . . His art has many anal- 
ogies with the art of all the primitives. A 
concern for sometimes scrupulous exacti- 
tude; a passion for truth; brutality. Lyri- 
cism, the spirit that animates Thomas 
Ince (q.v.) and without which no work 
can become great and make its mark, is 
almost totally absent. He rarely rises to 
true power (except for the end of Intoler- 
ance) and his choice of means of expres- 
sion is occasionally witness of a weari- 
some puerility. The theme presents the 
same characteristics. His art draws its 
force from its moderation. He concen- 
trates the spectator's full attention on the 
chosen theme and on the emotions that 
are externalized. In Broken Blossoms and 
Way Down East, simple plots are raised to 
the level of tragedies . . . One finds in 
them the eternal contrast between 
beauty and ugliness, good and evil, which 
was used in the beginning of all the arts 
to exalt the masses ... He submits his 
actors to the same discipline he imposes 
on himself. From this comes his con- 
cern for composition, his stylization of 
characters." 

dir (1908-13, notably): The Adventures 
of Dollie, The Taming of the Shrew, 
The Song of the Shirt, For Love of 
Gold, After Many Years, The Call of 
the Wild (all 08), Edgar Allan Poe, 
The Lonely Villa, A Corner in Wheat*, 
The Expiation (all 09), Ramona, The 
Thread of Destiny, In Old California 
(all 10), The Lonedale Operator, Enoch 



Copyrighted material 



Arden, The Battle, The Last Drop of 
Water (all 11), An Unseen Enemy, The 
Musketeers of Pig Alley, The Massacre, 
The New York Hat*, Just Like a 
Woman, Man's Genesis, The Female of 
the Species (all 12), The Mothering 
Heart, The Battle of Elderbush Gulch, 
Judith of Bethulia (all 13). 
dir (all features): The Battle of the 
Sexes (14), The Escape (14), Home, 
Sweet Home (14), The Avenging Con- 
science (14), The Birth of a Nation* 
(15), Intolerance* (16), Hearts of the 
World* (18), The Great Love (18), A 
Romance of Happy Valley (18), The 
Greatest Thing in Life (18), The Girl 
Who Stayed at Home (19), True Heart 
Susie* (19), Scarlet Days (19), Broken 
Blossoms* (19), The Greatest Question 
(19), The Idol Dancer (20), The Love 
Flower (20), Way Down East* (20), 
Dream Street (21), Orphans of the 
Storm* (21), One Exciting Night (22), 
The White Rose (23), America (24), 
Isn't Life Wonderful? (24), Sally of 
the Sawdust (25), That Roy le Girl (26), 
The Sorrows of Satan (26), Drums of 
Love (28), The Battle of the Sexes 
(28), Lady of the Pavements (29), 
Abraham Lincoln (30), The Struggle 
(31). 

GRIMAULT, Paul ANiM France. (Neuilly- 
sur-Seine March 23, 1905- ) The great- 
est French animator, a man of great ar- 
tistic sensibility who began making 
commercials — with Carné (q.v.) and 
Aurenche (q.v.)— in the early Thirties 
and progressed into short and feature- 
length cartoons. His style, though fairly 
conventional, is highly imaginative and 
his themes have benefitted greatly from 
his collaboration with Aurenche, Leen- 
hardt, and Prévert. From Prévert's 
(q.v.) script he made the feature, La 
Bergère et le Ramoneur (53), and, though 
he was not able to complete it as he 
wished, it remains one of the most re- 
markable cartoons in the history of the 
cinema. Thereafter, apart from one short, 
he had to return to the production of 
commercials. 

dir: Les Lampes Mazda (37), Go chez 
les oiseaux (39), Les Passagers de la 
Grande Ourse (41) (feature), Les 
Marchands des notes (42), L'Epouvantail 
(43), Le Voleur de paratonnerres (45), 
La Flûte magique (46), Le Petit Soldat 
(47), La Bergère et le Ramoneur /Mr. 
Wonderbird/The Shepherdess and the 



Chimney Sweep* (53), Le Faim du 
monde (58). 

GRIMOIN-SANSON, Raoul inventor France. 
(Elbeuf June 7, 1860-Oissel Nov 1941) 
The inventor of Cinéorama (also known 
as Cinecosrama), a projection technique 
that anticipated Abel Gance's triple 
screen, Cinerama, and Circlorama. It 
was demonstrated at the Paris Exposi- 
tion 1900 and involved spectators sitting 
in the basket of a false balloon entirely 
surrounded by a circular screen on which 
10 projectors threw a panoramic pic- 
ture. Later, this spectacle toured France, 
Algeria, Belgium, Spain, and England. 
When his enterprise failed, Grimoin-San- 
son lost interest in the cinema. 

gruel, Henri ANiM France. (Mâcon Feb 
5, 1923- ) Animator who developed 
the idea of using children's drawings 
in cartoons also conceived by children 
(Martin et Gaston, Gitanes et Papillons, 
etc.). He achieved his first major suc- 
cess with La Joconde, a blend of live 
action and animation parodying Da 
Vinci's "Mona Lisa." He later worked 
with Lenica (q.v.), Monsieur Tête, and 
has made several sponsored films, no- 
tably, Un atome qui vous veut du bien. 
He directed his first, and to date, only 

live-action feature in 1963: Le Roi du 
village /Moise et l'amour. 
anim: Martin et Gaston (53), Gitanes 
et papillons (54), La Rose et le radies 
(55), Le Voyage de Badabau (55), Le 
Voyageur (56), La Joconde (57), Coeur 
de cristal (57), Métropolitain (58), Un 
atome qui vous veut du bien (59), 
Douze mois (59), La Lutte contre le 
froid (59), Monsieur Tête (59) (co-dir: 
Jan Lenica), Notre Paris (61), Poêles 
d'aujourdhui, cuisinières de toujours (61), 
Etroits sont les vaisseaux (62), La Mar- 
garine Astra (62), Le Rendez-vous 
d'Asnières (63), Contes Zaghawa (65). 

*GRUNE, Karl dir Germany prod Britain. 
(Vienna Jan 22, 1890- Bournemouth, 
Britain Oct 2, 1962) Former actor in 
Vienna and Berlin who was a disciple 
of Reinhardt, became director of the 
Residenttheater, and entered the cinema 
in 1918. After some uninteresting first 
films, he became interested in Kammer- 
spiel and social films and directed the 
first of the "street" films, and his best 
film, Die Strasse* (23). After several 
more ventures into social realism, Ara- 



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bella (24), Eifersucht/ Jealousy (25), 
Die Bruder Schellenberg (26), Am 
Ronde der Welt (27), he fell back on 
conventional historical costume films, 
Kônigin Luise (27), Waterloo (28), 
etc. In 1931 he went to France and then 
to England, where he directed Abdul the 
Damned (35). He founded Capitol Films 
with Max Schach, directed The Marriage 
of Corbal (36) and Pagliacci (36), then 
concentrated on production. 

GUAZZONl, Enrico DiR Italy. (Rome Sept 
18, 1876-Rome Sept 24, 1949) The 
principal director of historical spectac- 
ulars in the Italian manner who estab- 
lished an international reputation with 
the success of his monumental Quo 
Vadis? (12). He was originally a painter 
and designer and designed the sets and 
costumes for all his own films. His 
costume dramas, such as Madame Tallien 
(16), exerted considerable influence on 
Lubitsch ($.v.) and Griffith (<?.v.), on 
Hollywood, and even on some of the 
post- 1945 Italian co-productions. 
dir: Messalina (09), // Sacco di Roma 
(09), La Nuove Mammina (09), Ad- 
riana di Berton (10), Bruto (10), / 
Maccabel (10), Agrippina (10), San 
Francisco (11), Quo Vadis?* (12), La 
Gerusalemme liberata (13), Marcantonio 
e Cleopatra (13), // Lettino Vu to (13), 
Scan I a di Eroi (13), Caius Julius Caesar 
(14), Immolazione (14), L'Instruttoria 
(14), L'Arnica (15), Madame Tallien 
(16), La Gerusalemme liberata (17) 
(remake), // Sacco di Roma (20) (re- 
make), Messalina (23) (remake), Miriam 
(28), La Sperduta di Allah (28), // 
Dono del Mattino (32), Signora Paradiso 
(34), Re Burlone (35), Re di Denari 

(36) , / Due Sergenti (36), Ho Perduto 
mio Marito (36), // Dottor Antonio 

(37) , // Suo Destino (38), Ho Visio 
brillare le Stella (39), Antonio Meucci 

(40) , La Figlia de Corsaro Verde (40), 
Oro Nero (40), / Pirati delta Malesia 

(41) , La Fornarina (42). 

♦GUFFEY, Burnett PHOTOG USA. (Del Rio, 
Tennessee May 26, 1905- ) Highly 
professional Hollywood cameraman who 
began as an assistant in 1923 and is 
notable for his chiaroscuro photography 
on several memorable films of the For- 
ties and Fifties and more recently on 
Bonnie and Clyde, The Madwoman of 
Chaillot, and The Great White Hope. 
photog (notably) : for Wellman, Gallant 



Journey (46); for Robert Rossen, Johnny 
O'Clock (47), All the King's Men (49), 
They Came to Cordura (59); for Nicho- 
las Ray, Knock on Any Door (48), In 
a Lonely Place (50); for Max Ophuls, 
The Reckless Moment (49); for Curtis 
Bernhardt, Sirocco (51); for Phil Karl- 
son, Scandal Sheet/Dark Page (52), 
Tight Spot (55), The Brothers Rico 
(57), Hell to Eternity (60), Kid Galahad 
(62), The Silencers (66); for Dmytryk, 
The Sniper (52); for Zinnemann, From 
Here to Eternity* (52); for Fritz Lang, 
Human Desire* (54); for Don Siegel, 
Private Hell 36 (54), Edge of Eternity 
(59); for Rudy Maté, The Violent Men/ 
Rough Company (55); for Mark Robson, 
The Harder They Fall (56); for Daniel 
Taradash, Storm Center (56); for Jacques 
Tourneur, Nightfall (56); for Jack Gar- 
fein, The Strange One/End as a Man 
(57); for Boetticher, Decision at Sun- 
down (57); for Philip Leacock, Let No 
Man Write My Epitaph (59); for Frank- 
enheimer, The Bird Man of Alcatraz 
(61); for Bryan Forbes, King Rat (65), 
The Madwoman of Chaillot (69); for 
Arthur Penn, Bonnie and Clyde* (67); 
for Martin Ritt, The Great White Hope 
(70); for Paul Bogart, Halls of Anger 
(70). 

GUITRY, Sacha (Alexandre-Pierrc-Georgts 

Guitry) dir/scen France. (Saint Peters- 
burg, Russia Feb 21, 1885-Paris July 
24, 1957) The famous French comedy 
actor, author, and producer found in 
the cinema a device for conserving his 
own stage plays. Though he took an 
early interest in the cinema (his first 
film, Ceux de chez nous, in 1914, was a 
series of intimate portraits of characters 
from the artistic world), it was much 
less of a means of artistic expression 
than a mirror in which to contemplate 
himself, an echo through which he could 
savor his own jokes. His most veracious 
self-portrait was Le Roman d'un tricheur/ 
Story of a Cheat in which he used not 
interior monologue or commentary but a 
kind of running patter to vaunt his own 
personality. Many of his plays have been 
filmed by others, sometimes from his 
own scripts. 

dir: Ceux de chez nous (14), Pasteur 

(35) , Bonne chance (35), Le Nouveau 
testament (36), Le Roman d'un tricheur* 

(36) , Mon père avait raison (36), Faisons 
un rêve (36), Le Mot de Cambronne 
(36), Les Perles de la Couronne (37) 



L/opynyr 



(co-dir: Christian-Jaque), Désire (37), 
Quadrille (37), Remontons Les Champs- 
Êlysées (38), Ils était neuf célibataires 
(39), Le Destin Fabuleux de Désirée 
Clary (38), Donne-moi tes yeux (42), 
La Malibran (42), Le Comédien (47), 
Le Diable boiteux (48), Aux deux 
colombes (49), Toa (49), Le Trésor de 
Cantenac (49), Tu m'as sauvé la vie 
(50), Deburau (50), La Poison (51), 
l'ai été trois fois (52), La Vie d'un 
honnête homme (52), Si Versailles 
m'était conté (53), Napoléon (54), 5i 
Parâ nous était conté (55), Assassins et 
voleurs (56), Trc/j font la paire 
(57) (co-dir: Clément Duhour). 
[scen (from his own plays): Le Blanc 
et le noir (31) (dir: Robert Florey, 
Marc Allégret), Les Deux couverts (35) 
(dir: Léonce Perret), L'Accroche coeur 
(38) (dir: Pierre Caron), Adhemar/Le 
Jouet de la fatalité (51) (dir: Fernan- 
del), La Vie à deux (58) (dir: Clément 
Duhour). His play Bonne chance was 
used in Lucky Partners (USA40) (dir: 
Lewis Milestone).] 



GUY-BLACHE, Alice (bom Alice Guy, mar- 
rhd H«rb«rt Blaché) DIR France/USA. 
(Paris July 1, 1873-USA 1973) Origi- 
nally Léon Gaumont's {q.v.) secretary 



when he was still only making film equip- 
ment, she began making short films in- 
tended for use as demonstrations for po- 
tential clients. She made her first film, 
La Fée aux choux in 1896, some months 
before Méliès (q.v.), and thus became 
the first woman director in the world. 
She made several films for Gaumont 
(including an important Vie du Christ), 
helped establish Feuillade's (q.v.) career, 
married a Gaumont cameraman, Her- 
bert Blaché, and went with him to the 
USA, where he headed Gaumont's Amer- 
ican branch. In 1912 they founded Solax 
Studios and she continued her direc- 
torial career in the States until 1925, as 
did her husband. 

dir (notably): La Fée aux choux (1896), 
Au bal de flore (1900), La Danse des 
saisons (1900), Hussards et grise t tes 

(01) , Sage- femme de première class 

(02) , Le Voleur sacrilège (03), Les 
Petits Coupeurs de bois vert (04), Le 
Courrier de Lyon (04), Paris la nuit 
(04), Le Crime de la rue du Temple 

(04) , Une noce au lac Saint-Fargeau 

(05) , La Esmerelda (05), La Vie du 
Christ (06), (co-dir: Jasset), Beneath 
the Czar (USA13), Dick Whittington 
and His Cat (USA13), The Dream 
Woman (USA14), The Shadows of the 
Moulin Rouge (USA14). 



108 



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HAANSTRA, Bert DiR Netherlands. (Holten, 
Overijsel May 31, 1916- ) The best 
postwar Dutch documentary film maker, 
a superb technician, he began by making 
amateur films, worked as cameraman 
on a feature, Myrthe en de Demoncn 
(48) by Paul Bruno Schreiber, and made 
his first film the following year. He es- 
tablished an international reputation with 
the subtle visual experiments Mirror of 
Holland (50) and Panta Rhei (51), 
worked on many sponsored films (no- 
tably for Shell Oil), reaped a host of in- 
ternational prizes for Glass, and in 1958 
made his first fiction film, Fanfare, an 
amusing but sometimes heavy-handed 
bucolic comedy. [He has since made two 
more features, the disastrous The M. P. 
Case (60) and the outstanding Alleman 
(63). The latter is a documentary fea- 
ture using the "candid camera" technique, 
as in the early short Zoo, to pinpoint 
people's foibles, never maliciously, but 
tolerantly and with a gentle wit. 
DIR: De Muiderkring Herleft (49), 
Spiegel van Holland /Mirror of Holland 
(50), Nederlandse Beeldhouwkunst 
tijdens de late Middeleeuwen/ Medieval 
Dutch Sculpture (51), Panta Rhei (51), 
Dijkhouw/Dike Builders (52), Aardolie/ 
The Changing Earth (53), The Search 
for Oil (53), The Wildcat (53), The 
Oilfield (53), The Rival World (54), 
Gad Shiva (55), En de Zee was niet 
meer/And There Was No More Sea 
(56), Rembrant, Schilder van der Mens/ 
Rembrandt, Painter of Men (56), Over 
Glas gesproken/ Speaking of Glass (57), 
G las /Glass (58), Fanfare (58) (fea- 
ture), De Zaak M. P. /the M. P. Case 
(60) (feature), Zoo (62), Delta Phase I 
(62), Alleman/The Human Dutch (63) 
(documentary feature), the Voice of the 
Water (65) (feature).] 



HALAS, John (Budapest April 16, 1912- 
) and batch e lor, Joy (London May 
12, 1914- ) anim Britain. The most 
consistently successful and prolific British 
animators, they followed in the train 
of Walt Disney in the Thirties and 
Forties, then modernized their graphics 
in the Fifties under the influence of 
UPA. [John Halas studied animation 
with George Pal (q.v.), came to England 
to work on an early British color car- 
toon, Music Man, and met Joy Batchelor, 
who was working on the same unit. After 
a period working as commercial artists, 
they founded the Halas and Batchelor 
cartoon company in 1940. They have 
made over 200 sponsored shorts (many 
of them models of their kind), 800 com- 
mercials, and several TV series. They 
made the first British cartoon feature, 
Animal Farm, in 1954. Notable among 
their work are the abstract Magic Canvas 
(51), The History of the Cinema (56), 
Automania 2000 (63), and The Hoff- 
nung Symphony Orchestra. 
anim (notably): The Pocket Cartoon 
(41), Dustbin Parade (42), Abu series 

(43) (4 films), Six Little Jungle Boys 

(44) , Old Wives' Tales (46), Heave 
Away My Johnny (47), Charley series 

(48) (7 films), First Line of Defence 

(49) , As Old as the Hills (50), Magic 
Canvas (51), Poet and Painter series 

(51) (4 films). Submarine Control (51), 

The Figurehead (52) (puppets), The 
Owl and the Pussycat (53) (3D), The 
Moving Spirit (53), Power to Fly (54), 
Animal Farm* (54), Speed the Plough 

(55) , The History of the Cinema (56), 
The Candlemaker (56), To Your Health 

(56) , The World of Little I g (56) (TV), 
All Lit Up (57), The Christmas Visitor 
(58), The Cultured Ape (59), The In- 
solent Matador (59), The Widow and 



Copyrighted material 



the Pig (59), The History of Inventions 
(60), Foo Foo TV series (60) (33 
films), Snip and Snap TV series (60) 
(26 films), Dam the Delta (60), The 
Colombo Plan (61), For Better, For 
Worse (61), Hamilton, the Musical 
Elephant (62), Automania 2000 (63), 
Hoffnung TV scries (65) (4 films), 
Ruddigore (67), Children and Cars 
(70). Other work includes: Handling 
Ships (45) (documentary), The Monster 
of Highgate Ponds (61 ) (live action, dir. 
Cavalcanti), Is There Intelligent Life on 
Earth? (63) ("Living Screen").] 

*HAll, Charles 0. ART DIR USA. (Britain 
1899- ) After working as a stage de- 
signer in Britain, he moved to Hollywood 
in 1931 and developed a reputation on 
the Frankenstein* films directed by James 
Whale and for his extraordinary machin- 
ery in Chaplin's Modern Times* (36). 
He also designed Whale's By Candle- 
light (33) and Showboat (36), several 
of John Stahl's romances, including Mag- 
nificent Obsession (35), and Robert 
Florey's Vicious Years (50). 

*HALLER, Ernest PHOTOG USA. (Los An- 
geles 1896~Oct 1970) One of the great- 
est of Hollywood craftsmen, he began 
as an actor at Biograph in 1914. was 
cameraman on the serial, Hazards of 
Helen, in 1915. and photographed some 
150 features. He was a complete profes- 
sional without a unique style of his own 
and handled all genres — romance, com- 
edy, drama, and horror — with equal fa- 
cility. 

photog (notably): for Ralph Ince, 
Homeward Bound (23); for Benjamin 
Christensen, House of Horror (29); for 
Howard Hawks, The Dawn Patrol* (30); 
for Michael Curtiz, Woman from Monte 
Carlo (32), The Key (34), British Agent 
(34), Mountain Justice (36), Four's a 
Crowd (38), Four Daughters (38), Mil- 
dred Pierce (45), My Dream is Yours 
( 49 ) , Jim Thorpe — All A merican /Man 
of Bronze (51); for Robert Florey, The 
House on 56th Street (33); for William 
Wyler, Jezebel* (38); for Raoul Walsh, 
The Roaring Twenties (39), Manpower 
(41); for Victor Fleming, Gone With the 
Wind* (39); for Anatole Litvak, All This 
and Heaven Too (40), Blues in the 
Night (41); for Don Siegel, The Verdict 

(46) ; for Jean Negulesco, Humoresque 

(47) ; for Nicholas Ray, Rebel Without 
a Cause* (55); for Anthony Mann, Men 



i in War (57), God's Little Acre (58), 
Man of the West (58); for Robert Al- 
drich, Whatever Happened to Baby Jane? 
(62); for Ralph Nelson, Lilies of the 
• Field (63); for Paul Henreid, Dead 
Ringer I Dead Image (64); for Phil Karl- 
son, A Time for Killing/The Long Ride 
Home (67). 

•HAMER, Robert dir/scen Britain. (Kid- 
derminster March 31, 1911-Dec 1963) 
A film maker who had a brief period of 
brilliance as writer and director with 
Ealing on Dead of Night, It Always 
Rains on Sundays, and the sardonic 
Kind Hearts and Coronets. He was or- 
iginally an editor with Korda, and later 
Ealing, working on Jamaica Inn, Ships 
with Wings, The Foreman Went to 
France. He wrote his first script in 1943. 
Some of his work has European affinities 
(the "poetic realism" of // Always Rains 
on Sundays and the decided French 
flavor of many of his comedies). His 
films in the Fifties are of far less in- 
terest, the impeccable stylization and 
wit of his early films having degenerated 
into vacuous, self-indulgent "sophistica- 
tion." He also worked as a TV pro- 
ducer after 1956. 

dir: Dead of Night* (45) (one epi- 
sode), P ink String and Sealing Wax 
(45), // Always Rains on Sundays* 
(47), Kind Hearts and Coronets* (49), 
The Spider and the Fly (49), His Ex- 
cellency (51), The Long Memory (52), 
Father Brown (54), To Paris with Love 
(55), The Scapegoat (59), School for 
Scoundrels (60). 

scen: San Demetrio, London (43) (dir: 
Charles Frend), Dead of Night* (45) 
(co-dir: Hamer, Cavalcanti, etc.), A 
Jolly Bad Fellow (63) (dir: Don Chaf- 
fey), and his own // Always Rains on 
Sundays, Kind Hearts and Coronets, His 
Excellency, The Long Memory. 

HAMMETT, Dashiell SCEN USA. (1891- 

1961) Major American writer of thrillers 
who exercised considerable influence on 
the development of the Hollywood film 
noir in the Thirties and Forties, both 
through film adaptations of his novels, 
The Thin Man*, The Glass Key, and 
The Maltese Falcon*, and through his 
activities as a scriptwriter, e.g., Mamou- 
lian's City Streets* (31). He was active 
in the antifascist movement in Holly- 
wood prior to the war and consequently 
later suffered from the "witch hunts." 

110 



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harbou, Th«a von scen/dir Germany. 
(Berlin Dec 12, 1888-Berlin July 2, 
1954) Best known for her scripts for 
Fritz Lang (q.v.), to whom she was 
married 1924-33; she wrote all his 
scripts from Der M tide Tod* (21) to 
Das Testament des Dr. Mabuse* (33). 
She was a Nazi and continued her career 
in Germany after the advent of Hitler 
(and Lang's departure from Germany), 
became an official film maker of the re- 
gime, wrote numerous scripts for Richard 
Eichberg, Lamprecht (q.v.), Veit Harlan 
(q.v.) Von Baky (q.v.), etc., and di- 
rected two films. She wrote a few scripts 
in West Germany after the war. 
SCEN (notably): for Joe May, die 
Heilige Simplizia (20); for Murnau, Der 
Brennende Acker (22), Phantom (22), 
Die Austreibung (23), Die Finanzen des 
Grossherzogs (23); for Dreyer, Michael 
(24); for Arthur von Gerlach, Zur 
Chronik von Grieshus (25); and all 
Fritz Lang's films 1921-33. 
dir: Elisabeth und der Narr (33), Han- 
neles Himmelfafirt (34). 



HARLAN, Veit dir Germany /German Fed- 
eral Republic. (Berlin Sept 29, 1899- 
Capri 1964) Self-important, grandilo- 
quent, pretentious director, notorious for 
his anti-Semitic and pro-Nazi films. He 
began in the theater, acted in films, 
1927-34, and directed his first film in 
1935. Goebbels appointed him a pro- 
fessor and state director. His Jud Suss 
(40) contributed to the Nazi persecution 
of Jews. He returned to film-making in 
the German Federal Republic in 1950 
and made many mediocre films. He has 
scripted most of his own films. 
dir: Krach im Hinterhaus (35), Der 
M tide Theodor (36), Kater Lampe (36), 
Ailes fur Veronika (36), Maria, die 
Magd (36), Mein Sohn, der H err Min- 
ister (37), Die Kreutzer sonate (37), Der 
Herrscher (37), Jugend (38), Verwehte 
Spuren (38), Die Riese nach Tilsit* (39) 
(new version of Sunrise*), Das Un- 
sterbliche Herz (39), Jud Suss* (40), 
Pedro soil hdngen (41), Die Goldene 
Stadt (Czech 42), Der Grosse Kônig 
(42), Immensee (43), Opfergang (44), 
Kolberg (45), Unsterbliche Geliebte 
(50), Hanna Amon (51), Die Blaue 
Stunde (53), Sterne tiber Colombo 
(54), Die Gefangene des Maharadscha 
(54), Verrat an Deutschland (55), An- 
ders als Du und Ich/the Third Sex (57), 



Liebe kann wle Gift seln (58), Ich werde 
Dich auf Hdnden tragen (58), Die 
Blonde Frau des Maharadscha (62). 

H arm an, Hugh (Pagosa Spring Sept 31, 
1903- ) end ISING, Rudolf (Kansas City 
Sept 7, 1903- ) anim USA. Constant 
collaborators whose animal cartoons ri- 
valed those of Disney (q.v.) in the Thir- 
ties. They began in 1923, made Arabian 
Nights Cartoons, and, after 1930, Looney 
Tunes (whose star was a loquacious 
Negro, "Bosko") for Vitaphone, one of 
the first cartoon series to adopt sound. 
They also made some of the Happy 
Harmonies series for MGM, which they 
joined in 1938. Their Peace on Earth 
(40) won a Nobel Peace Prize. 

HATHAWAY, Henry dir USA. (Sacramento 
March 13, 1898- ) The director of 
a handful of memorable films, among 
numerous mediocre ones, during a pro- 
lific 40-year career. Though some have 
mistaken this artisan for an artist, he has 
failed to live up to the promise of two 
high points in his career: the first in 
the mid-Thirties with the enormous 
commercial success of Lives of a Bengal 
Lancer and the remarkable Peter Ibbet- 
son; and the second in the postwar years, 
when, under Louis de Rochemont's (q.v.) 
tutelage, he contributed to the introduc- 
tion of documentary realism into the 
thriller with The House on 92nd Street, 

13 Rue Madeleine, Call Northside 777, 
and Kiss of Death. Other notable films: 

14 Hours, The Bottom of the Bottle, 
Circus World, The Last Safari, True 
Grit. He began his career as a child 
actor in 1907, became an assistant direc- 
tor in the Twenties, and in 1932 began 
directing B-westerns. 

[dir: Wild Horse Mesa (32), Heritage 
of the Desert (33), Under the Tonto 
Rim (33), Sunset Pass (33), Men of the 
Forest (33), To the Last Man (33), 
Come on Marines (34), The Last 
Roundup (34), Thundering Herd (34), 
The Witching Hour (34), Now and 
Forever (34), Lives of a Bengal Lancer 
(35), Peter Ibbetson* (35), Trail of the 
Lonesome Pine (36), Go West, Young 
Man (36), Souls at Sea (37), Spawn of 
the North (38), The Real Glory (39), 
Johnny Apollo (40), Brigham Young — 
Frontiersman (40), The Shepherd of 
the Hills (41), Sundown (41), Two 
Gentlemen from West Point (41), China 



Copyrighted material 



Girl (42), Home in Indiana (44), A 
Wing and a Prayer (44), Nob Hill (45), 
The House on 92nd Street (45), The 
Dark Corner (46), 13 Rue Madeleine 
(46), Kiss of Death (47), Call Northside 
777 (48), Down to the Sea in Ships 
(49), The Black Rose (49), You're in 
the Navy Now (51), Rawhide (51), 14 
Hours (51), The Desert Fox/Rommel 
(51), Diplomatic Courier (52), White 
Witch Doctor (53), Niagara (53), Prmc* 
Fa/za/tf (54), Garden of Evil (54), ITte 
Racers (55), T/ie Bottom of the Bottle 
(56), 25 Pace* to Baker Street (56), 
Legend of the Lost (57), From Hell to 
Texas I Man Hunt (58), Woman Ob- 
sessed (59), Seven Thieves (60), Nor/A 
to Alaska (60), tfow /7ie Werf Was 
Won* (62) (co-dir: John Ford, George 
Marshall), Circus World/The Magnif- 
icent Showman (64), Of Human Bond- 
age (64) (completed by Ken Hughes), 
The Sons of Katie Elder (65), Nevada 
Smith (66), The Last Safari (67), 5 
Card Stud (68), True Grit (69), ^/r- 
por/ (70) (completed only).] 

HAWKS, Howard DIR USA. (Goshen, 
Indiana May 30, 1896- ) "He is the 
embodiment of modern man. It is strik- 
ing how his cinema anticipates his time. 
An American he certainly is, no more 
than a Griffith or a Vidor, but the spirit 
and physical structure of his work is born 
from contemporary America and en- 
ables us to better and more fully iden- 
tify with it, both in admiration and 
criticism" (Henri Langlois). He was orig- 
inally a racing pilot and then a fighter 
pilot in the First World War; in 1919 
he joined Paramount as a prop man, 
became an editor in 1922, a scriptwriter 
in 1924 (e.g., Tiger Love), and directed 
his first film in 1926. He became famous 
in France as early as 1927 with A Girl 
in Every Port. He wrote many of his 
own early scripts and later worked often 
with Jules Furthman, Ben Hecht, and 
William Faulkner (all q.v.). He has 
worked successfully in many genres: 
action dramas, westerns, and "screwball** 
comedies. Aviation stories have often 
appeared in his work, Dawn Patrol, The 
Air Circus, Ceiling Zero, Only Angels 
Have Wings, Air Force, etc., with their 
common elements of a male fraternity, 
everyday courage without swagger or 
clarion calls, and relations between men 
and machines that are sometimes docile, 
sometimes hostile. Among his westerns 



(in the broadest sense) one could in- 
clude Barbary Coast, The Outlaw (com- 
pleted by Howard Hughes), the very 
American drama of conscience, Sergeant 
York, Red River, The Big Sky, Rio 
Bravo, Rio Lobo, and even Hatari, though 
it is set in Africa. Here also one finds 
the same male fraternity, the "iron fists 
with a heart of gold," often integrated 
with the natural magic of the landscapes. 
"The people I show," he has said, "don't 
dramatize crises, they deal with them 
quietly as is normal with these kinds 
of men. The average film has too much 
talk. You have to construct your scenes, 
set them up properly, then let the spec- 
tator do a little work so he feels involved. 
Scripts that are easily read are not good 
. . . You have to write what the char- 
acter might think: he motivates your 
story. It is because a character believes 
in something that a situation develops, 
not because you decide on paper, that 
it must develop." He has also made 
several thrillers and screwball or other 
comedies. With Scarface he created an 
exemplary gangster film whose only peer 
is Sternberg's (q.v.) Underworld*; and 
his The Big Sleep is a classic film noir. 
His greatest comedy period was in the 
Thirties: Twentieth Century, a dramatic 
and witty comedy through which one 
can trace the imprint of the American 
crisis of the Thirties, and the marvelous 
Bringing Up Baby, a film he prefers to 
all his other comedies — His Girl Friday, 
I Was a Male War Bride, Gentlemen 
Prefer Blondes, and even Monkey Busi- 
ness. 

dir: The Road to Glory (26), Flgleaves 
(26), The Cradle Snatchers (27), Paid to 
Love (27), A Girl in Every Port* (28), 
Fazil (28), The Air Circus (28), Trents 
Last Case (29), The Dawn Patrol* (30), 
The Criminal Code (31), The Crowd 
Roars (32), Scarface: Shame of a Nation* 

(32) , Tiger Shark (32), Today We Live 

(33) , Viva Villa!* (34) (completed by 
Jack Conway), Twentieth Century* 

(34) , Barbary Coast (35), Ceiling Zero 
(36), Come And Get It* (36) (com- 
pleted by William Wyler), The Road to 
Glory (36), Bringing Up Baby* (38), 
Only Angels Have Wings* (39), His 
Girl Friday* (39), The Outlaw (40) 
(completed by Howard Hughes, released 
43), Sergeant York* (41), Ball of Fire 
(41), Air Force* (43), To Have and 
Have Not (44), The Big Sleep* (46), 
Red River (48), A Song U Born (48), 



Copyrighted material 



I Was a Male War Bride (49), The Big 
Sky (52), O. Henry's Full House (52) 
(one episode), Monkey Business* (52), 
Gentlemen Prefer Blondes (53), Land 
of the Pharaohs (55), Rio Bravo* (59), 
Hatari! (62), Man's Favorite Sport? 
(63), Red Line 7000 (65), El Dorado 
(67), Rio Lobo (70). 

HAYER, Nicolas PHOTOO France. (Paris 
May 1, 1902- ) Talented cameraman, 
especially notable for his ability to create 
fantastic and exotic atmospheres: for 
Del annoy, Macao (39); for Becker, Le 
Dernier Atout (42), Falbalas (45); for 
Clouzot, Le Corbeau* (43); for Daquin, 
Patrie (45), Bel-Ami (54); for Christian- 
Jaque, La Chartreuse de Parma (48); 
for Cocteau, Othello; for Duvivier, Don 
Camillo (52); for Melville, Deux hom- 
mes dans Manhattan (58), Le Doulos 
(63). 

HAYS, WiD H. (Sullivan Nov 5, 1879-New 
York March 8, 1954) The "Czar of 
Hollywood" as president of the Motion 
Picture Producers and Distributors As- 
sociation of America from 1922-45, he 
was closely associated with the notorious 
Hollywood Code (drafted by a Jesuit, 
Father Lord, in 1930), which controlled 
the moral tone of Hollywood films and 
put many producers in fear of the "Hays 
Office." He was a lawyer and postmaster 
general in the Hoover administration 
before taking up his Hollywood job. He 
took his mission seriously. "Motion pic- 
tures, already the principal entertain- 
ment of most people, have unlimited 
possibilities for moral information and 
education. On this account we have to 
protect film just as we protect churches 
and schools." 

HEARST, William Randolph PROD USA. (San 

Francisco 1863-Beverly Hills 1951) The 
most famous American newspaper mag- 
nate, the model for Welles's Citizen 
Kane*, had a continuing interest in the 
cinema. He bought Eclectic Pictures, 
which produced some of the first serials 
(The Exploits of Elaine*, The Perils of 
Pauline, etc.), the stories of which he 
published in his newspapers. He owned 
Hearst-Metrotone News and played a 
role in Hollywood (16-36) by buying 
Cosmopolitan Film Co. (a Goldwyn sub- 
sidiary) in 1920 in order to film vehicles 
for his mistress Marion Davies, but he 



failed in his attempts to push her to 
stardom. 

HECHT, Bon scen/dir USA. (New York 
Feb 28, 1894-April 18, 1964) An au- 
thentic screenwriter, one of the most 
significant Hollywood artists, whose 
scripts (usually in collaboration with 
Charles MacArthur) contributed much 
to the films of Sternberg, Lubitsch, 
Hawks, Milestone, etc. With MacArthur 
(q.v.) he attempted to establish an inde- 
pendent production center in New York 
and, though their work was a commercial 
disaster, made two important films: 
Crime Without Passion and The Scoun- 
drel. [He was originally a journalist 
(1911), wrote his first novel in 1919, 
and during the Twenties made minor 
contributions to Hollywood scripts based 
on his knowledge of the underworld. He 
won an Academy Award for his story for 
Underworld (though Sternberg has said 
there was little left of Hecht's original 
story). He returned to Hollywood after 
the failure of his New York enterprise 
and continued writing scripts and occa- 
sionally directing. His association with 
MacArthur ended in the late Forties and 
his work in the Fifties was of much less 
interest. He spent most of his last years 
reminiscing about the "old days" and 
complaining about the Hollywood sys- 
tem. In addition to his scripts, several 
Hecht-MacArthur plays have been 
filmed: Front Page Story* by Mile- 
stone and His Girl Friday* (remake) by 
Hawks, Nothing Sacred (from Hazell 
Flagg) by Wellman.J 
scek (notably): for Sternberg, Under- 
world* (27); for James Cruze, The 
Great Gabbo (30); for Howard Hawks, 
Scarface* (32), Viva Villa!* (34) 
(completed by Conway), Twentieth 
Century* (34), Barbary Coast (35), 
Monkey Business* (52); for Lubitsch, 
Design for Living (33); for Louis Gas- 
nier, Topaze (33); for George Marshall, 
Goldwyn Follies (38); for George Ste- 
vens, Gunga Din (39); for Wyler, 
Wuthering Heights* (39) ; for King Vidor, 
Comrade X (40); for Duvivier, Lydia 

(41) ; for Henry King, The Black Swan 

(42) ; for Henry Hathaway, China Girls 
(42), The Kiss of Death (47), Legend 
of the Lost (57); for Hitchcock, Spell- 
bound (45), Notorious (46); for Prem- 
inger, Whirlpool (49), Where the Side- 
walk Ends (50); for André de Toth, The 
Indian Fighter (55); for Charles Vidor, 



113 



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A Farewell to Arms (57); for Sidney 
Lanficld, Hello Charlie (60) (TV); and 
all his own films. 

dir: Crime Without Passion* (34), The 
Scoundrel (35), Once in a Blue Moon 
(35), Soak the Rich (36), Until I Die 
(40) (all co-dir: MacArthur), Angels 
Over Broadway (40) (co-dir: Lee 
Garmes), Specter of the Rose (47), Ac- 
tors and Sin (52). 

H EG Y I, Barnabas PHOTOO Hungary. (7 - 

) Good cameraman, notable since 
1940 for: Somewhere in Europe* (47) 
(dir: Radvanyi), Ludas Matyi (49) (dir: 
Nadasdy), Merry-go-round* (55) (dir: 
Fabri). 

HElFfTZ, Jotlf dir USSR. (Minsk Dec 17, 
1905- ) One of the best Soviet direc- 
tors who, in collaboration with Alexander 
Zarkhi (q.v.), developed his reputation 
in the Thirties with a series of films that 
portrayed contemporary Soviet life. He 
achieved new international recognition in 
the Sixties for his adaptations of Chek- 
hov stories. In the Thirties he and 
Zarkhi made Baltic Deputy, in which 
Cherkassov gave one of his most mas- 
terly performances, and Member of the 
Government, whose central character 
was a woman. After the war they again 
showed the problems and passions of 
their contemporaries through their In 
the Name of Life. After two more films 
they stopped working together, but the 
same qualities continued in the films 
Heifitz made alone: The Big Family, 
which portrayed the daily life of ship- 
yard workers, and The Rumiantsev Case, 
one of his most well-known and admired 
works with a truck driver for a hero. 
With the subtle and melancholy Lady 
with a Little Dog (60) he began a series 
of exemplary adaptations of Chekhov 
stories whose style perfectly reflects the 
tone of the originals. Both Zarkhi and 
Heifitz were originally scriptwriters. 
dir (all until 1950, co-dir: Zarkhi): 
Veter v litso/ Facing the Wind (29), 
Poldien (31), Moi rodina/My Country 
(32), Corjace d eneki (35), Députât 
Bal tiki/ 'Baltic Deputy* (37), Chlen pra~ 
vitelstava/ Member of the Government/ 
The Great Beginning (40), Yevo Zovut 
Sukhe-Bator/His Name is Sukhe-Bator 
(42), Malakov Hill (44), The Defeat 
of Japan (46) (documentary), Vo imya 
zhizni/In the Name of Life (47), Dra- 
gotsennye zerna/ Precious Grain (48), 



Ogni Baku /Fires of Baku (50), Vesna v 
Moskve I Spring in Moscow (53), Bol- 
shaya semya/The Big Family* (54), 
Delo Rumiantseva/The Rumiantsev Case 
(55), Dorogoi moi chelovek/My Dear 
Man (58), Dama s sobatchkoi/Lady with 
the Little Dog* (59), Horizon (61), Den 
schastya/A Day of Happiness (64), V 
gorode "S"/In the Town of "S" (66). 

•HEIUNGER, Mark prod USA. (March 
21, 1903-Dec 21, 1947) Former jour- 
nalist who became a scriptwriter (Raoul 
Walsh's The Roaring Twenties), a pro- 
ducer in 1940 for Warner's and later 
for Universal, and developed the crime 
thriller to new levels of realism, notably 
in The Killers, Brute Force, and The 
Naked City. 

prod (notably): William Seiter's // All 
Came True (40), Raoul Walsh's They 
Drive By Night (40), High Sierra (41), 
The Strawberry Blonde (41), Manpower 
(41), The Horn Blows at Midnight (45), 
Archie Mayo's Moontide (42), Robert 
Siodmak's The Killers* (46), Jules 
Dassin's Brute Force* (47), The Naked 
City* (48). 

HELLMAN, Lillian scen USA. (New Orleans 
June 20, 1905- ) Playwright who has 
also written screenplays and adapted sev- 
eral of her own plays. She is perhaps the 
principal author of three major films by 
Wyler: These Three (36), from her play 
The Children's Hour, Dead End* (37), 
and The Uttle Foxes* (41); she also 
wrote two antifascist scripts, North Star 
(43) (dir: Milestone) and Watch on the 
Rhine (43) (dir: Shumlin). [She was for 
a long time the companion of Dashiell 
Ham men (q.v.) and it is said he collab- 
orated on some of her scripts. Like him 
she suffered under McCarthyism, being 
considered too "committed." Other scripts 
or adaptations include: for Dieterle, The 
Searching Wind (46); for Michael Gor- 
don, Another Part of the Forest (48); 
for Wyler, The Children's Hour (62), for 
George Roy Hill, Toys in the Attic (63); 
for Arthur Penn, The Chase (65).] 

henning-jensen Astrld (Copenhagen Dec 
10, 1914- ) and Bjarna (Copenhagen 
Oct 1, 1908- ) Dm Denmark. A hus- 
band and wife team who are the best 
postwar Danish film makers. They work 
in close association, often co-directing or 
collaborating on the screenplays for each 
other's films; very rarely do they work 

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separately. Their films in the Forties and 
Fifties were a credit to their country, 
even though the difficult conditions of the 
industry prevented their full development. 
co-dir (notably): Christian IV som by- 
gherre (41) (short), De Danske sydhav- 
sôer (44) (short), Flyktingar firmer en 
hamn (Swed45) (short), De Pokkers lin- 
ger (47), Kristinus Bergman (48), Ves- 
terhavsdrenge (50), Solstik (53), Tivoli- 
garden spiller (54), Ballet Girl (54) 
(short), Een blandt mange (61), Kort 
er sommaren (62) (short). 
dir (Astrid H.-J.): Palle aliène i verden/ 
Palle Alone in the World (49) (with 
their son, Lars), Kranes Konditori (50), 
Ukjent mann (Nor52), Kaerlighed pa 
kredit (55), Nye venner (56) (short), 
Paw (59), De Bla Undulater (65), 
Utro (66), Nille (68), Kald mig Miriam 
(68). 

DIR (Bjarne H.-J.): Cykledrengene i Tor- 
vegraven (40) (short), Ditte Menneske- 
barn* (46), Where Mountains Float 
(55), (documentary feature). 

*hepworth, Cecil m. dir/prod Britain. 
(London 1874-London 1953) Important 
British pioneer who entered the cinema 
via his father's magic lantern activities, 
wrote a book, Animated Photography, in 
1897, took up cinematography in 1898, 
and founded his own company, Hepwix 
Films, in 1900. He directed all his own 
films until 1904, when he began hiring 
others to assist under his supervision — 
which became less personal as his volume 
of production increased. He returned to 
directing in 1913 and made some 50 fea- 
tures until 1923, when his company col- 
lapsed. His best remembered films are 
Rescued by Rover* (05), with its ex- 
traordinary sense of rhythmic intercut- 
ting, Blind Fate (12), Comin' Thro' the 
Rye (16 and 22). 

HERLTH, Robert (alto Frifx Paul) ART DIR 

Germany/German Federal Republic. 
(Wriezen May 2, 1893-Munich Jan 6, 
1962) Important German set designer 
whose style played a major role in expres- 
sionism and Kammerspiel in the Twenties 
but who applied himself to the typical 
UFA decorative style after 1930. He ori- 
ginally worked in the theater and collab- 
orated with Walter Rohrig (q.v.) on most 
of his important films. 
art dir (notably): for Lupn Pick, Dos 
Lac he ride Crauen (20); for Lang, Der 
Made Tod* (21); for Pabst, Der Schatz 



(23); for Rochus Gliese, Komôdie des 
Herzens (24); for Arthur von Gerlach, 
Zur Chronik von Grieshus (25); for 
Murnau, Der Letzte Mann* (24), Tartuff 
(25), Faust* (26), for Charell, DerKon- 
gress Tan zt* (31); for Gustav Ucicky, 
Hokuspokus (30), Der Unsterbliche 
Lump (30), Yorck (31), Morgenrot/Red 
Dawn (33); for Rudolf Jugert, Film ohne 
Titel (GFR48); for Harald Braun, Der 
Letzte Sommer (GFR54), Der Letzte 
Mann* (GFR55), Régine (GFR55); for 
Alfred Weidenmann, Buddenbrooks 
(GFR59). Also responsible for technical 
designs for Riefenstahl's Olympiad*, 

♦HERRMANN, Bernard MUS USA. (New 

York June 29, 191 1- ) One of the most 
important contemporary film composers 
with a remarkable ability to create psy- 
chological effects, mainly through the use 
of string instruments (Psycho). He joined 
CBS in 1933, was staff conductor starting 
in 1934, and was responsible for the 
music in Orson Welles's (q.v.) The Mer- 
cury Playhouse Theater. (His later devel- 
opment seems to have been influenced 
by his association with Welles.) He is 
perhaps best known for his contribution 
to the films of Alfred Hitchcock (q.v.) 
but his work for other directors is equally 
distinguished. He has also composed 
ballet, concert, and opera music (notably 
Wuthering Heights). 

mus (notably) : for Orson Welles, Citizen 
Kane* (40), The Magnificent Amber- 
sons* (42); for Robert Stevenson, Jane 
Eyre (43); for William Dieterle, All that 
Money Can Buy /The Devil and Daniel 
Webster* (41); for Robert Wise, The 
Day the Earth Stood Still (51); for 
Joseph L. Mankiewicz, The Ghost and 
Mrs. Muir (47), Five Fingers (52); for 
Alfred Hitchcock, The Trouble with 
Harry* (55), The Man Who Knew Too 
Much* (55), The Wrong Man (56), 
Vertigo* (58), North by Northwest* 
(59), Psycho* (60), The Birds* (63), 
Mamie (64); for Zinnemann, A Hatful 
of Rain (57); for Raoul Walsh, The 
Naked and the Dead (58); for Francois 
Truffaut Fahrenheit 451 (66), La Mariée 
était en noir (67); for Pim de la Parra, 
Obsessions (69). Also music for TV: the 
Alfred Hitchcock programs, The Twilight 
Zone, Kraft Suspense Theater, and The 
Virginian series. 

HERTZ, Alexander dir/ prod Poland. (War- 
saw 1879-Warsaw 1928). The father of 



yriQhtod mstcnsl 



the Polish cinema who in 1911 founded 
the "Sfinks," the first Polish film produc- 
tion society, and from then until 1928 
produced and/or directed some 170 films. 
He launched Pola Negri's career in Bestia 
(15). Also, directed, notably: Antek 
cwaniak (10), Mcir Ezofowicz (11), 
Arabella (16), Krysta (19), Ziema obie- 
cana (27). 

heuze, André DiR France. (Paris 1880- 
Paris Aug 16, 1942) French primitive 
who from 1905-10 contributed much to 
the development of the cinema with his 
chase films (Le Voleur de bicyclette, La 
Course des sergents de ville, both 05), 
his comic Boireau series (06-07), and his 
dramas and adaptations (L'Ange du 
coeur, A Biribi, Les Meurt-de-faim, Le 
Déserteur, all 06). 

HILL, George William DIR USA. (Douglas, 
Kansas April 25, 1 895-Hollywood 1934) 
A former war cameraman, then assistant 
to D. W. Griffith (q.v.), he directed 11 
(mostly adventure) films between 1924- 
34 but only one of note — The Big House 
(30). He committed suicide in 1934. 
dir: Through the Dark (24), The Barrier 
(26), Tell It to the Marines (26), But- 
tons (27), The Cossacks (28), The Fly- 
ing Fleet (29), M in and BUI (30), The 
Big House* (30), Hell Divers (31), The 
Secret Six (31 ), Clear All Wires (33). 

HILLYER, Lambert dir USA. (South Bend, 
Illinois July 8, 1889- ) A major spe- 
cialist in westerns who directed several of 
William S. Hart's films from 1919-21, 
worked with Tom Mix, and from 1924- 
54 was a prolific director of B-westerns 
and serials (including Batman in 1941). 

HITCHCOCK, Alfred dir Britain/USA. 
(London Aug 13, 1899- ) Though un- 
doubtedly "the master of suspense," his 
qualities as a director surpass this pub- 
licity slogan. He is passionately devoted 
to the cinema and has a marvelous talent 
for telling stories in film terms. His in- 
fluence on other films makers, particu- 
larly French, has been considerable, 
though, for some, his films have been 
"Spanish inns" in which critics found 
only what they themselves brought with 
them. [He joined the British branch of 
Famous Players-Lasky in 1920 and 
worked successively as scriptwriter, art 
director, and assistant director (to 
Graham Cutis). His first feature, Num- 



ber 13 (21) was unfinished; in 1922 he 
collaborated in the direction of Always 
Tell Your Wife. His first completed fea- 
ture, The Pleasure Garden, was made in 
Germany for Michael Balcon.] His visit 
to Germany brought him much under the 
influence of expressionism, a style espe- 
cially evident in his early British films. 
He established his reputation with his 
first success, The Lodger, and further de- 
veloped the style and approach of this 
film in his remarkable Blackmail, the first 
British sound film. He reached the peak 
of his art in the Thirties with a number 
of suspense thrillers that usually climaxed 
in a chase: The Man Who Knew Too 
Much, The 39 Steps, The Lady Vanishes. 
In 1939 he was hired by Selznick (<7.v.) 
and moved to Hollywood, where he built 
on his earlier experiences by making 
several films with similar approaches and 
themes, such as Foreign Correspondent 
and Saboteur. Shadow of a Doubt (43), 
his own favorite in his American period, 
matches any of his best films in its exact 
sense of observation and sureness of 
touch. Later he followed the Hollywood 
fashion for psychological melodramas 
(Spellbound) and films noir (Suspicion, 
Notorious, Rope). After the highly ac- 
complished Under Capricorn (49), he 
made several somber, suspenseful psycho- 
logical dramas (/ Confess, The Wrong 
Man, Vertigo, Mamie, Strangers on a 
Train), and some films of terror (Psy- 
cho, The Birds), but remained at his best 
in chase films (To Catch a Thief, The 
Man Who Knew Too Much (remake), 
North by Northwest). His best film in 
this latter period is The Trouble with 
Harry, with its black humor set against a 
marvelous, and natural, autumnal back- 
drop. Hitchcock has an undeniable feel- 
ing for images. He personally prepares in 
advance and in detail every aspect of 
each film. He has complete technical mas- 
tery of traveling shots, depth of field, and 
predesigned long camera takes (10 min- 
utes in Rope, for example). He takes 
great delight in these techniques without 
ever losing sight of his commercial re- 
sponsibilities: "There are a certain num- 
ber of imperatives that a film maker has 
to respect, and with reason. It is useless 
to attribute profound intentions to me. 
I am not at all interested in the message 
or moral of a film. I am like, let us say, 
an artist who paints flowers ... A pro- 
duction involves much money, other peo- 
ple's money. And my conscience tells me 



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it is necessary to play down my own feel- 
ings in order for them to regain their 
investment ... A movie theater is like 
a screen facing a pile of seats that have 
to be filled. I have to create 'suspense.* 
Without it people would be disappointed. 
If I made Cinderella, they would be con- 
tent only if I put a corpse in the coach. 
The audience screams and cannot bear 
the agony in some of my films. That gives 
me great pleasure; I am interested less in 
stories than in the manner of telling 
them." (1954-62) 

Dm: Number Thirteen (Brit21) (unfin- 
ished), Always Tell Your Wife (22) (co- 
dir.* Seymour Hicks), The Pleasure Gar- 
den (Brit/Ger25), The Mountain Eagle 
(26), The Lodger (26), Downhill (27), 
Easy Virtue (27), The Ring (27), The 
Farmer's Wife (28), Champagne (28), 
The Manxman (29), Blackmail* (29), 
Elstree Calling (30), Juno and the Pay- 
cock (30), Murder (30), The Skin Game 

(31) , Rich and Strange (32), Number 17 

(32) , Waltzes from Vienna (33), The 
Man Who Knew Too Much* (34), The 
39 Steps* (34), The Secret Agent (36), 
Sabotage (36), Young and Innocent 
(37), The Lady Vanishes (38), Jamaica 
Inn (Brit39), Rebecca (USA40), Foreign 
Correspondent (40), Mr. and Mrs. Smith 
(41), Suspicion (42), Shadow of a 
Doubt* (43), Lifeboat (43), Aventure 
Malgache (Brit44) (short), Bon Voyage 
(Brit44) (short), Spellbound* (45), No- 
torious* (46), The Paradine Case (47), 
Rope* (48), Under Capricorn (49), 
Stage Fright (50), Strangers on a Train* 
(51), / Confess (52), Dial M for Mur- 
der (53), Rear Window (54), To Catch 
a Thief* (55), The Trouble with Harry* 

(55) , The Man Who Knew Too Much* 

(56) (remake), The Wrong Man (57), 
Vertigo* (58), North by Northwest* 
(59), Psycho* (60), The Birds* (63), 
Marnie (64), Torn Curtain (66), Topaz 
(69). Also, produced and occasionally di- 
rected the TV series, Alfred Hitchcock 
Presents (55-62), and produced The 
Alfred Hitchcock Hour (63-65). 

HOD AT Y EV, Nikolai see KHODATEYEV, NIKO- 
LAI 

HOLGER-MADSEN DiR Denmark/Germany 
(Copenhagen April 11, 1878-Copenha- 
gen Nov 30, 1943) Imaginative Danish 
film maker, responsible for several unusu- 
ally stylish (and somewhat decadent) 
dramas from 1913-20, who seems to 



have been the first to make systematic 
use of high- and low-angle photography 
and whose innovative and daring use of 
lighting, extreme close-ups, etc., in The 
Life of the Lay Preacher and The Spiri- 
tualist influenced the development of the 
German cinema. He was originally an 
actor, directed for Nordisk 1913-20, 
worked briefly in Germany, then re- 
turned to Denmark, where he acted in 
or directed several films until 1940. 
dir (notably): Under Savklingens taen- 
der (13), Elskovmagt (13), Elskovsleg/ 
Liebelei (13), Ned med Millionaerdren- 
gen (13), Vabnene (14), Evangelieman- 
dens Liv/The Life of the Lay Preacher* 
(14), Spiritisten/The Spiritualist (14), 
Pax Aeterna (16), Himmelskibet (17), 
Folkets Ven (18), Gudernes Yndling/ 
Digterkongen (19), Pômperly's Kampf 
mit dem Schneeschuh (Ger22) (co-dir: 
Arnold Fanck), Darskab, dyd od driven 
(23), Ole Opfinders offer (24), V ester 
vov vov (27), Vask, Videnskab og Vel- 
vaere (33), Sol over Danmark (35), 
A lens livsmysterium (40). 

♦holt, Seth (James Holt) dir Britain. (Pal- 
estine 1923-London Feb 13, 1971) Ta- 
lented former editor (Lavender Hill 
Mob*, Mandy, Saturday Night and Sun- 
day Morning*) and producer (Lady- 
killers) who directed a handful of tex- 
tured, off-beat thrillers and horror films, 
notably Nowhere to Go (58), Taste of 
Fear (61), the edgy Station Six Sahara 
(62), The Nanny (65), and the brutal 
Danger Route (67). 

HOMOKI NAGY, tstvon Dm Hungary. 
(1914- ) Notable director of nature 
films who has made some interesting fea- 
tures, including A Kingdom on the 
Waters (52) and From Blossom Time to 
Autumn Leaves (54). 

HONEGGER, Arthur mus France. (Le Havre 
March 10, 1892-Paris Nov 18, 1955) 
This great modern composer was con- 
verted to the cinema in the silent days by 
Abel Gance (q.v.), for whom he wrote 
the music for La Roue* and Napoléon*. 
He later wrote a number of significant 
film scores that were far from being 
mere accompaniment, notably: Rapt 
(34) (dir: Kirsanoff, co-mus: Hoéree), 
Les Misérables* (34) (dir: Bernard), 
L'Idée (34) (dir: Bartosch), Crime et 
Châtiment (35) (dir: Chenal), L'Equi- 
page (35), Mayerling (36) (both dir: 



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Litvak), Regain (37) (dir: Pagnol), 
Mademoiselle Docteur /Spies from Salo- 
nika (36) (dir: Pabst), La Citadelle du 
silence (37) (dir: L'Herbier), Pygma- 
lion* (Brit38), Tattendrai (39) (dir: 
Moguy), Mermoz (42) (dir: Cuny), 
Les Démons de l'aube (46) (dir: Yves 
Allégret, co-mus: Hoéréc), Un revenant 
(46) (dir: Christian-Jaque). Giovanna 
dArco al Rogo/Joan at the Stake* (It 
54) (dir: Rossellini) is based on his ora- 
tario; Pacific 231* (49) (dir: Jean 
Mitry) is based on a score he wrote for a 
silent film that was never made. 

HOWE, James Wong (Wong Tung Jim) 

photog USA. (China Sept 28, 1889- ) 
One of the greatest of all American cam- 
eramen who has been in Hollywood sincfc 
1917, worked with Herbert Brenon (Peter 
Pan, Sorrell and Son) in the Twenties, 
and has collaborated on many important 
films with Hawks, Walsh, Mackendrick, 
etc. He is equally excellent in black and 
white and color, studio sets, and natural 
landscapes. He directed one film, Go 
Man Go (52). 

photog (notably): for Hawks, The 
Criminal Code (31), Viva Villa* (34), 
Air Force* (43); for Walsh, Yellow Tic- 
ket (31), Strawberry Blonde (41), Ob- 
jective Burma! (45), Pursued (47); for 
Van Dyke, The Thin Man* (34); for 
Tod Browning, The Mark of the Vampire 
(35); for W. K. Howard, Fire Over En- 
gland (Brit36); for Victor Sjôstrôm, Un- 
der the Red Robe (Brit36); for Lloyd 
Bacon, The Oklahoma Kid (39); for 
Sam Wood, King's Row (42); for Lang, 
Hangmen Also Die (42); for Milestone, 
The North Star (43); for Robert Rossen, 
Body and Soul (47), The Brave Bulls 
(51); for Daniel Mann, Come Back, 
Little Sheba (52), The Rose Tattoo (54); 
for Joshua Logan, Picnic* (55); for Mac- 
kendrick, The Sweet Smell of Success* 
(57); for John Sturges, The Old Man 
and the Sea (58); for Clifford Odets, The 
Story on Page One (60); for Martin Ritt, 
Hud (63), The Outrage* (64), Hombre 
(67); for John Frankenheimer, Seconds 
(65). 

HUBERT, Roger photog France. (Montreuil 
March 30, 1903-Paris Nov 28, 1964) 
Trained by Epstein, L'Auberge rouge*, 
and Gance, Napoléon*, Le Fin du 
monde, he developed into one of the best 
creators of imagery for French poetic 
realism, a cameraman with a sense of the 



picturesque and an ability to develop 
atmosphere, notably for Feyder, Pension 
Mimosas* (35), La Loi du nord (42); 
for Carné, Jenny (36), Les Visiteurs du 
soir* (42), Les Enfants du Paradis* 
(45), Thérèse Raquin* (53), L'Air de 
Paris (54); for Gance, J'accuse* (37); 
for Duvivier, La Femme et le Pantin 
(59); for Cloche, Cocagne (61). 

HUBLEY, John ANIM USA. (New York May 
21, 1914- ) One of the greatest modem 
animators whose drawings have the free- 
dom of touch of Matisse, Bonnard, or 
Marquet in the early 20th century. He 
worked for Disney (q.v.) on Snow 
White*, Pinocchio, "the Rite of Spring'* 
sequence in Fantasia*, Dumbo, and 
Bambl. In 1941 he joined UP A under 
Stephen Bosustow (q.v.) and is one of 
the co-creators of Mr. Magoo*. At UPA 
he was responsible for, notably. Flat- 
hatting (45), Robin Hoodlum (48), The 
Magic Fluke (49), Punchy de Leon (49), 
Rooty Toot Toot (52), and several Ma- 
goo's. He left UPA in 1952 and has since 
worked independently after a sojourn in 
Europe: The Adventures of * (56), The 
Tender Game (58), Harlem Wednesday 
(58) A Date with Dizzy (58), Seven 
Lively Arts (59), Moonbird* (60), Chil- 
dren of the Sun (61), Of Stars and Men 
(62) (feature), The Hole (62), The 
Hat (64), Herb Alpert and the Tijuana 
Brass Double Feature (66), Gulliver's 
Troubles (67). 

HUGHES, Howard prod/dir USA. (Houston 
Dec 24, 1905- ) This legendary multi- 
millionaire, a kind of "Citizen Kane" 
1930-60 model, made his money mainly 
from the manufacture of machine tools 
and airplanes, but had two complemen- 
tary passions: the cinema and beautiful 
women. While often using the cinema to 
publicize his aviation interests, he never 
lost the ability to make the right choice 
of directors and stars. He owned RKO- 
Radio Studios from 1948 to 1955 when 
he finally liquidated it He is credited 
with a few films as director (notably 
Heirs Angels) and has occasionally taken 
a film out of the assigned director's hands 
when it didn't match his own conception. 
[dir: Hell's Angels* (30), The Outlaw 
(43, released 46) (replaced Hawks), Jet 
Pilot (52, released 57) (additional scenes 
shot and film re-edited by Hughes after 
Sternberg completed). 
prod: Two Arabian Nights (27) (dir: 



Copyrighted material 



Milestone), The Racket (28) (dir: Mile- 
stone), Scarface* (32) (dir: Hawks), 
Sky Devils (32) (dir: Edward Suther- 
land), Vendetta (46, released 50) (dir: 
Ophuls, then Preston Sturges, Stuart 
Heisler, and Mel Ferrer), Montana Belle 
(48, released 52) (dir: Dwan), Two 
Tickets to Broadway (51) (dir: J. Kern), 
The Racket (51) (dir: John Cromwell)', 
This Kind of Woman (51) (dir: Richard 
Fleischer, then John Farrow), Double 
Dynamite (52) (dir: I. Cummings), The 
Las Vegas Story (52) (dir: R. Steven- 
son), The French Line (54) (dir: Lloyd 
Bacon), Macao (52) (dir: Sternberg, 
then Nicholas Ray), Underwater (55) 
(dir: John Sturges), Son of Sinbad (55) 
(dir: Tetzlaff).] 

HUSNI, Kanwran Dm Iraq. (? - ) In the 
context of a still developing cinema he 
has directed at least one interesting film, 
Said Effendi (59), the story of a teacher 
in the poor section of Baghdad. 

HUSTON, John dir USA/Britain. (Nevada, 
Missouri Aug 5, 1906- ) The most not- 
able film maker of the Hollywood "lost 
generation," a director who established 
an immediate reputation (and set the 
style for the Hollywood thrillers of the 
Forties) on his first film, an intelligently 
faithful adaptation of Hammett's The 
Maltese Falcon (41), fell into medi- 
ocrity in the Fifties, and found a new 
maturity of style in the Sixties. [He is the 
son of actor Walter Huston and had a 
varied career as a boxer, member of the 
Mexican cavalry, actor and dialogue 
writer (A House Divided, Murders in the 
Rue Morgue, Law and Order) before 
finally settling in Hollywood as a script- 
writer in 1938. After three Hollywood 
features, he made three documentaries 
for the army during the war, including 
two of the most poignant portraits of war 
and its effects ever made, The Battle of 
San Pietro and Let There Be Light. His 
Hollywood reputation was re-established 
with the successful Treasure of the Sierra 
Madre.] A constant theme in his films is 
the importance of a struggle despite the 
inevitability of failure. Thus one can con- 
sider as symbols the wind in Treasure of 
the Sierra Madre which blows away the 
gold dust wrested so painfully from the 
hills; the uselessness of the Cuban revolu- 
tionary struggle in We Were Strangers; 
the wretched end of an imaginative rob- 
bery in the Asphalt Jungle; and the ab- 



surd stubbornness of a middle-aged spin- 
ster trying to win the war single-handed 
in The African Queen. His masterpiece, 
The Red Badge of Courage (mutilated by 
the producers) is concerned less with en- 
deavor and failure than with fear of fear 
at a time when McCarthyism was at its 
height. He moved to Europe, where he 
made, for Hollywood, several competent 
films (like Moulin Rouge) and where, 
after his lifeless Moby Dick adaptation, 
he quickly fell into an unconvincing and 
sometimes soulless academicism. He 
came close to betraying the promise of 
his great period in such abysmal produc- 
tions as Roots of Heaven and The Bar- 
barian and the Geisha. But he redis- 
covered himself in the Misfits, which 
seems to imply that it is vain to struggle 
and only failure is valid. [Since then his 
work has been extremely uneven, ranging 
from the depths of The List of Adrian 
Messenger, Sinful Davie, and (perhaps 
the worst spectacular of all time) The 
Bible, to the heights of Freud, Night of 
the Iguana, Reflections in a Golden Eye, 
and A Walk with Love and Death. In 
these films he seems to have found a 
maturity of artistic vision; his earlier pre- 
occupations have given way to meta- 
physical explorations of the human spirit 
His style has developed a subtlety that 
enables him to probe the hidden, latent 
emotions of his characters while avoiding 
psychoanalytic pretentiousness. Even the 
thriller, The Kremlin Letter, reflects his 
new-found maturity.] 
scen: for Wyler, Jezebel* (38); for Lit- 
vak, The Amazing Dr. Clitterhouse (38); 
for Dieterle, Juarez (39), Dr. Ehrlich's 
Magic Bullet (40); for Raoul Walsh, 
High Sierra (41); for Howard Hawks, 
Sergeant York* (41); for Jean Negu- 
lesco, Three Strangers (46); and for sev- 
eral of his own films. 
dir: The Maltese Falcon* (41), In This 
Our Ufe (42), Across the Pacific (42), 
Report from the Aleutians (43) (docu- 
mentary), The Battle of San Pietro (44) 
(documentary), Let There Be Light* 
(46) (documentary), The Treasure of 
the Sierra Madre* (48), Key Largo (48), 
We Were Strangers (49), The Asphalt 
Jungle* (50), The Red Badge of Cour- 
age* (51), The African Queen* (Brit51), 
Moulin Rouge* (Brit52), Beat the Devil 
(Brit/It53), Moby Dick (USA56), 
Heaven Knows, Mr. Allison (USA57), 
The Barbarian and the Geisha (USA58), 
The Roots of Heaven (USA58), The 



Copyrighted material 



Unf or given (USA60), The Misfits* 
(USA61), Freud — the Secret Passion 
(USA62), The List of Adrian Messenger 
(USA63), The Night of the Iguana 
(USA64), La Bibbia/The Bibie: In the 



Beginning (It66), Casino Royale (Brit66) 
(part only), Reflections in a Golden Eye 
(USA67), Sinful Davie (Brit68), A Walk 
with Love and Death (USA69), The 
Kremlin Letter (USA69). 



120 



Copyrighted material 



l BERT, Jaequu mus France. (Paris Aug 15, 
1890-1961) An excellent musician who 
had a great interest in the cinema and 
wrote several interesting scores, notably 
for Pabst's Don Quichotte and Welles's 
Macbeth. After the war he was for a 
long time director of the Villa Médicis. 
mus (notably) : for Duvivier, Cinq Gen- 
tlemen maudits (31), Golgotha (34), La 
Charette fantôme/The Phantom Chariot* 
(39), Panique (46), Marianne de ma 
jeunesse (53); for Pabst, Don Quichotte* 

(32) ; for Tourneur, Les Deux orphêlines* 

(33) , Justin de Marseille (35), Le 
Patriote (38); for L'Herbier, La Comédie 
du bonheur (40), La Vie de bohème 
(44), L'Affaire du collier de la reine 
(46); for Welles, Macbeth* (48). His 
ballet, Invitation to the Dance, was 
adapted as a film by Gene Kelly (56). 

IBRAHIM-KHAN, Mil» DR Iran (? - ?) 

Official photographer to the Shah of 
Pc rsi <i f he directed the first Irsrn&n films 
in 1900-1903 - intended for the exclu- 
sive use of the court. 

ICHAC, Marctl MR France. (Rueil Oct 22, 
1906- ) Documentary film maker who 
is the greatest specialist in mountaineer- 
ing films in France (and undoubtedly in 
the world) and is especially famous for 
the scenes he shot on Annapurna. 
dir (notably: Karakoram (36), A l'assaut 
des aiguilles du diable (42), Sondeurs 
d'abîme (43), Padirac (48), Groenland 
(51) (co-dir: Languepin), Victoire sur 
V Annapurna (53), Nouveaux horizons 
(54), L' Aluminum (55), Tour du monde 
express (56). Les Etoiles de midi (60). 

•ICHIKAWA, Kon dir Japan. (Uji Yamada, 
Mie Nov 20, 1915- ) Idiosyncratic 
Japanese film maker with a superb sense 
of visual texture and a taste for black 
comedy and obsessional characters. He 



studied animation and made his film de- 
but with a puppet film in 1946. His Mr. 
Poo and A Billionaire revealed the tone 
of his work, and Harp of Burma, Enjo, 
Odd Obsession, and Fires on the Plain 
confirmed his international stature. He 
has oftened worked with Kazuo Miyagawa 
(q.v.) and Setsuo Kobayashi as camera- 
men. The expressive visual designs that 
have resulted from their collaboration 
is evident particularly in the color films, 
Bonchi, An Actor's Revenge, Alone in 
the Pacific, and even in the documen- 
tary, Tokyo Olympiad 1964. His work 
has most consistently been concerned 
with spiritually abnormal behavior that 
characterizes the social environment of 
his characters, but it is the visual ex- 
periences of his films that are best re- 
membered. His wife, Natto Wada, has 
worked on the scripts of most of his 
films. 

dir: Musuhi Dojoji/A Girl at Do\o Tem- 
ple (46) (puppets), Nana Hiraku/A 
Flower Blooms (48), Sanhyaku-roku- 
jugo y a/ 365 Nights (48), Ningen Moyo/ 
Design of a Human Being (49), Hate- 
shinaki jo-netsu/The Passion without 
Limit (49), Ginza Shanshiro/Sanshiro 
at Ginza (50), Netsudei<hi/The Hot 
Marshland (50), Akatsuki no Tsuiseki/ 
Pursuit at Dawn (50), Ye-rai-shang/ 
Nightshade Flower (51), Koibito/ Lover 
(51), Mukokuseki-sha/The Man without 
Nationality (51 ), Nusumareta Koi/ Stolen 
Love (50), Bungawan Solo (51), Kekkon 
Koshin-kyoku I Wedding March (51), 
Rakki-san/Mr. Lucky (52), Wakl Hitol 
Young Generation (52), Ashi ni Sawatta 
Onna/The Woman Who Touched the 
Legs (52) (remake), Ano te, Kono tel 
This Way, That Way (52), Pu-san/Mr. 
Poo (53), Aoiro Kakumei/The Blue 
Revolution (53), Seishun Zenogata Heiji/ 
The Youth of Heiji Zenigata (53), Ai- 
fin/The Lover (53), Watashi no Subete 



Copyrighted material 



O/All of Myself (54), Okumanchoja/A 
Billionaire (54), Josei ni Kansura juni 
sho/ Twelve Chapters about Women (54), 
Seishun Kaidan/ Ghost Story of Youth 

(55) , Kokoro/The Heart (55), Biruma 
no Tategoto/Harp of Burma* (56), Shokei 
no Hey a I 'Punishment Room (56), Nihon- 
bashi/ Bridge of Japan (56), Manin/ 
Densha/The Crowded Train (57), Ana/ 
the Hole /The Lady Has No Alibi (57), 
Tohoku no Zummu Tachi/Man of the 
North/The Men of Tohoku (57), En jo/ 
Conflagration /The Flame of Torment* 

(58) , Sayonara Konnichiwa/ Goodbye, 
Good Day (59), Kaji/Odd Obsession/ 
The Key (59), Nobi/ Fires on the Plain* 

(59) , Kankon Sosai/ Earthly Rituals (59), 
Bonchi (60), Jokei/Code of Women/ 
A Woman's Testament (60) (one ep- 
isode), Ototo /Younger Brother /Her 
Brother (60), Ashi ni Sawatta Onna/ 
The Woman Who Touched the Legs 

(60) (TV remake). Kuroi Junin no Onna/ 
Ten Dark Women (61), Lemon (61) 
(TV), Hakai/The Sin (61) (TV), Hakai/ 
The Sin/Outcasts (61), Watashi wa 
Nisai/ Being Two Isn't Easy (62), Puro 
(62) (TV), Yukinojo Henge/An Actor's 
Revenge /the Revenge of Yukino-jo (63), 
Taihciyo Hitoribotchi/ Alone in the Pa- 
cific/My Enemy the Sea (63), Zeni no 
Odori/ 'Money Talks (64), Tokyo Olym- 
piad 1964 (65) (documentary), Genji 
Monogatari/Tale of Genji (65-66) (26 
parts, TV), Aibo/Hey, Buddy! (66), 
Topo Gigio e i Sei Ladre (It67) (partly 
animated), Seishun /Tournament (69) 
(documentary), Kyoto (69) (documen- 
tary). 

ILIU, Victor dir Romania. (Nov 24, 1912— 
1968) Film maker with a special feel- 
ing for peasant life, captured notably in 
his major postwar films, In sat la noil 
Our Village (51) (co-dir: Jean Geor- 
gescu), Mitrea Cocor (52) (from the 
novel by Mikhail Sadoveanu) and Moara 
cu nor oc /The Mill of Luck and Plenty 

(56) . 

IMAI, Tadashi dir Japan. (Tokyo Jan 8, 
1912- ) A liberal, forceful film maker 
with a feeling for the creation of at- 
mosphere and a sense of documentary 
realism. He made, independently, And 
Yet We Live (51), the first major ex- 
ample of Japanese neorealism. He has 
always been deeply interested in politics, 
began his film career as a scriptwriter 
in 1934, and is considered very highly 



in his own country. He has made several 
equally important films, such as Muddy 
Waters, Rice, A Story of Pure Love, 
Kiku and lsamu, and especially Dark- 
ness at Noon, based on a true judicial 
case. 

dir (notably): Numazu Hei-gakko/ 
Numazu Military Academy (39), Warera 
ga Kyokan/Our Instructor (39), Tajinko 
Mura/Tajinko Village (40), Kakka/The 
General (40), Kekkon no seitai/ Married 
Life (40), Boro no Kesshitai/The Sui- 
cide Troops of the Watchtower (42), 
Ikari no U mi/ Cruel Sea (44), Minshu 
no Teki/An Enemy of the People (46), 
Aoi Sammyaku/Blue Mountains (47), 
Mata Au Hi Made /Until the Day We 
Meet Again (50), Dokkoi Ikiteru/And 
Yet We Live* (51), Yambiko Gakko/ 
Echo School (52), Himeyuri no To/ 
The Tower of Lilies /The Young Girls of 
Okinawa (53), Nigori/ Muddy Waters 
(53), Koko ni Izumi Aril Here is a 
Spring (54), Aisurebakoso/ Because I 
Love (54) (episode), Yukiko (55), 
Mahiro no Ankokul 'Darkness at Noon* 

(56) , Kome/ Rice/ Men of the Rice Fields 

(57) , Junai Monogatari/A Story of Pure 
Love (57), Yoru no Tsuzumi/The Adul- 
teress/Night Drum (58), Kiku to lsamu/ 
Kiku and lsamu* (59), Shiroi gake/The 
White Cliff (60), Are ga Minato no Hi 
da/ Pan Chopali (61), Nippon no 
Obachan tachi/The Old Women of Japan 
(62), Bushido zanzoku Monogatari/The 
Oath of Obedience (63), Echigo Isutsuishi 
Oyashirazu/Oyashirazu in the Echigo 
Regime (64), Adauchi/ Revenge (65), 
Satogashi ga Kawareru Toki/When the 
Cookie Crumbles (67), Fushin no Toki/ 
The Time of Reckoning (68), Hashi no 
Nai Kawa/The River Without a Bridge 
(70) (two parts). 

inagaki, Hiroshi dir Japan. (Tokyo Dec 
30, 1905- ) A film maker who at the 
beginning of his career made left-wing 
"tendency" films but quickly established 
his reputation as a skilled and prolific 
director of conventional samurai films. 
His biggest foreign successes have been 
Samurai (54), which won an Academy 
Award, and The Rickshaw Man (58), 
which won the Golden Lion at Venice. 
He was originally an actor, became a 
director in 1927, and has made some 
80 films. 

dir (notably): Tenka Taiheiki/ Peace of 
the World (28), Ippon-Gatana Dohyoiri/ 
A Sword and the Sumo Ring (31), 



Copyrighted material 



Yataro-gasa/Yataro's Sedge Hat (32), 
Miyamoto Musashi/Musashi Myamoto 
(40), Edo Saigo no Hi/The Last Days of 
Edo (41), Umi o Wataru Sairei/ Festival 
Across the Sea (41), Muho Matsu no 
Issho/The Life of Matsu the Untamed 
(43), Te o T su nag a Kora /Children Hand 
in Hand (48), Wasurerareta Kora/ For- 
gotten Children (49), Sasaku Kojiro/Ko- 
jiro Sasaku (50-51) (3 parts), Miya- 
moto Musashi/Musashi Myamoto/Samu- 
ral (54) (remake), Arashi/Storm (57), 
Muho Matsu no Issho/The Rickshaw 
Man (58) (remake), Soru Hiken/Nin- 
jutsu (58), Fundoshi Isha/ 'Country Doc- 
tor (60), Osaka-jo Monogatari/The Story 
of the Castle of Osaka (61), Chushin- 
gura/the 47 Ronin* (62), Tatsu (62), 
Hiken /Young Swordsman (63), Daitatsu- 
maki/Whirlwind (64), Abare Goémon/ 
Rise Against the Sword (66), Sasaki Ko- 
iiro/Kojiro (68), Furin Kazan /Samurai 
Banners (64). 

INCE, Thomas Harper DIR/PROD USA. 
(Newport Nov 6, 1882-Hollywood Nov 
19, 1924) A film maker of equal inter- 
tional importance to D. W. Griffith (q.v.), 
he was a self-taught man with experience 
in the popular American theater and 
music hall, who, between 1912-24, turned 
the western into an art. Though he di- 
rected several hundred films in the first 
years of his film career, he was also an 
extremely efficient organizer and, as an 
executive producer, developed the tech- 
nique of writing what was later called 
the shooting script — usually in collabo- 
ration with C. Gardner Sullivan (q.v.), 
who wrote the majority of his plots. 
These shooting scripts were then shot by 
"directors" working directly under his 
guidance; once the footage was shot, he 
closely supervised the editing. Though 
credited as "supervisor'* he was himself, 
to a great extent, creatively responsible 
for his productions; few of the directors 
who worked under him reached the same 
heights in their later careers. In 1918 
Louis Delluc (q.v.) hailed his "lyrical 
power" and "poetry" and, although some 
have said Ince is a myth invented by 
Delluc, a kind of "Thomas the Imposter," 
he is one of the principal pioneers of 
cinematic art. Moussinac wrote in 1921: 
"He contributes a striking spirit, a power 
that revels in detail, a lyricism that makes 
one forget the relative perfection of the 
craft With him, the cinema was no 
longer a fantastic toy but a creative in- 



strument. The cowboy leaped on the back 
of the wild beast and imposed his auda- 
cious rule." Jean Mitry (responsible for 
the masterful compilation of Ince's film- 
ography) wrote: "If Griffith was the first 
poet of an art whose basic syntax he 
created, one could say that Ince was its 
first dramaturgist His experiments, in 
fact, were based on the composition of 
original themes, on the expression of 
ideas more than on perfecting formal 
aspects. He was able to guide and disci- 
pline his collaborators only because, like 
them, he was a director, and superior to 
them." From 1889-1908 he was an actor, 
often appearing in western melodramas; 
in 1906-09 he played several small parts 
in Edison and Vitagraph films. In 1910 
he appeared in a film for Carl Laemmle's 
Imp Company and in one for Biograph 
(alongside his wife Alice Kershaw) be- 
for returning to Imp in December as a 
director. His first film was Little Nell's 
Tobacco; in January 1911, he was as- 
signed to direct all of Mary Pickford's 
films (Their First Misunderstanding, etc.). 
When Imp was forced to flee to Cuba 
because of legal action, Ince continued 
directing there. In late 1911, he joined 
the New York Motion Picture Company 
(Kay Bee) and began film-making in Los 
Angeles, where he persuaded the pro- 
ducers to hire the Miller Brothers 101 
Ranch Circus to provide him with extras 
for "real" westerns. He directed a hun- 
dred films 1911-13, including a five-reel 
The Battle of Gettysburg in 1913. By the 
end of 1913 he stopped directing his pro- 
ductions himself (with a handful of ex- 
ceptions in 1915 and 16) but continued 
to supervise closely the films of his di- 
rectors, including Reginald Barker (q.v.), 
William S. Hart, Raymond B. West, Irvin 
Willat Alfred Parker, Frank Borzage 
(q.v.), Henry King (q.v.), Lloyd Ingra- 
ham, Fred Niblo (q.v.), Rowland Lee, 
Lambert Hillyer (g.v.), Marshall Neilan, 
and Ralph Ince (his brother). By 1916 
Inceville Studios had five shooting stages 
and Ince had given several notable stars 
their screen debuts: among his contracted 
actors were W. S. Hart (who quarreled 
continuously with Ince over his films), 
Sessue Hayakawa, H. B. Warner, Lew 
Cody, Lewis Stone, Billie Burke, and 
Charles Ray. In 1918 he left Triangle 
(which he had joined in 1915), built new 
studios at Culver City, and signed a dis- 
tribution contract with Paramount-Art- 
craft; he formed Associated Producers 



Uopy riQhtod mstcnsl 



Inc. in the following year. In 1924, while 
spending a weekend on William Ran- 
dolph Hearst's yacht, he became ill, dy- 
ing soon after as a result of what would 
now be called thrombosis. Rumors of his 
having been poisoned have no basis in 
fact. 

Dm (notably): Little NeVs Tobacco (11), 
Their First Misunderstanding (11), The 
Silver Dollar (11), The New Cook (11), 
War on the Plains (12), Renegade (12), 
For Freedom of Cuba (12), Custer's 
Last Fight (12), The Shadow of the 
Past (12), The Ambassador's Envoy 

(13) , The Battle of Gettysburg (13), 
The Pride of the South (13), The De- 
spoiler (15), Civilization* (16) (co-dir). 
prod (notably): The Wrath of the Cods 

(14) , The Typhoon (14), The Fugitive 

(15) , The Coward (15), The Iron Strain 

(15) , The Bargain (15), Hell's Hinges 

(16) , The Aryan* (16), Primal Lure 
(16), Honor's Altar (16), Moral Fabric 
(16), The Patriot (16), The Captive God 

(16) , Flying Colors (17), Until They 
Get Me (17), The Wolf Women (17), 

(17) , Golden Rule Kate (17), The Beg- 
gar of Cawnpore (17), Vive la France 

(18) , Behind the Door (18), Carmen of 
the Klondyke (18), Human Wreckage 
(23), Anna Christie (23). 

INGRAM, Re* (R« Fitehco<lc) DIR USA. 
(Dublin 1892-Hollywood June 21, 1950) 
A film maker with taste, but with a some- 
what academic attitude to his materials, 
who discovered Rudolph Valentino and 
whose work was overestimated in the 
silent period after the enormous success 
of The Four Horsemen of the Apoca- 
lypse* (21). After directing several Ra- 
mon Novarro vehicles, Scaramouche 
(23), etc., he moved to France in 1926 
and established his own studios in Nice, 
where he continued to make films for 
Hollywood, The Garden of Allah (27), 
Belladonna (27), etc. He stopped direct- 
ing when sound was introduced. 

IPSEN, Bodil Dm Denmark. (Copenhagen 
Aug 30, 1889-Nov 1964) A former star 
of the Danish silent cinema, he began 
directing in 1942 and made several films 
in collaboration with Lau Lauritzen, Jr. 
(q.v.): Afsporet (42), De Rôde Enge 
Café Paradis (50), Del Sande Ansigt 
(51) and, alone, En H erre i Kjole og 
Hvidt (42), Basaettelse (44). 



IRANI, Ardeshlr M. PROD India. (BOmoay 
1885- ?) Originally an exhibitor in 
Bombay, he became a partner in the Im- 
perial Film Company in 1926 and in 
1931 produced the first Indian talking 
films (in Hindi): Alam Ara/Beauty of 
the World and Shirin Farhad, which 
contained no less than 42 songs. Both 
were enormous commercial successes. 

ISINO, Rudolph anim USA see karman, 

HUGH 

ismai, Osman Dm Indonesia (? - ) 
Talented young Indonesian film maker 
responsible, notably, for Embun (56). 

ITO(H), Daisulc* Dm Japan. (Tokyo Oct 
13, 1898- ) A film maker who was at 
his best in the silent period, when he 
was noted for the violent realism of his 
films -Shuchu Nikki/The Diary of a 
Drunkard (24), Gero/The Servant (27), 
Chuji Tabinikkil Diary of Chuji's Trav- 
els (27-28) (in 3 parts), Ooka Seidan/ 
Ooka's Trial (28) (in 3 parts). These 
period films were forerunners of the 
"tendency" films, his Zanjin Zamba Ken/ 
Man-Slashing, Horse-Piercing Sword 
(29) being an outspoken piece of social 
criticism against the exploiting classes. 
His talent did not long survive the in- 
troduction of sound, but he continued to 
make excellent, vigorous, and sometimes 
formally beautiful samurai melodramas, 
from his first sound film, Tange Sazan 
(33), through his remake of The Ser- 
vant, and Gero no Kubi/The Servant's 
Neck (55), to Hangyakuji/The Conspir- 
ator (61), with its inspired use of color 
and scope. 

IVENS, Jons (Georg Henri Antor. Ivem) 

dir Netherlands/France/USSR/USA/ 
German Democratic Republic, etc. (Nij- 
megen Nov 18, 1898- ) One of the 
greatest documentary film artists, the 
peer of Robert Flaherty (tf.v.), a kind 
of "Flying Dutchman" who has worked 
in many countries but whose work al- 
ways reflect his basic concerns: men at 
work, men struggling against nature or 
social oppression. He is a great docu- 
mentarist not only because of the poetry 
of his images and their rhythmic con- 
struction, but also because he has been, 
in every sense of the term, a man of his 
times. He has been a constant witness 
of passing events, a film maker who has 



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always been present at decisive turning 
points in human history. Totally unin- 
terested in depressive aspects, he is ex- 
cited by mankind's struggles, construc- 
tions, and creations, and, as a masterly 
editor, he has been able to unite people 
and the world around them with a deep 
feeling for the poetry that is intrinsic 
in what he shows. He made his first film 
in 1911 at the age of 13 and in 1926 
jointly established "Filmliga," one of 
the first film societies. His first signifi- 
cant film, The Bridge (28) contains the 
image of water (he was born beside the 
Rhine) he has returned to again and 
again in his work: Rain; The Breakers, 
which protect Holland against the sea; 
New Earth, which was wrested from the 
Zuyderzee; the problem of irrigation in 
Spanish Earth during the Civil War; the 
dockers' strike in Indonesia Calling; the 
unity of the world's workers in Song of 
the Rivers; and the poetical view of 
Paris and the Seine in La Seine a 
rencontré Paris. He is a committed par- 
tisan of a cinéma-vérité that expresses 
social reality and he has never refused 
to tackle quite humble films if he felt 
they would serve a just cause. He has 
continued the teachings of his master, 
Dziga Vertov, in the Western world and 
has stated that, for the camera to be 
truly a witness it must count less on 
powerful material resources than on the 
solidarity of the workers. This view is 
expressed most clearly in Borinage, a 
film made amid a bitter miners' strike 
and despite the Belgian police, and in 
Indonesia Calling, which centers on 
Australian dockers and seamen who re- 
fused to load arms intended for colonial 
reconquest. His whole approach to his 
art has made him not only one of the 
great classic directors but a man who 
has laid the foundations for the cinema 
of the future. 

Dm: De Brandende Straal/ Flaming Ar- 
row (11), Zeedijk Film Studie/Zeedyk 
Film Study (27), Der Brug/The Bridge* 
(28), Regen/Rain* (29) (co-dir: M an- 
nus Franken), Branding /Breakers (29) 
(co-dir: Franken), Schaatsenrijden/ Skat- 
ing (29), Wij Bouwen/We are Building 
(30), Heien/Pile-Driving (30), Nieuwe 
Architectuur (30), Zuid Limburg (30), 
Caisson bornn Rotterdam (30), Philips 
Radio /Industrial Symphony (31), Creo~ 
soot/Creosote (31), Zuiderzee (31-33), 



Komsomol/Song of Heroes. (USSR32), 
Borinage/ Misère au Borinage* (Belg33), 
Nieuwe Gronden/New Earth* (Neth 
34), The Spanish Earth* (USA37), The 
400 Million* (USA39), Power and the 
Land (USA40), New Frontiers (USA40) 
(abandoned), Our Russian Front (USA 
41) (co-dir: Milestone), Oil for Alad- 
din's Lamp (USA42), Action Stations! 
(Canada42), Know Your Enemy: Japan 
( US A45 ) ( abandoned ) , Indonesia Calling 
(Austral46), Pierwsze Lata/The First 
Years* (Pol/Bulg/Czech49), Poko f 
Zwyeciezy Swiat/Peace Will Win (Pol 
51) (co-dir: Bossak), Naprozod Mlozi- 
ezy swiata/ Friendship Triumphs (USSR/ 
GDR52) (co-dir: Ivan Pyriev), Frie- 
densfahrt 1952 /Friendship Tour 1952 
(GDR/Pol52), Dos Lied der Strôme/ 
The Song of the Rivers* (GDR54), Die 
Windrose/The Wind Rose (GDR56) (5 
part film, supervised by Ivens, Caval- 
canti), Les Aventures de Till l'Espiègle/ 
The Adventures of Till Eulenspiegel 
(Fr/GDR56) (co-dir: Gérard Philipe), 
La Seine a rencontré Paris* (Fr57), 
Early Spring/Letters from China (China 
58), 600 Million People Are with You/ 
The War of 600 Million People (China 
58), L'Italia non e un Paesa Povere/ 
Italy is Not a Poor Country (It60) (TV), 
Demain à Nanguila/Nanguila Tomorrow 
(Mali60), Carnet de Viaje (Cuba60), 
Cuba, Pueblo Armado (Cuba61), . . . A 
Valparaiso (Chile/Fr63), El Circo mâs 
Pequeho del Mundo/The Little Circus 
(Chile/Fr63), Le Train de la Victoire 
(Chile64), Le Mistral (Fr65) (TV), Le 
Ciel, la Terre/The Threatening Sky 
(Fr/Vietnam65) , Rotterdam-Europoort 
(Neth66), 17' Parallèle/ 17th Parallel 
(Fr/Victnam67) , Rotterdam-Europoort 
from Vietnam (Fr67) (one episode). 

IWERKS, Ub anim USA. (Kansas City 
March 24, 1901-July 1971) American 
cartoonist responsible for the original de- 
sign of Mickey Mouse* (later attributed 
to Disney) who began in 1920 as an 
artist in a commercial advertising firm and 
joined Disney in 1924. Iwerks also made 
Flip the Frog and Little Negro cartoons 
for his own Celebrity Pictures in the 
Thirties. He again joined Disney in 1935 
as head of production services and has 
since specialized in trick work, such as 
the combination of live action and ani- 
mation. 



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•JAENZON, Julius (of*o J. Julius) PHOTOO 

Sweden. (Gôteborg 1885-1961) The 
greatest cameraman of the brilliant Swed- 
ish silent cinema and a pioneer in the 
development of location photography. 
His creation of atmosphere and feeling 
for nature contributed much to the films 
of Sjôstrôm and Stiller (both q.v.): 
Terje Vigen, The Outlaw and His Wife*, 
Sir Artie's Treasure*, The Phantom 
Chariot*, Love's Crucible, Gunnar 
Uede's Saga*, The Saga of Casta Ber- 
ling*. His brother, Henrik Jaenzon, also 
photographed several notable silent films, 
e.g., Ingeborg Holm*, Karin, Daughter 
Ingmar*. As an instructor at Svensk 
Filmindustri, Julius Jaenzon exercised 
considerable influence on the photo- 
graphic style of the modern Swedish 
c in cm 3. 

jakubowska, Wanda DR Poland. (War- 
saw Nov 10, 1907- ) A film maker of 
key importance in the postwar develop- 
ment of the Polish cinema, notably 
with her portrait of the Auschwitz death 
camp Ostatni etap/The Last Stage* (48). 
She was a founding member of Start 
and directed documentaries in the Thir- 
ties; her wartime sufferings are reflected 
in several of her films. 

•JANCSO, Miklot Dm Hungary. (Vac 1921- 
) Individualistic film maker with a 
masterful sense of the epic and a strongly 
formal style, he established his interna- 
tional reputation with The Round-Up 
(66) and paved the way for a more per- 
sonal school of film makers in Hungary. 
Many of his films reflect the bitterness 
and weariness of war's aftermath. His 
style relies heavily on long takes empha- 
sizing the composition of characters in 
a landscape, and approach that gives his 
films their visual grandeur and epic 
quality. He graduated from the Academy 



of Dramatic and Film Art in 1950, made 
newsreels from 1950-54, and then a 
large number of shorts and documen- 
taries before directing his first feature 
in 1958. 

MR (shorts, notably): Osz Badacsony- 
ban/Autumn in Badacsony (54), Egg 
Kiallitas Kepeif Pictures at an Exhibition 
(54), Szinfoltok Kinaboll Colorful China 

(57) , Derkovitas (58), Halhatatlansag/ 
Immortality (59), Az Ido Kereke/The 
Wheels of Time (61), He) te Eleven 
fa . . ./Living Tree . . . (63), Kôzel- 
rol: a Ver f Close-up: The Blood (66). 
dir (features): A Harangok Romaba 
MenteklThe Bells Have Gone to Rome 

(58) , Harom Csillag/Three Stars (60) 
(first part only), Oldas es Kotes/Can- 
tata (63), Jgy Jottem/My Way Home 
(64), Szegenylegenyek/The Round-up/ 
Poor Outlaws* (66), Csillagosok, Kan- 
tonak/The Red and the White (67), 
Csend es Kialtas/ Silence and Cry (68), 
Fenyes szelek/The Confrontation (68), 
Sirocco/Winter Wind (Fr/Czech69). 

JARRE, Maurlc* MUS France/USA/Britain. 
(Lyon 1924- ) Former composer of 
several remarkable scores for the Théâ- 
tre National Populaire who began in the 
cinema writing music for short films by 
Franju (q.v.) and Resnais (q.v.) [but 
has more recently received wider ex- 
posure through his scores for epics like 
Lawrence of Arabia and Dr Zhivago. 
He tends to favor the guitar as a prin- 
cipal instrument] and has sometimes used 
a compilation of natural sounds as a 
symphonic element. His scores have con- 
tributed much to many notable films. 
mus (notably): for Franju, Hôtel des 
Invalides* (51), Le Théâtre National 
Populaire (56), Sur le Pont d'Avignon 
(56), La Tête contre les murs* (58), 
Les Yeux sans visage (59, Pleins feux 
sur rassassin (61), Thérèse Desqueroux 



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(62), Judex* (63); for Resnais, Toute 
la mémoire du monde (56); for Jean- 
Pierre Mocky, Les D rageur s (59); for 
Richard Fleischer, Crack in the Mirror 
(60); for David Lean, Lawrence of Ara- 
bia (62), Dr. Zhivago (65); for Zanuck, 
The Longest Day* (62); for Serge Bour- 
guignon, Les Dimanches de Ville d'Av- 
ray (62); for Zinnemann, Behold a 
Pale Horse (63); for Letterier, Un roi 
sans divertissement (63); for Wyler, The 
Collector (65); for Frankenheimer, The 
Train (64), Grand Prix (66); for Clé- 
ment, Parls-brùle-t-il? (66); for Richard 
Brooks, The Professionals (66); for Lit- 
vak, Night of the Generals (66); for 
Karel Reisz, Isadora (67); for Visconti, 
Caduta degli Dei I The Damned* (69); 
for John GuiUermin, El Condor (70). 

J AS NY, Vo|tich Dm Czechoslovakia. (Kelc, 
Moravia Nov 30, 1925- ) The best of 
the first generation of new Czechoslovak- 
ian directors to emerge since the war, a 
film maker with a deep sense of poetry 
(Desire) and formal beauty who is not 
afraid of social polemic and is notable 
for the courage with which he has tackled 
contemporary themes. [He studied at 
the Prague film school (FAMU), first 
in the cinematographic section, then in 
direction. His graduation film (co-dir: 
Karel Kachyna) was a documentary on 
the Czech border regions, The Clouds 
Will Roll Away (50). He made several 
documentaries (Towards a Joyful Life, 
Unusual Years, People of One Heart, 
etc.) in the early Fifties before making 
his first feature in 1954.] 
Dm: Dnes vecer vsechno skonei/Every- 
thing Ends Tonight (54) (co-dir: K. 
Kachyna), Zarijove noce /September 
Nights (57), Touha/Desire (58), Prezil 
Jsem svou smrt/I Survived Certain Death 
(60), Procesi k Pane nee/ Pilgrimage to 
the Virgin Mary* (61), Az prijde ko- 
cour/That Cat* (63), Dymky/ Pipes 
(65), Vsichni dobri rodaci/All Good 
Citizens/ Our Countrymen (68). 

jasset, victorfn Dm France. (Fumay 
1862-Paris June 22, 1913) One of the 
best pre-1914 French directors, a man 
with a unique style and a sense of fan- 
tasy and of the bizarre. He made several 
episode films: Nick Carter (08), Zigo- 
mar (11), Pro tea (13) and published 
an excellent monograph on the theories 
and practice of directing in 1918. 



jaubert, Maurice mus France. (Nice Jan 
3, 1900-Azerailles June 19, 1940) The 
greatest prewar French composer whose 
brilliant scores (popular and yet not 
facile) served to perfection the poetic 
realism of Vigo, Clair, Carné, and Pré- 
vert (all q.w). He was killed on the 
front in 1940. 

mus (notably) : for Cavalcanti, Le Petit 
Chaperon rouge (29); for Pierre Prévert, 
L'Affaire est dans le sac* (32); for Clair, 
Quatorze juillet (33), Le Dernier Mil- 
liardaire* (34); for Vigo, Zéro de con- 
duite* (33), L'Atalante* (34); for 
Carné, Drôle de drame (37), Hôtel du 
Nord (38), Quai des Brumes (38), Le 
Jour se lève* (39); for Duvivier, Carnet 
de bal* (37), La Fin du four (39). 

JEANSON, Henri scen France. (Paris 
March 6, 1900-Nov 1970) Notable 
French writer who is at his best with 
sharp, biting dialogue and who excels 
in word plays and verbal jokes in the 
best boulevardier tradition. He was also 
a journalist and film critic, 1920-50. 
scen (notably): for Korda, La Dame 
de chez Maxim's (33); for Duvivier, 
Pépé le Moko* (37), Carnet de bal* 
(37), Pot-Bouille (57); for Moguy, 
Prison sans barreaux (38); for Marc 
Allégret, Entrée des artistes (38); for 
Carné, Hôtel du Nord (38); for L'Her- 
bier, La Nuit fantastique (42); for Chris- 
tian-Jaque, Carmen* (42), Boule de 
suif* (48), Fanfan la tulipe* (51), 
Nana* (55), Les Bonnes causes (63); 
for De co in, Les Amoureux sont seuls au 
monde (48); for Delannoy, Au yeux du 
souvenir (48); for Becker, Montpar- 
nasse 19 (57); for Verneuil, L'Affaire 
d'une nuit (60) . 

JENKINS, CharlM Fronds INVENTOR USA. 
(Dayton 1868-Richmond, Indiana June 
6, 1934) Co-inventor (in the summer of 
1895) with Thomas Armat of the Phan- 
toscope, a projector based on Jenkins's 
design of a revolving-light kinetoscopic 
machine and Armat's idea that inter- 
mittent motion of the strip of film was 
necessary. The first public presentation 
of the device (in mid-Sept 1895 at the 
Cotton States Exposition in Atlanta) 
preceded by some months that of the 
Lumière (q.v.) Cinématographe. Be- 
tween 1896 and 1930 Jenkins took out 
some 400 patents, most of them to do 
with moving pictures and "broadcast 
transmission of motion pictures"; he 



127 



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wrote frequently of the possibilities of 
this latter development. 

♦JENNINGS, Humphrey Dm Britain. (Suf- 
folk 1907-Greece 1950) Perhaps the 
greatest of the British documentary film 
makers and certainly the most poetic, 
he had a sensitivity to the power of 
images, a deep humanity, and a percep- 
tion that enabled him to capture the 
emotional mood of wartime Britain. He 
was an intellectual, a man of broad cul- 
ture, whose strongest early wish was to 
be a painter and who wrote poems full 
of visual imagery. During the Thirties 
be developed an interest in surrealism 
and in Charles Madge's sociological 
Mass-Observation, both of which were 
reflected in his films. He first worked 
in films as designer on Cavalcanti's 
Pett and Pott (34), then directed with 
Len Lye the stylized puppet film, Birth 
of a Robot (36). None of his prewar 
films have the sense of poetry, rhythm, 
and humanity of his best films during 
the war: Listen to Britain (with its im- 
pressionistic blend of sounds and 
images), Fires Were Started, and A Diary 
for Timothy. He died accidentally while 
filming in Greece. 

Dm: Birth of a Robot (36) (co-dir: Len 
Lye), The First Days (39) (co-dir: 
Cavalcanti, Watt, etc.), Spare Time (39), 
Spring Offensive/An Unrecorded Vic- 
tory (39), Speaking from America (39), 
lYer Last Trip/SS. Ionian (39), London 
Can Take It (40) (co-dir: Watt), Wel- 
fare of the Workers (40), Words for 
Battle (41), Heart of Britain/This is 
England (41), Listen to Britain (41), 
The Silent Village (43), Fires Were 
Started* (43), The Story of Ulli Mar- 
lene (44), A Diary for Timothy (45), 
A Defeated People (45), The Cumber- 
land Story (47), Dim Little Island (49), 
Family Portrait (50). 

JOHNSON, Martin Dm USA. (Rockford, 
Illinois Oct 9, 1884-Hollywood 1937) 
He usually worked in collaboration with 
his wife, Osa, and together they formed 
the most famous team of explorer-film 
makers. Martin Johnson shipped (as 
cook) with Jack London on his round- 
the-world voyage and he and bis wife 
later became inveterate travelers, largely 
in Africa and Polynesia, recording all 
their adventures on film. Their features 
and shorts enjoyed continuing popularity 
from 1912-35. 



Dm (notably) : Jack London's Adventures 
in the South Seas (08-12) (M. Johnson 
only), Cannibals of the South Seas/ 
Head Hunters of Malekula (12) (M. 
Johnson only), On the Borderland of 
Civilization (15?), Head Hunters of the 
South Seas (22), Trailing Big Game in 
Africa/ Hunting African Animals (23), 
Simba (24-27), Congorilla (29-32), 
Baboona (35), / Married Adventure 
(40) (compilation) (O. Johnson only). 

♦JOHNSON, Normally scen/dir/prod USA. 
(Columbus, South Carolina Dec 5, 1897- 
) The perfect example of a talented 
Hollywood scriptwriter working under 
contract (mostly for 20th Century-Fox) 
and able to turn his hand to almost any 
subject. His best work was his adapta- 
tion of The Grapes of Wrath and Lang's 
exemplary thriller, The Woman in the 
Window. He had had a brilliant career as 
a journalist before moving to Hollywood 
in 1933 as a scriptwriter. Following 
1935 he often worked as associate pro- 
ducer on the films he wrote and, after 
1942, as producer. He become a director 
in 1954 but his work has been consis- 
tently uninteresting, from the anticom- 
munist Night People to the routine com- 
edies Oh Men!, Oh Women! and The 
Man Who Understood Women. 
scen (notably) : for Raoul Walsh, Baby 
Face Harrington (35); for Howard 
Hawks, The Road to Glory (36); for 
John Ford, The Prisoner of Shark Is- 
land (36), The Grapes of Wrath* (40), 
Tobacco Road (41); for Henry King, 
Jesse James (39), The Gunfighter (50); 
for Fritz Lang, The Woman in the Win- 
dow* (44); for John Stahl, The Keys of 
the Kingdom (44); for Robert Siodmak, 
The Dark Mirror (46); for Jean Negu- 
lesco, Three Came Home (49), The 
Mudlark (50), Phone Call from a 
Stranger (52), How to Marry a Million- 
aire (53); for Hathaway, The Desert 
Fox (51); for Henry Koster, My Cousin 
Rachel (53), Take Her, She's Mine (63), 
Dear Brigitte (64); for Walter Lang, 
There's No Business Like Show Business 
(54); for Nicholas Ray, The True Story 
of Jesse James (57); for Don Siegel, 
Flaming Star (60); for George Roy Hill, 
The World of Henry Orient (64); for 
Robert Aldrich, The Dirty Dozen (67); 
and for his own films. 
Dm: Night People (54), The Black 
Widow (54), How to Be Very, Very 
Popular (55), The Man in the Gray 



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Flannel Suit (56), The Three Faces of 
Eve (57), Oh Men!, Oh Women! (57), 
The Man Who Understood Women (59), 
LaSposa Bella (62). 

JOHNSTON, Eric A. (Washington Dec 21, 
1895-Hollywood August 1963) Succes- 
sor in September 1945 to Will Hays 
(q.v.) as president of the Motion Pic- 
ture Association of America and roving 
ambassador for the American cinema. 
Despite all his international activities, 
he saw the postwar decline of Holly- 
wood and the big studios under his 
reign. 

JONES, Chuck (Charles M. Jones) ANIM 
USA. (Spokane, Washington 1912- ) 
Excellent American animator who, with 
Fritz Freleng and Robert McKimpson, 
created in the Warner Brothers studios 
the famous anthropomorphic cartoon 
characters of Bugs Bunny, Tweetie Pie, 
Daffy Duck, Speedy Gonzalez, Road 
Runner, and Coyote with their atten- 
dant gags (often brilliant) and stylized 
violence (less objectionable than in Tom 
and Jerry). [He had earlier been, suc- 
cessively or simultaneously, an animator, 
director, and scenario writer for Ub 
Iwerks (q.v.), Charles Mintz, Walter 
Lantz, and Walt Disney (q.v.). He was 
a leader of the famous strike at Walt 
Disney Studios that led to the forma- 
tion of UPA. He directed the first UPA 
film, Hell Bent for Election (44), and 
wrote the script for UPA's first feature 
Gay Purree. His films have won eight 
Oscars and numerous other awards. His 
work in the Sixties has been particularly 
imaginative (though clearly influenced 
by European styles), especially the ab- 
stractions of High Note, the story line 
based on sound effects and free flowing 
visuals of Now Hear This, and the witty 
austereness of The Dot and the Line. 
In 1965 he founded his own production 
company, Tower Twelve Productions, 
and has worked for MGM on a some- 
what unsatisfactory revival of the Tom 
and Jerry cartoons. His notable films in- 
clude: Private Snafu (44), Hell Bent 
for Election (44), Mississippi Hare (47), 
Mouse Wreckers (47), Frigid Hare (49), 
Rabbit Seasoning (51), Bully for Bugs 
(52), Claws for Alarm (53), Punch 
Trunk (55), Nightmare Hare (55), Gee 
Whiz-z-z (56), Robin Hood Daffy (57), 
Scrambled Aches (57), The Abominable 
Snow Rabbit (61), / Was a Teenaged 



Thumb (63), High Note (63), Now 
Hear This (63), Tom-ic Energy (64), 
The Cat Above, the Mouse Below (64), 
The Dot and the Line (66), Horton 
Hears a Who (70), The Phantom Toll- 
booth (69-71).] 

JUILLARD, Robert PHOToo France. (Join- 
ville Aug 24, 1906- ) One of the best 
postwar French cameramen, notable for 
his temperate, precise style: for Rossel- 
lini, Germania, Anno Zero* (48); for 
Clément, Jeux interdits* (52), Gervaise* 
(56); for Clair, Les Belles de nuit* 
(52), Les Grandes Manoeuvres* (55); 
for Gance, Austerlitz (60); for Delannoy, 
Le Rendez-vous (61). 

JULIAN, Rupert Dm USA. (Auckland Dec 
25, 1889- ?) Former stage and screen 
actor who became a director for Uni- 
versal and was rated by Carl Laemmle 
(q.v.) as superior to Stroheim (q.v.), 
whom he replaced on Merry -Go-Round 
(23). He made the fascinating Lon 
Chaney vehicle, Phantom of the Opera 
(25), and several routine films before 
disappearing from Hollywood when 
sound was introduced. 

JULIUS, J. pseud see jaenzon, julius 

JUNGHANS, Carl Dm Czechoslovakia. 
(Dresden Oct 7, 1897- ) The director 
of the remarkable Such is Life* at the 
end of the silent period in Czechoslova- 
kia but of nothing else of note. He emi- 
grated to the USA in the Thirties. 

MUTRA, Claude Dm Canada. (Montreal 
March 11, 1930- ) Imaginative Ca- 
nadian film maker who has made a 
number of individualistic shorts, a per- 
ceptive cinéma vérité documentary fea- 
ture, Niger 60, and a remarkable semi- 
autobiographical feature, A tout prendre 
(63), whose style anticipated that of 
many films of the Sixties. He originally 
studied medicine, then theater at the 
Théâtre du Nouveau Monde in Montreal. 
He made his first films as an amateur be- 
fore joining the National Film Board of 
Canada and collaborating with Norman 
McLaren (q.v.) on A Chairy Tale. He 
has also worked briefly with Jean Rouch 
(q.v.). Many of his films have been 
photographed by and/or co-directed 
with Michel Brault. He has worked of- 
ten in TV, notably for the series Images 



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en boite for Radio-Canada, and has 
taken a further step in the use of "di- 
rect cinema" techniques in Wow! a 16- 
mm feature conceived collectively by 
"nine bourgeois adolescents expressing 
their interests and préoccupations." 
dir: Mouvement perpétuel (49), Le 
Dément du lac Jean Jeune (49), Pierrot 
des bois (54), Jeunesses musicales (56), 
A Chairy Taie /Il était une chaise* (57), 
Les Mains nettes (58) (supervised: F. 
Dansereau), Felix Leclerc, troubadour 
(59), Fred Barry (59), Niger 60 (60), 
La Lutte (61) (co-dir: M. Brault and 
others), Anna la bonne (61), Québec- 
USA /Visit to a Foreign Country (62) 
(co-dir: M. Brault), Les Enfants du 
silence (62) (co-dir: M. Brault), A tout 
prendre /Take it all (63), Comment sa- 
voir (66), Rouli-roulant (66), Wowt 
(69), Le Québec vu par Cartier-Bresson 
(69), Marie-Christine (70), Mon oncle 
Antoine (71). 



JUTZI, Phil (Pi»l) dir/photoo Germany. 
(Rheinpfalz 1894-194?) Film maker 
whose reputation rests on a handful of 
realistic films on working-class themes 
that were made in the late Twenties. He 
was also a renowned cameraman before, 
during, and after his own most famous 
films (e.g., Fedor Ozep's Der Lebende 
Le ich mann) and he photographed all 
his own silent films. He remained in 
Germany after the advent of Hitler and 
directed and/or photographed several 
mediocre films, the last in 1942. 
dir (notably): Der Maskierte Schrecken 
(20), Klass und Datsch die Pechvôgel 
(26), Kindt rtragôdie (27), Die Mach- 
nower Schleusen (27) (short), Mutter 
Krausens Fahrt ins GlUck/Mother Krau- 
sen's Journey to Happiness (29), Unser 
tâgliches Brot/Hunger in Waldenburg/ 
Our Daily Bread* (29) (documentary), 
Berlin-Alexanderplatz (31), Lockspitzel 
Asew (35). 



130 



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•KADAR, )6n Dm Czechoslovakia. (Buda- 
pest April 1, 1918- ) Film maker 
whose best work in collaboration with 
Elmar Klos (q.v.) since 1952 reflects 
a deep concern for human rights (Death 
is Called Engelchen, The Shop on the 
Main Street). He studied at the Brati- 
slava Film School and was imprisoned 
in a Nazi labor camp during the war. 
After the war he directed the documen- 
tary, Life is Rising from the Ruins, then 
became a scriptwriter and assistant at 
the Barrandov Studios in Prague and 
directed independently a comedy fea- 
ture, Katya (50), before joining with 
Klos in 1952. Together they have worked 
on the Magic Lantern presentations and 
made the polyscreen Youth (58) and the 
documentary, Spartakiade (60), in ad- 
dition to their features. They have in- 
variably written their own scripts but 
stopped collaborating in 1970 when Ka- 
dar moved to the USA 
CO-dir: Unos/ Kidnapped (52), Hudba 
z Mar su /Music from Mars (54), Tarn 
na konecne/The House at the Terminus 
(57), Tri prani/Three Wishes (58), Smrt 
si rika Engelchen/ Death is Called En- 
gelchen (63), Obzalovany/The Defen- 
dant/The Accused (64), Obchod na 
korze/Shop on the High Street/Shop on 
Main Street* (65). 

dir: Touha zvana Anada/ Adrift (Czech/ 
USA69), Angel Levine (USA70). 

KALATAZOV, Mikhail Konstantinovich DIR 

USSR. (Tiflis Dec 28, 1903- ) Veteran 
Soviet film maker who began as an edi- 
tor and cameraman and directed, at the 
end of the silent period, the remarkable 
Salt for Svanetia. He made several other 
less interesting films before and during 
the war and, for a time, was Soviet Con- 
sul in Los Angeles before influencing 
the Soviet feature film of the Fifties and 
Sixties with his romantic masterpieces 



The Cranes Are Flying (57) and The 
Letter That Wasn't Sent (60), both of 
which made a great new actress, Tatiana 
Samoilova, internationally famous. 
dir: Sol Svanetia/Salt for Svanetia* (30) 
(documentary), Nail in the Boot (32) 
(unreleased), Mut/Manhood (39) (doc- 
umentary), Valeri Chkalov /Wings of 
Victory (41), Nepobedimyie/ 'Invincible 
(42) (co-dir: Gerasimov), Zagavor 
obrechyonnikh /Conspiracy of the 
Doomed (50), Verniye druzy a/True 
Friends/Close Friends (54), Pervi eshe- 
Ion/ The First Echelon (66), Letyat 
zhuravli/The Cranes are Flying* (57), 
Neotpravlennoe pismo/The Letter that 
Wasn't Sent (60), Ya-Kuba/l am Cuba/ 
Here is Cuba (USSR/Cuba62), Krasnaya 
palatka/The Red Tent (USSR/It69). 

KALMUS, Herbert t. inventor USA. (Chel- 
sea Nov 9, 1881-1963) American pio- 
neer photographic expert, the inventor 
of Technicolor in 1914 and later presi- 
dent of the Technicolor Corporation. 
His wife, Natalie (1892-1965), was his 
faithful technical assistant and acted as 
adviser on all Technicolor films, 1933- 
50. 

KAMEl, Fomlo dir Japan. (April 1, 1908- 
) Independent polemical Japanese film 
maker who studied films in Moscow 
1928-33, became a documentary film 
maker, and was imprisoned for making 
a pacifist film during the war. After the 
war he played a major role in the de- 
velopment of the independent Japanese 
cinema, making, notably, as part of this 
movement, the touching A Woman Walks 
the Earth Alone (53). He later returned 
to documentaries. 

Dm (notably): Shanghai (38) (docu- 
mentary), Tatakai Hettai (40), Shina 
no Fudok (41) (banned), Nichon no 
Higeki/A Japanese Tragedy* (45) (doc- 



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umentary, banned), Sen so to Hewal/ 
War and Peace* (47) (co-dir: Yama- 
moto), Onna no Issho/A Woman's Life 
(49), Onna Hitori Daichi o Iku/A 
Woman Walks the Earth Alone* (53), 
To Be a Mother, To Be a Wife (53), 
It is Better to Live (56). 

KAMEL MORSI, Ahmad DIR Egypt. (190?- 
) A friend and disciple of Kamel 
Sali m (q.v.), he had directed numerous 
films, most memorably, El Amel/The 
Worker (43), El Naeb el Am/The Pub- 
lic Prosecutor (45). 

KAMENKA, Alexandre prod France. (Odes- 
sa May 18, 1888-France Dec 1969) 
Emigrated from Russia and established 
himself in Paris (with Mosjoukine and 
Ermolieff), where he headed Albatros 
Films and produced many important 
films (23-40) by Epstein, Clair, Feyder, 
L'Herbier, etc. Also produced for Jean 
Renoir (q.v.) in 1936 and Louis Daquin 
(q.v.) in 1947. 

KANIN, Ganon scen/dir USA. (Roches- 
ter Nov 24, 1912- ) A scriptwriter, 
director, playwright, and Broadway pro- 
ducer who made several remarkable pre- 
war comedies (notably, Tom, Dick, and 
Harry) and was Cukor's favorite writer 
in the Forties and Fifties. [He was 
originally a musician and actor, was 
brought to Hollywood in 1936 by Sam 
Goldwyn (q.v.), and worked for two 
years in the cutting rooms before direct- 
ing his first feature for RKO. He directed 
eight prewar films and several notable 
war documentaries (Fellow Americans, 
The True Glory) but after the war re- 
stricted his activities to Broadway and 
to scriptwriting. He has often worked in 
collaboration with his wife, the actress 
Ruth Gordon (who alone wrote the 
script for Cukor's The Actress), on 
Broadway plays, scripts and film adapta- 
tions of their plays. Recently, he has re- 
turned to film directing.] 
dir: A Man to Remember (38), Next 
Time I Marry (38), The Great Man 
Votes (39), Bachelor Mother (39), My 
Favorite Wife (40), They Knew What 
They Wanted (40), Tom, Dick, and 
Harry (41), Fellow Americans (42) 
(documentary), German Manpower (43) 
(documentary), The True Glory (USA/ 
Brit45) (documentary, co-dir: Carol 
Reed), Where It's At (69), Some Kind 
of Nut (69), Mr. Broadway (TV series). 



scen (notably): for George Cukor, A 
Double Life (47), Adam's Rib (49), 
Born Yesterday* (51), Pat and Mike 
(52), The Marrying Kind (52), It Should 
Happen to You* (54); for George Sea- 
ton, Teacher's Pet (58); for Blake Ed- 
wards, High Time (60); for Robert 
Mulligan, The Rat Race (60). Also, 
Tashlin's The Girl Can't Help It* and 
Sidney Buchman's Over 21 are based 
on his plays. 

KAPLER, Alexei scen USSR. (Briansk Sept 
15, 1904- ) An excellent scriptwriter 
and a former member of FEKS, who has 
worked on, notably: Ermler's She De- 
fends Her Country* and Romm's Lenin 
in 1918* and Lenin in October*. 

KAPOOR, Raj Dm/PROD India. (Bombay 
Dec 4, 1924- ) [The most famous 
showman of the Indian film industry 
and the master of the Hindi film musical. 
He began as a clapper boy with Bom- 
bay Talkies but soon became famous as 
a matinée idol in numerous light com- 
edies. After the war he established his 
own company, R. K. Films, and built 
his reputation on a series of sentimental- 
ized treatments (with songs and dances) 
of social themes. His first film, Aagl 
Fire, was about a young man rebelling 
against social conventions.] In 1951, he 
made the enormously popular Awara*, 
a film that was highly praised in the 
USSR and whose theme song swept 
Asia. In 1955, he made Shri 420/ 
Mister 420 and in 1957 Jagte Raho*. 
These were typical of his approach: 
lavish settings, vigorous stories center- 
ing on the misadventures of a "little 
man," who was probably based on Chap- 
lin, and who was played by Kapoor him- 
self. [His most commercially successful 
film, Sangam/Union, has no overt social 
message, while lis Desh Men Ganga 
Behit /Where the Ganges Flows (61) — 
which won a number of awards — is 
more typical of his later approach and 
makes no pretense at anything but ac- 
tion, drama, pathos, and lots of music] 

KARABASZ, Kasimleri DIR Poland. (1930- 
) Young documentary film maker with 
a personal, poetic style that involves the 
expressiveness of the human faces he 
photographs: "I want to capture my 
heroes in their everyday work by making 
them forget the camera." He received 
international attention with Musicians 



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but is best known for bis lyrical People 
on the Road. 

Dm (notably): People from the Empty 
Area (57) (co-dir: Slesicki), A Day 
Without Sun (59) (co-dir: Slesicki), 
Musicians (60), People on the Road 
(61), Railway Junction (61), Where Do 
You Go? (61), Jubilee (62), The First 
Steps (62), The Birds (63), In the Club 
(63), Born 1944 (64), A Year in Frank's 
Life (67) (co-dir: Niedbalski). 

kardar, Aa»|oy der/photoo Pakistan. 
(? - ) A film maker responsible for 
making in East Pakistan the remarkable 
Day Shall Dawn*, worthy of note not 
only for its faithful portrait of life in a 
small fishing village but also for Walter 
Lassally's (q.v.) photography. Also: 
Qasum us Waqt ki/No Greater Glory 
(69). 

(CARMEN, Reman Lasarcvfcfc MR USSR. 
(Odessa Nov 11, 1906- ) One of the 
truly great film makers, a man who is 
perhaps less of a director of documentary 
films than a documentarist, an actuality 
cameraman, and film journalist. He was a 
cameraman in Spain during the Civil 
War and in 1938-39 in China where he 
recorded, often under bombardment, reel 
after reel of memorable sequences — 
many of which have been reproduced 
(without credit) in various newsreels 
and documentaries. During the Spanish 
Civil War he was the equal of, and 
influenced, the photographer, Robert 
Capa. 

dir/photoo (notably): Moscow (32), 
Parade in Red Square Moscow (33), 
Moscow — Kara Kum — Moscow (33 ) , 
At Home (34), Salute to the Spanish 
Pioneers (36), Spain (39) (compiled 
by Esther Shub from Karmen footage), 
China Defends Herself (39), Sedov Ex- 
pedition (40), A Day in the New World 
(40), In China (41), The Defense of 
Leningrad (43), Albania (45), Berlin 
(45), Judgment of the People I Nurem- 
berg (47), Soviet Turkmenistan (50), 
Soviet Georgia (51), Caspian Oil Work- 
ers (53), Vietnam (54), How Broad is 
Our Country (58) (first Soviet film in 
70mm "Kinopanorama"), Dawn of In- 
dia (59), Cuba, Island in Flames (60), 
Our Indonesian Friend (60), A Guest 
from the Island of Freedom (63), The 
Great Patriotic War (65), Death of a 
Commissar (66), Granada, Granada, 



My Granada (67) (compilation of Span- 
ish Civil War footage). 

KASSllA, Motti dir Finland. (Keuru Jan 
12, 1924- ) Good Finnish director 
who has made some 15 films since 1949 
and who possesses a particular feeling 
for nature and landscape, best displayed 
in Elokuu (56). 

KÀST, Ptorre Dm France. (Paris Dec 22, 
1920- ) A film maker who spent too 
many years for his liking directing short 
films before he made his first feature. 
He is a well-established film critic (Ac- 
tion, Postif, Cahiers du Cinéma, etc.), 
has also worked in the theater, as an 
editor for Em mer (q. v.) and as assistant 
to Grémillon, Clément, Renoir, and John 
Sturges (all q.v.). His features - inge- 
nious, intelligent, intellectual, introspec- 
tive, and intimate — are sometimes irritat- 
ing but never lacking in feeling or in sin- 
cerity. He has said of his approach: 
"Handled in the right way, anything, 
even very personal things, can be com- 
municated to others, even though some 
details might not be directly understood." 
dir (shorts) : Les Charmes de l'existence 
(49) (co-dir: Grémillon), Les Femmes 
du Louvre (51), Les Désastres de la 
guerre (51), L'Arithmétique (in Ency- 
clopédie filmée) (51), La Guerre en 
dentelles (52), Je sème à tous vents 
(52), La Chasse à l'homme (53), A 
nous deux Paris (53), Monsieur Robida, 
prophète et explorateur du temps (54), 
Claude-Nicholas Ledoux, architecte Mau- 
dit (54), Nos ancêtres les explorateurs 
(54), Le Cor busier, V architecte du bon- 
heur (56), Des ruines et des hommes 
(58), Images pour Baudelaire (58), Une 
question d'assurance (59), Japan d'hier 
et d'aujourd'hui (59), Promenade quoti- 
dienne aux Indes (59), Regards sur le 
Pakistan (58), La Brûlure de mille soleils 
(64), Croquis brésiliens (66) (TV). 
Dm (features): Un amour de poche 
(57), Le Bel âge (59), Merci, Natercia 
(60), La Morte — saison des amours* 
(60), Vacances Portugaises/ Les Sourires 
de la destinée (63), Le Grain de sable/ 
Le Triangle circulaire (64), La Nais- 
sance de l'empire romain (65) (TV), 
Drôle de feu (68), Le Drapeau blanc 
d'Oxala/Candomblé et Macumba (69). 

KAUFMAN, Bord Abramevich PHOTOO 

France/USA. (Bialystok, Poland 1906- 
) A great cameraman with a naturalis- 



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tic, low-key style, indirectly trained by 
his brothers Dziga Vertov (q. v.) and 
Mikhail Kaufman (q.v.) and, more di- 
rectly by his early work with Jean Lods 
(q.v.) and Jean Vigo (q.v.). He emi- 
grated to France in 1927, to the USA 
in 1940, and worked on documentaries 
in Canada during the war. His work in 
the States is best characterized by his 
collaboration with Kazan and Lumet. 
PHOTOO (notably): for Jean Lods, 
Champs-Elysées (28); for Jean Vigo, 
A Propos de Nice* (30), Taris (31), 
Zéro de conduite* (33), L'Atalante* 
(34); for Willard van Dyke, Journey 
into Medicine (46), Terribly Talented 
(48); for Elia Kazan, On the Water- 
front* (54), Baby Doll* (56), Splendor 
in the Grass (61); for F. Cook, Patterns 
of Power (56); for Sidney Lumet, 
Twelve Angry Men* (57), That Kind 
of Woman (59), The Fugitive Kind 
(60), Long Day's Journey into Night 
(62), The Pawnbroker* (63), The Group 
(66), Bye Bye Braver man (67); for 
George Roy Hill, The World of Henry 
Orient (64); for Jules Dassin, Uptight 
(68); for Preminger, Tell Me That You 
Love Me Junie Moon (69). 

KAUFMAN, Mikhail Abramovich PHOTOO/ 
dir USSR. (Bialystok, Poland Sept 5, 
1897- ) Dziga Vertov's (q.v.) camera- 
man and close collaborator on Kino-Eye, 
Kino-Pravda (22-25), A Sixth of the 
World* (26), The Eleventh Year (28), 
Man with a Movie Camera* (29), etc., 
and a distinguished cameraman and doc- 
umentary film maker in his own right 
His Moskva/ Moscow (27) was the first 
of a long line of films portraying a city 
from dawn to dusk, and Vesnoyl Spring* 
(29) is an excellent lyrical documentary. 
Other documentaries include The Great 
Victory (33), Air March (36), Our 
Moscow (39), Folk Dances of the 
USSR (39), The Tretyakov Gallery 
(56). 

KAUTNER, Helmut dir German Federal Re- 
public. (Diisseldorf Feb 25, 1908- ) 
The best West German director, sensi- 
tive, intelligent and humanistic, despite 
the uneven quality of his work, which 
has varied from the brilliant to the 
mediocre (often because of his working 
conditions). He was an actor, then a 
scriptwriter, and finally a director in 
Nazi Germany, making his first major 
film, Romanze in Moll, in 1943. He has 



scripted most of his own films. Accord- 
ing to Louis Marcorelles, his work, in a 
world full of intolerance, is "a message 
of purity and elegance; he is the last 
German romantic." In recent years he 
has confined his directing activities 
mainly to the stage and TV. 
Dm: Kitty und die Weltkonferenz (39), 
Kleider machen Leute (40), Frau nach 
Mass (40), Auf Wiedersehen, F rami ska 

(41) , Wir machen Musik (42), Anuschka 

(42) , Romanze in Moll* (43), Grosse 
Freiheit Nr. 7 (44), Unter den Bracken 
(45), In Jegen Tagen* (47), Der Apfel 
ist ab (48), Kônigskinder (49) (re- 
make), Epilog (50), Weisse Schatten 
(51), Kâpfn Bay-Bay (52), Die Letzte 
Briicke* (54), Bildis einer Unbekannten 
(54), Ludwig 11 (55), Des Teufels Gen- 
eral* (55), Himmel ohne Sterne (55), 
Ein Mddchen aus Flandern (55), Der 
Hauptmann von Kôpenick (56), Die 
Zurcher Verlobung (56), Monpti (56), 
Der Schinderhannes (58), The Wonder- 
ful Years (USA58), Stranger in My 
Arms (USA59), Der Rest is Schwelgen 
(59), Die Gans von Sedan (59), Das 
Glas Wasser (60), Schwarzer Kies (60), 
Der Traum von Lie se hen M aller (61), 
Zu Jung fur die Liebe (61) (supervised 
only), Die Rote (62), Das Haus in Mon- 
tevideo (63), Lausbubengeschichten (64). 

KAWALEROWICZ, J.rxy DIR Poland. 
(Gwozdziec, Ukraine Jan 19, 1922- ) 
An excellent director of the postwar 
Polish generation, he has a feeling for 
a romantic story and a sense of char- 
acterization, atmosphere, and precise de- 
tail. He became an assistant director 
and scriptwriter after his studies at 
Cracow after the war and directed his 
first film in 1950. "Each film I make 
reflects my current state of mind con- 
cerning life, art, people, and love. There 
are no more immutable truths in our 
often crazy world. I return constantly 
to the same motifs: the most intimate 
feelings that have only sometimes 
touched our awareness but whose im- 
portance has always pressed hard on 
the destiny of men.** 

dir: Gromada/The Village Mill/The 
Community (50) (co-dir: K. Sumer- 
ski), Celuloza/A Night of Remembrance* 
and Pod Gwiazda Fry gijiska/ Under the 
Phrygian Star (two part film) (54), 
Cien/The Shadow (56), Prawdziwy 
koniec wielkiej wojny/The Real End of 
the Great War (57), Pociag/ Night 



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Train* (59), Matka Joanna od Anio- 
low/ Mother loan of the Angels* (61), 
Faraon/ Pharaoh (65), Gra/The Game 
(69). 

KAZAN, Elia (Ella Kaianjoglou) DR USA. 

(Istanbul Sept 7, 1909- ) [A director 
whose films have been variously dis- 
missed as "more excessive than expres- 
sive, more mannered than meaningful" 
(Andrew Sarris) and praised (most com- 
monly by British critics) as intensely in- 
dividual chronicles of the American way 
of life and of the life of Kazan him- 
self.] His parents emigrated to the USA 
in 1913. He became an actor, then pro- 
ducer, with the Group Theater in the 
Thirties and has retained from his the- 
atrical background a greater or lesser 
degree of grandiloquence in his imagery 
and in his direction of actors (many of 
whom have had an Actors Studio 
training). He acted in several films and 
made two documentaries before directing 
features, the first two of which were 
mediocre adaptations of novels. He 
turned to social themes; judicial error 
in Boomerang! (47), anti-Semitism in 
Gentleman's Agreement (47), blacks 
passing as white in Pinky (49). After 
1950, and Panic in the Streets, panic 
seized him, and when faced with McCar- 
thyism he preferred to yield. In 1952 
he "named" his former friends (he had 
joined the Communist Party in 1934) to 
the House Un-American Activities Com- 
mittee, placed an ad in the New York 
Times asking all "democrats" to denounce 
the "Reds," and "involved himself in depth 
in what he considered a kind of moral 
duty" (Marcorelles). In Viva Zapata! 
(52), he depicted the corruption of revo- 
lutionary leaders; he confirmed his po- 
litical position with the portrait of crim- 
inal communism in Man on a Tightrope 
fi don't blush for the film"); described 
unions as led by villains who had to be 
denounced in On the Waterfront; and 
showed the masses as stupidly following 
a charismatic personality in A Face in 
the Crowd. This second period is dom- 
inated by an academically functional, 
craftsmanlike style, inflated and pompous 
under an apparent sparseness and natural- 
ism. His best film, Baby Doll, owes 
much to the author Tennessee Williams, 
another of whose plays he had earlier 
adapted in A Streetcar Named Desire. 
He gave James Dean his first major 
role in the impressive East of Eden, 



based on Steinbeck's novel. He went back 
to the stage for three years and returned 
to the cinema in 1960 with Wild River, 
a somewhat schematic portrait of the 
confrontation between progress and re- 
action in the Thirties, and Splendor in 
the Grass. [His films in the Sixties have 
become increasingly personal, more con- 
cerned with human motivations and ob- 
sessions in the social context of America. 
America, America and The Arrangement 
(both from his own novels) are partially 
autobiographical. The former portrays 
the odyssey of Kazan's uncle from the 
Old World to the New and is full of 
incisive characterizations; the latter, 
which shows a man breaking decisively 
with his former way of life, "an allegory 
of contemporary America . . . going 
through a terrible crisis," is hysterical in 
style, pretentious, and far less convinc- 
ing than his original novel.] 
dir: Pie in the Sky (35) (an improvised 
film devised by Ralph Steiner, Kazan, 
Irving Lerner, etc.), The People of the 
Cumberland (37) (documentary), It's 
Up to You (41) (documentary feature), 
A Tree Grows in Brooklyn (45), Sea 
of Grass (47), Boomerang! (47), Gen- 
tleman's Agreement* (47), Pinky (49), 
Panic in the Streets (50), A Streetcar 
Named Desire* (52), Viva Zapata!* (52), 
Man on a Tightrope (52), On the Water- 
front* (54), East of Eden* (55), Baby 
Doll* (56), A Face in the Crowd* (57), 
Wild River (60), Splendor in the Grass 
(61), America, America/The Anatolian 
Smile (64), The Arrangement (69). 

KEATON, Bustor (Joseph Francit Kaoton) 

dir/scen USA. (Pickway, Kansas Oct 4, 
1895-Hollywood Feb 1, 1966) This great 
comic genius, the only American come- 
dian comparable to Chaplin, is also the 
true creator of all but his earliest and 
last films, since he always collaborated 
on their scripts and often on their direc- 
tion. The following is a list of the main 
films (silent features complete) that 
exemplify his unique genius: One Week* 
(20), The Goat (21), The Boat (21), 
The Paleface (21), Cops* (22), The 
Blacksmith (22), The Balloonatic (23) 
(all shorts), The Three Ages* (23), Our 
Hospitality* (23), Sherlock Junior* 
(24), The Navigator* (24), Seven 
Chances (25), Go West* (25), Battling 
Butler (26), The General* (26), Col- 
lege (27), Steamboat Bill, Jr.* (28), 
The Cameraman* (28), The Spite Mar- 



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riage (29), Free and Easy (30), Dough 
Boys (30), Parlor, Bedroom, and Bath 
(31), Sidewalks of New York (31), The 
Passionate Plumber (32), Le Roi des 
Champs-Êlysées (Fr34), El Moderno 
Barba Azul (Mex66), Un Duel à mort 
(Fr52), Film (USA65), The Railrodder 
(Canada65). 

keighley, William DIR USA. (Philadelphia 
Aug 4, 1889- ) Prolific and mediocre 
Hollywood director (mostly for Warner 
Brothers) with a stage background who 
co-directed Green Pastures* (36) with 
its real author, Marc Connelly (q.v.). 
[Also made, notably: Bullets or Ballots 
(36), The Adventures of Robin Hood 
(38) (exteriors only), The Man Who 
Came to Dinner (41), Rocky Mountain 
(50).] 

KELBER, Michel PHOTOG France/Spain 
(Kiev April 9, 1908- ) Trained by 
Marc Allégret (q.v.), he made his name 
mainly after the war with his superb im- 
ages for Autant-Lara's Le Diable au 
Corps* and was responsible for the deli- 
cate photography (in black and white 
or color) of Cocteau's Ruy Bias and 
Les Parents terribles*, Renoir's French 
Cancan*, Bardem's Calle Mayor*, Nich- 
olas Ray's A mère Victoire*, Clair's La 
Beauté du diable*. 

KALETI, Morton DiR Hungary. (1905- ) 
Prolific (over 40 films since 1937) di- 
rector of popular features and musicals, 
including Mickey Magnate (49), Sing- 
ing Makes Life Beautiful (50) and, 
most notably, Tegnap/ Yesterday (59), a 
dramatic portrait of the Hungarian up- 
rising of 1956. 

•Kennedy, Burt scen/dir USA. (Muske- 
gon, Michigan 1923- ) Budd Boetti- 
cher's (q.v.) favorite scriptwriter who 
was originally a radio writer. His first 
film as director (The Canadians) was a 
disaster and he worked in TV (Combat 
series) for three years before returning 
to the cinema with the personal and 
original Mail Order Bride (64). His 
westerns (in which he specializes) tend 
to use the traditional myths to bring 
out psychological tensions and charac- 
terizations, but are highly uneven, rang- 
ing from the intellectual complexities of 
Welcome to Hard Times to the routine 
The War Wagon. 

scen (notably): for Boetticher, Seven 



Men from Now* (56), The Tall T (57), 
Ride Lonesome (59), Comanche Sta- 
tion (60); for Gordon Douglas, Fort 
Dobbs (58), Yellowstone Kelly (60); 
for Harry Keller, Six Black Horses (60), 
and for his own The Canadians, Mail 
Order Bride, The Rounders, Welcome 
to Hard Times. 

Dm: The Canadians (61), Mail Order 
Bride/West of Montana (64), The Round- 
ers (65), The Money Trap (65), Re- 
turn of the Seven (66), Welcome to 
Hard Times/ Killer on a Horse (67), 
The War Wagon (67), Support Your 
Local Sheriff (68), The Good Guys and 
the Bad Guys (68), Young Bilh Young 
(69), Dirty Dingus MaGee (70), The 
Deserter (70), Support Your Local Gun- 
fighter (70), Hannie Colder (71). 

KERTESZ, Mihaly see CURTIZ, MICHAEL 
KHACH ATUR IAN, Aram MUS USSR. (Tiflis 

May 6, 1904- ) Famous Soviet com- 
poser who has also written several film 
scores, notably, for Romm's Girl No. 
217* (44) and Yutkevich's Othello* 
(56). 

KHAN, Romjokhan Mehboob see MEHBOOB 
KHAN, RAMJAKHAN 

KHODATEYEV, Nikolai (a/so N. Hodatyev) 

anim USSR. (1892- ) Pioneer Soviet 
animator responsible for a curious car- 
toon in the futurist style, Interplanetary 
Revolution (24), and later for Organ- 
chik/The Music Box (33), a satire on 
militarism. 

♦KING, Henry DIR USA. (Christiansburg, 
Virginia Jan 24, 1896?- ) A Holly- 
wood director who has tackled all sub- 
jects assigned to him, but in his feeling 
for images and for plot has sometimes 
been of comparable value to his con- 
temporary, Raoul Walsh (q.v.). Orig- 
inally a stage actor and producer, he 
began directing films for Pathé in 1916 
and in 1918-19 came under the influence 
of Ince (q.v.), for whom he made sev- 
eral westerns. His masterpiece, Tol'able 
David (21), perhaps owes much to his 
southern background. His work in the 
Twenties is of special interest, notably 
for the warm sentiment of The White 
Sister, Stella Dallas, and The Winning 
of Barbara Worth. He was a director 
totally out of sympathy with modern 
themes and at his best with evocative, 



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nostalgie American period films like 
Alexander's Ragtime Band, Little Old 
New York, Wilson, Margie, and Wait 
Till the Sun Shines Nellie, films that 
portrayed the period of his own younger 
days. However, his Gunfighter, with its 
pit-High Noon theme is a model of the 
genre. 

Dm (notably, complete from 29) Who 
Pays (16). 23 Vt House Leave (19), A 
Sporting Chance (19), Help Wanted, 
Male (20), Tol'able David* (21), The 
Bond Boy (22), Sonny (22), Fury (23), 
The White Sister (23, in Italy), Romola 
(24, in Italy), Stella Dallas* (25), The 
Winning of Barbara Worth (26), The 
Magic Flame (27), She Goes to War 
(29), Heirs Harbor (29), Eyes of the 
World (30), Ughtnin' (30), Merely 
Mary Ann (31), Over the Hill (31), 
The Woman in Room 13 (32), State 
Fair (33), / Loved You Wednesday 

(33) , Carolina (34), Marie Galante 

(34) , Way Down East* (35) (remake), 
One More Spring (35), Lloyd's of Lon- 
don (36), Ramona (36), The Country 
Doctor (36), Seventh Heaven (37), In 
Old Chicago (37), Alexander's Ragtime 
Band (38), Jesse James (39), Stanley 
and Livingstone (39), Uttle Old New 
York (40), Chad H anna (40), Maryland 
(40), A Yank in the RAJ?. (41), Re- 
member the Day (41), The Black Swan 
(42), The Song of Bernadette (43), 
Wilson (44), ^ Be// /or Adano (45), 
Afarg/e (46), Cap/am from Castile (47), 
Deep Wû/er* (48), Prince of Foxes (49), 
Twelve O'Clock High (49), 27ie Gun- 
fighter (50), A* C//m6 the Highest 
Mountain (51), Z)<jvi'J and Bathsheba 

(51) , Wa/< J/// the Sun Shines Nellie 

(52) , The Snows of Kilimanjaro (52), 
O. Henry's Full House (52) (one epi- 
sode), King of the Khyber Rifles (53), 
Untamed (55), Love is a Many Splen- 
dored Thing (55), Carousel (56), The 
Sun Also Rises (57), The Old Man and 
the Sea (58) (completed by John 
Sturges), The Bravados (58), This Earth 
is Mine (59), Beloved Infidel (59), Ten- 
der is the Night (61). 

KlNOSHfTA, K«isuk« or Japan. (Hama- 
matsu Dec 5, 1912- ) A film maker 
who established his reputation with lyri- 
cal comedy-satires (The Blossoming Port, 
The Girl I Loved, Carmen Comes Home) 
somewhat in the René Clair manner, he 
is one of the best Japanese directors to 
emerge from the war. He began hit 



career as assistant (36-43) to Yasujiro 
Shimazu at Toho and is totally dedi- 
cated to his work and the continual 
development of his style. He has worked 
equally with the neorealist approach of 
Twenty-four Eyes and the kabuki drama 
of Ballad of the Narayama. "In every 
picture I try to do something that hasn't 
been done before. I'm not like some di- 
rectors who say: 'William Wyler tried 
it this way, so I'll have a go in the same 
manner.' Just because something has 
been done successfully by another 
doesn't interest me." 

dir (notably): Hana Saku Minato/The 
Blossoming Port (43), Ikiteiru Mago- 
roku/The Living Magoroku (43), Riku- 
gun/Army (44), Kanko no Mac hi/ 
Jubilation Street (44), Osone-ke no 
Asa I A Morning with the Osone Family 
(46), Waga Kolseshl Otome/The Girl 
I Loved (46), Fujicho/ Phoenix (47), 
Kekkon/ Marriage (47), Hakai I Apostasy 

(48) , Yabure Daiko I Broken Drum (49), 
O-josan Kampei/Here's to the Girls 

(49) , Yotsuya Kaidan/The Yotsuya 
Ghost Story (49) (3 parts), Shonen-ki/ 
Youth (50), Zemma/Good Fairy (51), 
Karumen Kokyo nl Kaeru/ Carmen 
Comes Home (51), Karumen Junjosu/ 
Carmen's Pure Love (52), Nihon no 
Higekl/A Japanese Tragedy* (53), Onna 
no Sono/The Garden of Women (54), 
Nifushi no Hitomi/ Twenty- four Eyes* 
(54), Toi Kumo/ Distant Clouds (55), 
Nogiku no Gotoki kiml Nariki/She Was 
a Wild Chrysanthemum (55), Taiyo to 
Bara/Sun and Rose (56), Yuyake Kumo/ 
Clouds at Twilight (56), Yorokobi mo 
Kanashiml mo Ikutoshitsuki /Times of 
Joy and Sorrow/The Lighthouse (57), 
Fuzen no Tomoshibi/ Candle in the 
Wind/Danger Stalks Near (57), Nara- 
yama Bushi-ko I Ballad of the Narayama* 

(58) , Kono Ten no Niji/The Eternal 
Rainbow (58), Kazahana/Snow Flurry 

(59) , Sekishun-cho (59), Eien no Hito/ 
The Bitter Spirit/Immortal Love (61), 
Fuefukigawa/The River Fuefuki (61), 
Kotoshi no Koi/New Year's Love (62), 
Futaride Aruita Iku-Shunju/ Ballad of a 
Workman (62), S hi to no Densetsu/A 
Legend . . . or Was It? (63), Koge/ 
The Scent of Incense (66), Natsukashiki 
Fue ya Taiko/Eyes, the Sea, and a Ball 
(67). 

(SwialJlSS^* )"<taTtf the artistic 
pioneers of the Japanese cinema, who, 



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with his contemporaries Mizoguchi (q.v.) 
and Tomu Uchida {q.v.), played a major 
role in the evolution of the cinema in 
the Far East, particularly during the 
silent period. From 1914 to 1922 he 
was an oyama actor (female imperso- 
nator) and in 1922 led a strike at the 
Nikkatsu Studios against the introduc- 
tion of actresses in female roles. A Arm 
believer in the cinema as an art form in 
its own right, he made his first film in 
1922 and then joined the Japanese avant- 
garde with A Crazy Page (26), based on 
the theory of "neosensationalism." His 
Crossroads (28) is a work of great orig- 
inality. Following its release, he left for 
a trip to Europe where he met Pudovkin 
(q.v.) and Eisenstein (q.v.). The in- 
fluences of this visit were evident in his 
first film after his return, Before she 
Dawn, a film notable for its editing and 
for its polemic against feudalism. With 
The 47 Ronin he joined his friends Mi- 
zoguchi and Uchida in the "new realism** 
movement and its interest in ideological 
films. After the war he took part in the 
••democratization** of Japan, notably 
with Lord for a Night (46). Always in- 
terested in the stylistic possibilities of 
new technical developments, he made 
remarkable use of color in the award- 
winning Gate of Hell and of the split- 
screen in The White Heron. He has di- 
rected over 100 films, among which are 
many assigned productions, 
ont (notably): Niwa no Kotori/Two 
Little Birds (22), Hibana (22), Koi/ 
Love (24), KM no Ante /The Polownia 
Rains (24), Nichirin/The Sun (25), 
Kurutta Ippeiji/A Crazy Page* (26), 
The Palanquin (27), J ujiro/ Crossroads/ 
Shadows of Yoshiwara* (28), Reimei 
Izen I Before Dawn* (31), Genroku 
Chushingura/The 47 Ronin* (32), Iki- 
nokotta Shinsengumi/The Surviving 
Shinsengumi (32), Koina no Kimpei/ 
Kimpei from Koina (33), Fut at su Doro/ 
Two Stone Lanterns (33), Ippon Gatana 
Dohyoiril (34), Yukinojo Henge (35) 
(3 parts), Osaka Natsu no Jin/The Sum- 
mer Battle of Osaka (37), Hebihime- 
sama/The Serpent Princess (38), The 
Battle of Kanaka jima (4l),Susume Doku- 
ritsu-ki/Forward, Flag of Independence 
(43), Aru Yo no Tono-sama/Lord for 
a Night (46), Joyu/ Actress (47), Nichi- 
rin/The Sun (50) (remake), Daibutsu 
Kaigen/ Dedication of the Great Buddha 
(52), Jigokumon/Gate of Hell* (53), 
Shinkin Stones (54), Naruto Hicho/ 



Naruto Fantasy (57), Harukoro no 
H ana no En /Symphony of Love /Spring 
Bouquet (58), Shirasagi/The White 
Heron (58), Joen/The Affair/ Tor- 
mented Flame (59), Kagero Ezu/Stop 
the Old Fox (59), Uta-Andon/The Lan- 
tern (60), Midaregami I Disheveled Hair 
(60), Okoto to Sasuke/Okoto and Sa- 
suke (61), V so/When Women Lie (63) 
(one episode), Yoso/The Bonze Magi- 
clan (63), Chiisana Tobosha/The Little 
Runaway (Jap/USSR67). 

KIRCHER, Athonosiira inventor Italy. (Ger- 
many May 12, 1601-Rome Nov 28, 
1680) A Jesuit priest who was the first 
to describe - if not to invent - the magic 
lantern in his book "Ars magnae lucis 
et umbrae** in 1646. 

KiRSANOFF, Dimitrl DiR France. (Dorpat, 
Russia March 6, 1899-Paris Feb 11, 
1957) Russian émigré film maker whose 
remarkable Minilmontant* (26) was a 
precursor of French poetic realism and 
of Italian neo-realism. He continued his 
experiments for some years notably in 
Brumes d'automnes (28) and in the use 
of contrapuntal sound in Rapt (34), but 
eventually had to resign himself to work- 
ing on commercial films and sponsored 
documentaries. 

4 KLINE, Herbert DIR USA, etc. (1909- ) 
Former left-wing magazine editor in 
the Thirties who became involved in 
film-making through the Spanish Civil 
War. He photographed Heart of Spain 
and Return to Life for Frontier Films 
and in 1938-39 made two notable docu- 
mentaries on the Fascist threat, Crisis 
and Lights Out in Europe. In Mexico 
he made the remarkable The Forgotten 
Village (41) from John Steinbeck's 
script and in Israel My Father's House 
(47), a dramatization of the Jewish 
struggle for nationhood. The first three 
of these were photographed by Czech- 
born Alexander Hackenschmied (Ham- 
mid) the last by Floyd Crosbie. 

•KLOS, Elmar dir/prod Czechoslovakia. 
(Brno Jan 26, 1910- ) Film maker 
who since 1952 has always worked in 
collaboration with Jan Kadar (q.v.). 
Before the war he founded the film 
studio run by the Bata shoe company 
in Zlin (Gottwaldov) and after the war 
worked in various administrative posts 
— including heading the Short Film 



138 



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Studios (Kratky Film) -before joining 
Kadar. 

KOBAYASHI, Ichizo PROD Japan. (Kofu 
Jan 3, 1873-Tokyo 1960?) Picturesque 
Japanese industrialist who founded the 
famous Toho production and distribu- 
tion company. He made a fortune in 
real estate along his Osaka-Kobe rail- 
road (part of the Mitsui Trust) by cre- 
ating and developing the town of Taka- 
razuka, a gigantic amusement park, and 
an all-girl "opera" troupe of the same 
name. In 1932 he organized the Tokyo 
Takarazuka Theater Corporation and 
began acquiring or building theaters for 
his troupes. In 1935 he gained control 
of P.C.L. Studios and the J.O. Company 
as well as a newsreel company and a 
year later formed the Toho Motion Pic- 
ture Distributing Company to release 
films produced by the two studios he 
controlled. He became a minister in 
the second Konoye cabinet in 1940 and 
during the war contributed to the estab- 
lishment of a super cinema trust domi- 
nated by Toho. After the war the Amer- 
ican occupation authorities forced him 
to relinquish his interest in Toho, which 
came under the control of the unions. 
A scries of strikes and labor problems 
led to Toho's financial collapse and, 
eventually, to court control and police 
and army intervention. Kobayashi be- 
came president of Toho again in 1951 
and again tried to gain major control of 
the industry. He retired in 1955 but re- 
mained honorary president. 

KOBAYASHI, MosoU dr Japan. (Hokkaido 
Feb 4, 1916- ) [One of the best of the 
postwar generation of film makers whose 
work has steadily increased in stature 
during the Sixties, e.g., Harakiri, Kwai- 
dan and Rebellion.] He began as assis- 
tant to Kinoshita (q.v.) at the Shochiku 
studios and made his first films in the 
Fifties as one of the independent group 
of directors. From 1959-61 he directed 
his first major work, the eight-hour long 
trilogy of the horrors of war Ningen 
no Joken. 

Dm: Musuko no Seishun/My Son's Youth 
(52), Magokoro/ Sincerity (53), Kabe 
Atsuki Heya/The Room with Thick 
Walls (53, released 56), Kono Uiroi 
Sora no Dotokani/ Somewhere under the 
Broad Sky (54), Uruwashiki Saigetsu/ 
Beautiful Days (55), 1 zu mi /The Foun- 
tainhead (56), Anata Kaimasu/Vll Buy 



You (56), Kurol Kawa/Black River 
(57), Ningen no Joken/The Human 
Condition (trilogy)* (No Greater Love, 
Road to Eternity, A Soldier's Prayer) 
(58-61), Karami~ai/The Inheritance 
(62), Seppuku/ Harakiri* (62), Kaidan/ 
Kwaidan (64), Joi-uchi/ Rebellion (67), 
Nippon no Seishun/Hymn to a Tired 
Man/The Youth of Japan (68), Inochl 
Bonifuro/At the Risk of My life (70). 

KONDOUROS, Nikos See KOUNDOUROUS, 
NIKOS 

KONWICKI, Tadeusi dir/scen Poland. 
(Lithuania 1926- ) Prominent Polish 
author who worked as a film critic, then 
as a scriptwriter (e.g., Kawalerowicz's 
Mother Joan of the Angels* and 
Pharaoh), and has written and directed 
the highly personal Ostatni dzien lata/ 
The Last Day of Summer (58) (co-dir: 
Laskowski), Zaduszki/ Halloween (61), 
and Sal to (65), films somewhat remi- 
niscent of Antonioni (q.v.) and haunted 
by an emotional feeling of war. 

KOPALIN, Uya Pttrovich dir USSR. (Mos- 
cow Aug 2, 1900- ) Veteran documen- 
tary film maker who collaborated with 
Dziga Vertov (q.v.) as one of the "kinoks" 
after 1924 and made his first independent 
film in 1927. He developed into a highly 
esteemed documentarist in the USSR. 
During the war he was leader of a cam- 
era group and made various documen- 
tary features with Varlamov. 
Dm (notably): The Berlin Conference 
(45), Liberated Czechoslovakia (46), 
The Day of the Victorious Country 
(47) (co-dir: Setkino), Transformation 
of the Land (50), The Glorious Road 
(Albania51) (co-dir: Kekko), Albania 
(52) (co-dir: Schtichin), The Unforget- 
table Years (57), City of Great Destiny 
(60), First Trip to the Stars (61), Pages 
of Immortality (65). 

KORDA, (Sir) Alexander (In Hungary, Sander 
Korda; in Germany/ Austria, Alexander 
Corda) Dm/PROD Hungary/Germany/ 
Austria/USA/France/Britain. (Turkeye, 
Hungary Sept 16, 1893-London Jan 13, 
1956) Unarguably a major producer 
who exerted enormous influence on the 
development of the British film industry. 
After a long international career as a 
director (Hungary 16-19, Germany/ 
Austria 20-27, USA 27-30, France 30- 
31) he settled in Britain, formed Lon- 



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don Films, and established his position 
with the successful The Private Life of 
Henry Vf II (33). He built Denham 
Studios and made numerous cosmopol- 
itan, lush, costume dramas (largely deriv- 
ative of the Hollywood style) of which 
many were international commercial suc- 
cesses. He maintained complete control 
over his films, supervising them at each 
stage of production in the Ince (q.v.) 
manner. He brought many important 
directors from around the world (Fey- 
der, Clair, Flaherty, etc.) to work for 
him but they ended up being buried un- 
der his ostentatious approach. Though 
he is not a great artist, his influence 
and his development of a commercial 
basis for the British film industry have 
earned him a place in film history. 
Dm (notably): Feher ejszakak/ White 
Night (Hungl6), Aranyember (Hung 
18), Mary Ann (Hung 19), Feher Rozsa/ 
White Rose (Hung20), Seine majestàt 
das Bettelkin (Aust20), Samson und 
Delilah (Aust22), Jedermanns Weib 
(Ger24), Der Tamer meiner Frau 
(Ger25), Madame wiinscht keine Kin- 
der (Ger26), Stolen Bride (USA27), The 
Private Life of Helen of Troy (USA27), 
Yellow Lilv (USA28), Night Watch 
(USA28), Love and the Devil (USA29), 
Lilies of the Field (USA30), Women 
Everywhere (USA30), The Princess and 
the Plumber (USA30), Rive gauche (Fr 

31) , Mari us* (Fr 31), Service for Ladies 
(Brit31), The Wedding Rehearsal (Brit 

32) , The Private Life of Henry VIII* 
(Brit33), The Private Life of Don Juan 
(Brit34), Rembrandt (Brit36), Conquest 
of the Air (Brit40), That Hamilton 
Woman (Brit41), The Perfect Stranger 
(Brit45), An Ideal Husband (Brit48). 
prod (notably): Men of Tomorrow 
(33) (dir: Leontine Sagan), Catherine 
The Great (34) (dir: P. Czinner), The 
Scarlet Pimpernel (35) (dir: Harold 
Young), The Ghost Goes West* (36) 
(dir: René Clair), Things to Come 
(36) (dir: William Cameron Menzies), 
Knight without Armour (37) (dir: J. 
Feyder), The Four Feathers (39) (dir: 
Zoltan Korda), The Lion Has Wings 
(39) (dir: Michael Powell and others), 
The Thief of Bagdad (40) (dir: Ludwig 
Berger, Michael Powell, Tim Whelan), 
Lydia (40) (dir: Duvivier), To Be or 
Not to Be* (42) (dir: Lubitsch), Anna 
Karenina (48) (dir: Duvivier), The 
Fallen Idol* (48) (dir: Carol Reed), 
The Third Man* (49) (dir: C. Reed), 



The Deep Blue Sea (55) (dir: Litvak), 
Richard III (56) (dir: Olivier). 

KORDA, Vincent (Vincze Korda) ART DIR 

Britain/USA. (Turkeye, Hungary 1896- 
) A talented designer who collabo- 
rated often with his brothers Alexander 
and Zoltan and was best at creating 
sets and effects for spectaculars, e.g., 
The Private Life of Henry VIII*, Things 
to Come, Sanders of the River, The Four 
Feathers, The Thief of Bagdad. Also 
designed, notably: The Ghost Goes 
West*, To Be or Not to Be*, The Fallen 
Idol*. 

KORDA, Zoltan dir Britain/USA. (Turk- 
eye, Hungary May 3, 1895-Hollywood 
1961) The younger brother of Alexander 
(with whom he worked in several coun- 
tries before settling in Britain in 1933) 
who directed several fairly good films 
and various spectaculars. He was in 
Hollywood from 1940-48. 
dir (notably): Cash (32), Sanders of the 
River (35), The Elephant Boy (37) (in- 
teriors only, co-dir: Flaherty), The 
Drum (38), The Four Feathers (39), 
The Jungle Book (USA42), Sahara 
(USA43), Counterattack (43), The 
Macomber Affair (USA47), A Wom- 
an's Vengeance (USA47), Cry the De- 
loved Country!/ African Fury (52), 
Storm over the Nile (55) (co-dir). 

KOSMA, Joseph mus France. (Budapest 
Oct 22, 1905- ) Individualistic com- 
poser with an undeniable talent and a 
real feeling for popular music. He emi- 
grated from Hungary to France in 1933 
and has written there several memorable 
scores, notably for Renoir {q.v.) and 
Carné (q.v.); his style matched perfectly 
the poetry of Prévert (q.v.). He is also 
a composer of chansons. 
mus (notably): for Renoir: Le Crime 
de Monsieur Lange* (36) (with Jean 
Wiener), Une Partie de campagne* (36), 
La Grande Illusion* (37), La Marseil- 
laise* (38), La Bête humaine* (38), 
La Règle du jeu* (39) (arranged only), 
Eléna et les hommes (56), Le Testament 
du docteur Cordelier (56), Le Déjeuner 
sur Yherbe (59), Le Caporal épingle 
(62); for Carné, Jenny (36), Les Visi- 
teurs du soir* (42), Les Enfants du 
Paradis* (45), Les Portes de la nuit* 
(46), La Marie du port (50), Juliette 
(51); for Prévert, Adieu Leonard (43), 
Voyage surprise* (46); for André Ca- 



Copy righted material 



yattc, Les Amants de Vérone (48); for 
Franju, Le Sang des bêtes* (49); for Le 
danois, L'Ecole buissionière* (49), 
Sans laisser d'adresse* (50), Agence 
matrimoniale (52); for Grimault, La 
Bèrgere et le Ramoneur* (52); for Bar- 
dem, Calle Mayor* (56); for J. Audry, 
Huis clos (54); for Bunuel, Cela s'ap- 
pelle Vaurore* (56); for Henri Decoin, 
La Chatte (58); for Marcel Hanoun, Le 
Huitème four (59); for Jacques B ara- 
tic r, La Poupée (62); for Robert Par- 
rish, In the French Style (64). 

KOSTER, H«nry (Hermann Kosterlitx) DIR 

Germany/USA. (Berlin April 1, 1905- 
) Hollywood director of largely un- 
interesting comedies and costume dra- 
mas who began his career (under his 
own name) as a scriptwriter in Ger- 
many for UFA and became a director 
for the German branch of Universal 
(two films) in 1932. He moved in the 
mid-Thirties to Hollywood where he di- 
rected some lively prewar films, notably 
Three Smart Girls (36) with the young 
De anna Durbin. In 1953 he was given 
the opportunity to make the first Cinema- 
Scope film, The Robe*. 

KOUNDOUROS, Ntket DiR Greece. (Crete 
1926- ) One of the best contemporary 
Greek directors, a sincere film maker 
with a fiery, direct style, portraying his 
characters as part of a disordered, cha- 
otic world. He has expressed the soul 
.of his people better than any other, 
most notably in / Mayiki Polis/Magic 
City (55), O Dracos* (56), / Para- 
noml/The Lawless (58), To Potami/ 
The River (60), Mikres Aphrodites/ 
Young Aphrodites* (62). 

KOZINTSEV, Orlgeri DIR USSR. (Kiev 
1905-May 1973) One of the greatest So- 
viet film makers, a director whose films 
with Tr au berg (q.v.) in the Twenties and 
Thirties, though little known outside the 
USSR, stand far above most contem- 
poraneous films. He studied at the Acad- 
emy of Fine Arts and in 1922 (at the age 
of 17) founded, with Trauberg, the Fac- 
tory of the Eccentric Actor (FEKS), a 
futurist theatrical movement to which 
Kapler, Yutkevich (q.v.), and, briefly, 
Eisenstein (q.v.) all belonged. FEKS 
believed in excess and incorporated into 
their work elements of the circus, ca- 
baret, the music halls, and adventure 



films. Their 1922 staging of Gogol's 
Marriage in this manner brought them 
instant notoriety. Their first film, The 
Adventures of Octyabrina (24), was an 
experimental short delightfully parodying 
the typical elements of the adventure 
film. Their version of Gogol's The Cloak 
was much influenced by expressionism. 
They came close to creating a master- 
piece with New Babylon, a film whose 
original visual design was intimately 
bound with a strongly felt emotion. They 
reached the peak of their art in the 
sound period with Alone and especially 
with the vast modern epic, the Maxim 
trilogy, a perfect example of socialist 
realism at its best The characters they 
portrayed in these films, closely tied to 
Russian revolutionary history, evolved 
with the years, their experiences and 
the course of history. However, even 
Maxim retains elements from their FEKS 
background. The war interrupted their 
work and brought their collaboration to 
an end. Kozintsev worked as a stage di- 
rector for some years (he is an expert 
on Shakespeare) before returning to the 
cinema in 1957 with his intelligent, sen- 
sitive, and somewhat melancholy adapta- 
tion of Don Quixote. His two recent 
Shakespeare adaptations have again 
brought him international pre-eminence. 
co-dir (with Trauberg): Pokhozdeniya 
Octyabrini/The Adventures of Octya- 
brina* (24), Chyortovo koleso/The 
Devil's Wheel (26), Shinel/The Cloak* 
(26), Bratishka (27), S.V.D./The Club 
of the Big Deed* (27), Novyi Vavilonf 
The New Babylon* (29), Odna/Alone* 
(31), Yunost Maksima/The Youth of 
Maxim* (35), Vozvrashcheniye Mak- 
sima/The Return of Maxim* (37), 
Vyborgskaya storona/The Vyborg Side* 
(39), Prostiye lyudi/Plain People/Ordi- 
nary People (45, released 56). 
Dm: Fighting Film Album No. 2 (41) 
(short), Pirogov (47), Belinskii/Belinsky 
(47), Don Quixote* (57), Gamlet/Ham- 
let* (64), Karoli Ur/King Lear (70). 

KRAHLY, Han ns (alio Hans Kraly) SCEN Ger- 
many/USA. (Germany 1885-Los An- 
geles Nov 11, 1950) Ernst Lubitsch's 
(q.v.) usual scriptwriter, both in Ger- 
many and in Hollywood, where he went 
with Lubitsch and where he continued to 
make a major contribution to his work 
based on the theatrical traditions of 
central Europe. In Hollywood he also 
wrote scripts, but less successfully, for 



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Henry Koster, Lewis Milestone, and 
William Wyler (all q.v.). 

KRAMER, StanUy PROD/dIR USA. (New 

York Sept 29, 1913- ) Courageous 
and intelligent producer/director whose 
principal aim has been to use the cinema 
as a means of "communicating a mes- 
sage to the conscience of humanity." He 
has always worked closely with the di- 
rectors and writers of his films and is 
considered by some as the principal au- 
thor of many excellent films directed 
by Zinnemann, Benedek, and Robson 
(all q.v.) As a director himself he has 
many successes (such as Judgment at 
Nuremberg) to his credit. He was one 
of the defenders of liberalism under the 
McCarthy era and later directed several 
polemical message films — against intol- 
erance in Inherit the Wind, racism in 
The Defiant Ones, the peril of atomic 
war in On the Beach, and Nazism in 
Judgment at Nuremberg. 
prod (notably) : Robson's The Champion 

(49) , Home of the Brave (49); Zinne- 
mann's The Men* (50), High Noon* 
(52), Member of the Wedding (52); 
Michael Gordon's Cyrano de Bergerac 

(50) ; Dmytryk's The Sniper (52); The 
Caine Mutiny (54); Benedek's Death of 
a Salesman* (51), The Wild One* (54), 
Hubert Cornfield's Pressure Point (62); 
John Cassavetes' A Child is Waiting 

(62) ; Richard Wilson's Invitation to a 
Gunfighter (64); and his own films. 

dir: Not as a Stranger (55), The Pride 
and the Passion (57), The Defiant Ones* 
(58), On the Beach (59), Inherit the 
Wind (60), Judgment at Nuremberg 
(61), It s a Mad, Mad, Mad, Mad World 

(63) , Ship of Fools (65), Guess Who's 
Coming to Dinner (67), The Secret of 
Santa Vittoria (69), Bless the Beasts and 
Children (71). 

KRASKER, Robert PHOTOO Britain/USA/ 
Italy. (Australia Aug 21, 1913- ) 
One of the great cameramen, a master 
of color photography (and the first to 
use it artistically in Britain) [who began 
his training in France and has worked 
mainly in Britain and occasionally in 
Europe, usually on American films. He 
was assistant to Georges Périnal (q.v). 
His evocative photography in The Third 
Man is unforgettable.] 
photoo (notably): for Brian Desmond 
Hurst, Dangerous Moonlight (40); for 
Lawrence Olivier, Henry V* (44); for 



David Lean, Brief Encounter* (46); for 
Gabriel Pascal, Caesar and Cleopatra* 
(45); for Carol Reed, Odd Man Out* 
(47), The Third Man* (49), Trapeze 
(56), The Running Man (63); for Zol- 
tan Korda, Cry the Beloved Country 
(52); for Visconti, Senso* (52) (co- 
photog: G. R. Aldo); for Castellani, 
Romeo and Juliet (53); for Rossen, 
Alexander the Great (55); for John 
Ford, The Quiet American* (58); for 
Losey, The Criminal* (60); for Ustinov, 
Romanoff and Juliet (61), Billy Budd 
(62); for Anthony Mann, El Cid* (61), 
The Fall of the Roman Empire (63), 
The Heroes of Telemark (65); for As- 
quith, Guns of Darkness (62); for Wy- 
ler, The Collector (65). 

KRUGER, Jults photog France/Spain/Bri- 
tain. (Strasbourg July 12, 1891- ) 
Excellent cameraman during the Thirties, 
with a feeling for atmosphere and a 
sense of the picturesque but somewhat 
addicted to oblique shots. He worked 
with Gance on Napoléon and La Fin 
du monde and his talents matched well 
those of Raymond Bernard (q.v.) in 
Les Croix de bois* (32), Les Misérables* 
(34), and those of Duvivier (q.v.) in 
La Bandera* (35), La Belle Equipe 
(36), Pépé le Moko* (37), La Charette 
fantôme/The Phantom Chariot* (39), 

Untel père et fils (40). Also for Decoin,» 
Les Inconnus dans la maison (42). 

KUBRICK, Stanfey DIR USA. (New York 
July 26, 1928- ) A film maker who 
must be included among the best of his 
generation. He began as a journalist and 
his first film-making experience was on 
short documentaries and low-budget fea- 
tures. He established his reputation as 
a film maker with a harsh, bold, and 
often brutal style in The Killing (56) - 
which retained (from the documentaries) 
his feeling for exact observation — and 
followed this with the best of his early 
films, Paths of Glory (58), a film about 
French soldiers executed "in error" dur- 
ing the First World War. Spartacus is 
less his film than that of its producer- 
star Kirk Douglas, and his version of 
Lolita is extremely open to criticism. It 
is a pity he did not observe his own 
earlier rule: "I am resolutely opposed to 
the adaptation of good novels." However 
he was happier with the black comedy 
about atomic war, Dr. Strangelove. [With 
the ambitious 2001: A Space Odyssey, 



Copyrighted material 



a metaphysical epic that relinquished 
traditional visual forms and structures, 
he reached the peak of his art to date.] 
Dm: Day of the Fight (49) (documen- 
tary), Fear and Desire (53) (also seen 
and photog), Killer's Kiss (55) (also 
seen and photog), The Killing (56) (also 
seen'), Paths of Glory* (58), Spartacus 
(60), Lolita (62), Dr. Strangelove or 
How I Learned to Stop Worrying and 
Love the Bomb* (Brit63), 2001: A 
Space Odyssey* (Brit68). 

kuleshov, Lev DiR USSR. (Tambov Jan 
1, 1899-Moscow March 29, 1970) The 
founder of the Soviet cinema together 
with his opponent, Dziga Vertov (q.v.), 
and, like Vertov, both film maker and 
theoretician who, since he was twenty, 
propounded the theory that editing was 
the principal means of cinematic ex- 
pression. He began his career in 1916 
as a set designer for Yevgeni Bauer 
(q.v.) and in 1917 completed After 
Happiness after Bauer's death and then 
went on to direct his own first films. 
During the Civil War he was one of 
several film makers penetrating the com- 
bat zones in agit-trains in order to 
prepare polemical documentary films. 
Kuleshov's work culminated in On the 
Red Front (20), a two-reel short com- 
bining actuality and acted scenes. Since 
1917 he had been interested in theoreti- 
cal aspects of the cinema and in 1919 
was active in organizing the first State 
Film School, the directors of which had 
little confidence in the bustling twenty- 
year-old film maker. He gathered around 
him a group of "bad pupils" like Pudov- 
kin (ç.v.), Khokhlova, Leonid Obolen- 
sky, Boris Bar net (q.v.), and Val cri 
Inkizhinov and in 1920 established the 
Kuleshov Workshop where he and his 
students experimented actively with the 
possibilities of editing. Ivan Mozhukhin's 
expressionless face was intercut with vari- 
ous shots (Pudovkin says they were a 
bowl of soup, a woman in a coffin, and 
a child with a toy bear) to create the 
famous "Kuleshov effect" in which an 
audience marveled at the actor's ap- 
parently sensitive performance. He de- 
veloped "artificial landscape" or "cre- 
ative geography" by intercutting shots of 
streets in different cities. He "synthe- 
thized" a woman filmically by combin- 
ing shots of parts of different women. 
Because of the shortage of film stock, 
the students created "films without cellu- 



loid" in which everything was staged 
and directed exactly as if it were before 
a camera and in which "models" were 
used as actors — that is to say actors 
trained for the cinema and not for the 
theater. With his stock company, Kule- 
shov directed two detective-story satires, 
The Extraordinary Adventures of Mr, 
West in the Land of the Bolsheviks, and 
The Death Ray, both full of sophisti- 
cated cinematic effects. His team was dis- 
banded after 1925, but Pudovkin and 
Barnet, notably, had drawn much from 
his teachings. In 1926 he made one of 
his two best films, By the Law, an in- 
tense tragedy based on the Jack London 
story, The Unexpected. It was poorly 
received by Soviet critics and his next 
three silent films were all failures. He 
made only one other film of note, The 
Great Consoler (33). [Starting in 1925 
he had come under increasing ideological 
attacks and at the 1935 Congress of 
Film Workers was denounced and forced 
to confess to "formalistic" errors, to 
preferring form over content. He con- 
tinued writing and in 1944 was appointed 
head of the Film Institute (VGIK), 
where he continued to lecture almost un- 
til his death. None of his later films is 
of particular merit Regrettably, none of 
his several theoretical works from Art 
of the Cinema (29) to Fundamentals 
of Film Direction (41) have to date 
been published in English.] 
Dm: After Happiness (17) (completed 
after Bauer), Proyekt inzhenera Praita/ 
Engineer Prite's Project (18), Na kras- 
nom fronte/On the Red Front (20), 
Neobychainiye priklucheniya Mistera 
Vesta v stranye bolshevikov/The Extraor- 
dinary Adventures of Mr. West in the 
Land of the Bolsheviks* (24), Luch 
smerti/The Death Ray (25), Po zakonu/ 
By the Law/Dura Lex* (26), Vasha 
znakomay a/The Journalist /Your Ac- 
quaintance (27), The Gay Canary (29), 
Dva, Bouldej, dva/The Great Buldis 
(30), Electrification (30) (documen- 
tary), Horizon (32), Velikii uteshitel/ 
The Great Consoler (33), The Siberians 
(40), Incident on a Volcano (41) (co- 
dir: Khokhlova), Timufs Oath (42). 

KUUDJANOV, Uv Dm USSR. (Tiflis March 
19, 1924- ) Good representative of the 
new Soviet generation with an individu- 
alistic, realistic, and sensitive style. 
Dm: Damy/Ladies (54) (co-dir: Ogan- 
isyan), Eto nachinados tak . . . lit 



Uopy riQhtod mstcnsl 



Started Like This (56) (co-dir: Y. Se- 
gel), Dom v kotorom ya zhivu/The 
House I Uve In (57) (co-dir: Y. Segel), 
Otchii dom /Our Father's House (59), 
Kogda derevya byli bolshimi/When the 
Trees Grow Tall (61), Sinaya tetrad/ 
The Blue Notebook (63), Poteryannaya 
fotografiya/The Lost Photograph (67), 
Prestuplenie I nakazanie/ Crime and Pun- 
ishment (69). 

KUROSAWA, Akira dir. Japan. (Tokyo 
March 23, 1910- ) One of the greatest 
contemporary directors, a film maker 
of the postwar Japanese generation with 
concerns different from those of his 
elders Mizoguchi, Kinoshita, and Ozu 
(all q.v.). He is above all a humanist 
who has used his visual sensitivity, sense 
of characterization, ability to direct ac- 
tors, technical gifts for staging, and 
vigorous editing to further his ideals. 
Violence and furious battles may often 
play a role in his films, but only as an 
expression of his anger and revulsion 
at social injustices of the past and 
present [He originally studied to be a 
painter but relinquished this goal to 
join P.C.L. (later Toho) as an assistant 
director. He was partially responsible 
for Kajiro Yamamoto's The Horse (41), 
wrote several scripts, and directed his 
first film in 1943.] Though he made sev- 
eral notable films in the Forties, he 
established an immediate reputation in 
the West when his Rashomon (50) won 
first prize at Venice in 1951 and re- 
vealed to Europe the existence of a 
totally unknown film industry. In this 
connection he said: "When I received the 
major award at Venice in 1951, I re- 
marked that I would have been happier, 
and the award would have had more 
significance for me, if the festival had 
given a prize to one of my works that 
had depicted something of modern life 
in Japan, as Bicycle Thieves had de- 
picted Italy. In 1959 I still thought the 
same, because Japan has produced some 
modern films as good as that of De Sica 
(q.v.) while continuing to produce his- 
torical films, excellent or not." For Toho 
(then run by the film workers' unions) 
after the war he made a series of films 
portraying a modern Japan shattered by 
bombings and defeat: Drunken Angel, 
The Silent Duel, and especially, Stray 
Dog. In these films he continued the 



traditions of the "tendency" film of the 
"new realism" of the mid-Thirties. 
Rashomon, an attack on the samurai 
tradition, was intended as a parenthesis 
in this modern tableau, which he later 
continued in his exceptional Ikiru. Then 
came The Idiot and / Live in Fear — 
films that are far better than the famous 
Seven Samurai, but they in turn are not 
better than his adaptation of Macbeth, 
The Throne of Blood/Cobweb Castle. 
[After several lightweight, but, as always, 
technically accomplished samurai epics, 
he returned to more contemporary 
themes with the humanistic and unsenti- 
mental Red Beard and Dodeskaden.] 
dir: Sanshiro Sugata/Judo Saga/The 
Legend of Judo (43), Ichiban Utsuku- 
shiku/Most Beautifully (44), Sanshiro 
Sugata (Zoku)/Judo Saga (Sequel) 
(45), Tora no O o Fumo Otoko Tachi/ 
The Men Who Tread on the Tiger's Tail/ 
Walkers on the Tiger's Tail (45), Asu o 
Tsukuru Hitobito /Those Who Make To- 
morrow (46) (co-dir: K. Yamamoto, 
H. Sekigawa), Waga Seishun ni Koinashi 
/No Regrets for Our Youth (46), Su- 
barshiki Nichiyobi/ 'Wonderful Sunday 

(47) , Yoidore Tenshi/ Drunken Angel 

(48) , Shizuka Naru Ketto/The Silent 
Duel (48), Nora Inu/Stray Dog* (49), 
Shibun/ Scandal (50), Rashomon* (50), 
Hakuchi/The Idiot* (51), Ikiru/ Living/ 
To Live* (52), Shichi-nin no Samurai/ 
The Seven Samurai* (54), I kimono no 
Kiroku/l Live in Fear* (55), Kumonosu- 
jo/Throne of Blood/Cobweb Castle* 
(57), Donzoko/The Lower Depths* 
(57), Kakushi Toride no San-Akunin/ 
The Hidden Fortress (58), Warui Yatsu 
Hodo Yoko Nemuru/The Bad Sleep 
Well (60), Yojimbo/The Bodyguard 
(61), Tsubaki Sanjuro/Sanjuro (62), 
Tengoku to Jigoku/High and Low (63), 
Aka Hige/Red Beard* (65), Dodeskaden 
(70). 



kushan, Etmail prod Iran. (? - ) In 
the late Forties he produced a dubbed 
Persian version of Premier rendez-vous 
with Danielle Darrieux and with the 
profits built a film studio in Teheran, 
produced Tufane zendegi/The Tempest 
of Life and Sharmsar/The Shame- 
Stricken Man, and laid the foundations 
for a commercial development of the 
Iranian film industry in the Fifties. 



144 



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LA CAVA, Gregory DIR USA. (Towanda 
March 10, 1892-Malibu Beach, Cali- 
fornia May 1, 1949) Former cartoonist, 
animator, and director of Mack Sennett 
shorts who had a reputation as a director 
of delicate comedies in the Thirties, 
notably the excellent My Man Godfrey 
(36) with Carole Lombard and William 
Powell, and the curious satire, Gabriel 
Over the White House (33). 

IACOMBE, Georgei Dm France. (Paris 
Aug 19, 1902- ) He began his career 
with a remarkable documentary, La 
Zone* (27), encouraged the careers of 
Gérard Philipe in Le Pays sans étoiles 
(46), of Brigitte Bardot in La Lumière 
d'en face (56), and of Clouzot (q.v.) 
as a scriptwriter on Le Dernier des six 
(41). However, despite the undeniable 
qualities of Jeunesse (34), he was never 
able to raise himself above the craftman- 
ship level. 

LAEMMLE, Carl PROD USA. (Laupheim, 
Germany Jan 7, 1867-Hollywood Sept 
24, 1939) A typical example of. the 
group of immigrants who established 
Hollywood as the movie capital. After 
working in various professions, he cre- 
ated the famous Nickelodeons in 1906, 
became a producer, and founded Uni- 
versal Pictures in 1912. Though he was 
always a businessman, he contributed to 
the artistic development of the cinema, 
never lost his film intuition, and pro- 
moted Stroheim's (q.v.) career. [His son, 
Carl Laemmle, Jr. (April 28, 1908- ), 
was an imaginative producer with Uni- 
versal (All Quiet on the Western Front*, 
Frankenstein*, Little Man, What Now?*, 
The Bride of Frankenstein) and later 
an executive producer with Universal 
for many years.] 



LAINE, Edwin Dot Finland. (Iisalmi July 
13, 1905- ) Good Finnish director who 
began as an actor and is best known out- 
side Finland for Tuntematon Sotilas/The 
Unknown Soldier* (55). 

LAKHDAR AMINA, Mohamed DIR Algeria 

(Msila Feb 26, 1934- ) A contributor 
to the development of the Algerian 
cinema during the war of independence 
by directing (with Jamal Chanderli) two 
dramatized documentaries, Yasmina (61) 
and Les Fusils de la liberté (62). 

LAMORISSE, Albert dir France. (Paris Jan 
13, 1922-June 1970) A specialist in 
documentary-type poetic fantasies who 
achieved international recognition and 
commercial success with Crin blanc and 
The Red Balloon. During the latter part 
of his career he developed an interest 
in exploring the visual possibilities of 
filming from helicopters. 
dir (notably): Djerba (47) (short), 
Bim, le petit âne (49), Crin blanc, cheval 
sauvage* (53), Le Ballon rouge* (56), 
Le Voyage en ballon/ Stowaway in the 
Sky (60), Fifi la plume (64), Versailles 
(66) (short), Paris jamais vu/Paris Re» 
discovered (68). 

lamprecht, Gerhard dir Germany/Ger- 
man Federal Republic (Berlin Oct 6, 
1897- ) A completely professional di- 
rector, passionately devoted to the cin- 
ema, and an important historian on the 
early German cinema who has made 
only one really successful film in his 
long career: Emil and the Detectives, 
dir (notably): Der Friedhof der Leben- 
den (21), Die Buddenbrooks, (23), Die 
Unehelichen (26), Untere der Laterne 
(28), Emil und die Detektive* (31), 
Prinzessin Turandot (34), Madame 



145 



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Bovary (37), Clarissa (41), Kamerad 
Hedwig (45), Irgendwo in Berlin (46), 
Oberwachtmeister Borck (55). 

*LANG, CharlM, Jr. PhotOg USA. (1902- 
) One of the great Hollywood camera- 
men, with a fine sense of atmospheric 
lighting of interiors and a fully pro- 
fessional control of color tones. 
photoo (notably): for Frank Borzage, 
A Farewell to Arms (32), Desire (36); 
for Hathaway, Lives of a Bengal Lancer 
(35), Peler Ibbetson* (35); for Lubitsch, 
Angel (37); for Fritz Lang, You and 
Me (38), The Big Heat (53); for Cukor, 
Zaza (38), It Should Happen to You 
(53), Wild is the Wind (57); for Billy 
Wilder, A Foreign Affair (48), Ace in 
the Hole /The Big Carnival* (51), 
Sabrina (54), Some Like It Hot* (59); 
for David Miller, Sudden Fear (52); for 
Joseph Pevney, Female on the Beach 
(55); for Anthony Mann, The Man 
from Laramie (55); for Aldrich, Au- 
tumn Leaves (55); for John Sturges, 
G un fight at the O.K. Corral (56), The 
Last Train from Gun Hill (57), The 
Magnificent Seven (60), A Girl Named 
Tamiko (62); for Delbert Mann, Sep- 
arate Tables (58); for Marlon Brando, 
One Eyed Jacks (61); for Donen, Cha- 
rade (63); for Wyler, How to Steal a 
Million (66); for Irvin Kershner, The 
Flim-Flam Man /One Born Every Minute 
(67); for Guy Green, A Walk in the 
Spring Rain (69); for Terence Young, 
Wait Until Dark (67); for Jacques 
Charon, A Flea in Her Ear (68). 

LANG, Fritx DiR Germany/USA. (Vienna 
Dec 5, 1890- ) A film maker who has 
made many monumental films and who, 
though he lost several battles in his 
career, never went into decline and al- 
ways retained his seriousness of approach 
and sense of dignity. He was the son of 
an architect who hoped he would follow 
the same career and, though he early 
decided against it, his background and 
the artistic training he received helped 
determine the distinctive architectural 
style of especially his silent German 
films. In the hospital during the First 
World War he began writing scenarios, 
two of which were filmed by Joe May 
in 1917-18. [In 1919 he joined Decla, 
then headed by Erich Pommer (q.v.), as 
story editor and scriptwriter, and oc- 
casionally as editor, then served as Joe 
May's (<7.v.) assistant on the eight-part 



episode film Die Herrin der Welt (19) 
before directing his first film the same 
year.] His early experience, both as 
scriptwriter and director, was on crime 
thrillers, exotic adventure stories, and 
macabre dramas and he never lost his 
taste for these genres. In 1925 he wrote: 
"I shall never forget what a French jour- 
nalist, hardly a suspect Germanophile, 
wrote of Destiny — 'As though it were 
leaving a tomb, the German soul (which 
in other days we had loved so much but 
thought dead) has risen again in this 
film.' If there is anything that should 
bear witness of the German people, their 
soul, their vigor, their miseries, and 
hopes to all humanity it is certainly the 
film . . . The film has made us witnesses 
of the magic of the human face, it has 
taught us to read what lies behind the 
silence of this face and has shown us the 
reaches of the human soul. Likewise, a 
film creator is called for to unveil the 
face of an entire people to the world, 
to become the transmitter of its soul. 
Thus these films will be considered as 
witnesses of the period in which they 
were born and will become, in their 
way, documents of universal history." 
Lang was very much a witness both of 
the present and future of his country 
in the major films he created in 1920—33 
with Thea von Harbou (<7.v.), who was 
then his wife — Dr. Mabuse, a meta- 
phorical portrait of the troubled post- 
war years; The Nibelungen, an exaltation 
of legendary German heroics prophesy- 
ing (without intending to) the monu- 
mental Nuremberg parades and the 
downfall of Nazism in blood and flames; 
Metropolis, in which a master race rule 
the shadow people, the workers; M, the 
story of a murderer to whom the unem- 
ployed mete out justice; and The Testa- 
ment of Dr. Mabuse, a fantasy-thriller 
that Lang later claimed was a meta- 
phorical attack on Nazism. He was 
forced to leave Germany in 1933 (though 
Hitler was a great admirer of The 
Nibelungen and wanted to use him in 
the Nazi film industry) and finally set- 
tled in the USA. To his earlier obsession 
with blind destiny was now added the 
theme of guilt, a depiction of his belief 
that "the inexorability of the first mis- 
take brings about the last atonement." 
Though he later exclaimed, "We are all 
children of Cain," he never set himself 
up as a believer in the judiciary — 
particularly in his first two American 



146 



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films, Fury and You Only Live Once, 
in which he took the side of the "guilty," 
the victims of society's errors. A series 
of commercial failures after 1945 led to 
his downfall in critical esteem. But, as 
he said, "We are born of men, not of 
gods," adding that though he had often 
had to work under the constraint of dic- 
tatorial producers he had always "tried 
to make each film his best work." After 
M much of the monumental, decorative 
quality of his work in silent films was 
sacrificed in favor of an interest in the 
psychology and development of charac- 
ter. He considers that The Woman in 
the Window, Scarlet Street, and While 
the City Sleeps are the best of his Amer- 
ican films, which, since 1940, have been 
"based on social criticism," that is to 
say on "the criticism of our environment, 
laws and conventions." He sees the major 
theme of his work as: "the individual's 
struggle against circumstances, his strug- 
gle with the gods, the struggle of Pro- 
metheus. Today we are fighting laws, 
we are contending orders that seem to 
us neither just nor the right ones for 
our times." 

scen: for Joe May, Die Hochzeit im 
Excentricclub (17), Hilde Warren und 
der Tod (17), Dos Indische Grabmal 
(I: Die Sendung des Yoghi, II: Der 
Tiger von Eschnapur) /The Indian Tomb 
/The Mysteries of India/ Above the Law 

(21) ; for Otto Rippert, Die Frau mit 
den Orchideen (19), Die Pest in Florenz 
(19), Tot en tan z (19); for Erich Kober, 
Ulith und Ly (Austl9), for Carola 
Hauser (21), Konig Artus Tafelrunde 

(22) , and collaboration on most of his 
own German films. 

dir: Halbblut (Gerl9), Der H err der 
Uebe (19), Harakiri (19), Die Spinnen 

— I: Der goldene See (19), Die Spinnen 

— II: Dos Brillantenschiff (20), Das 
Wander ride Bild (20), Vier urn die 
Frau/Kampfende Herzen (20), Der 
Mude Tod/Destiny* (21), Dr. M abuse, 
der Spieler* (I: der Grosse Spieler, II: 
Inferno) (22), Die Nibelungen* (I: 
Siegfrieds Tod; JJ: Kriemhilds Roche) 
(24), Metropolis* (26), Spione (28), 
Die Frau im Mond (29), M* (31), 
Das Testament des Dr. Mabuse* (Ger33 ), 
Uliom (Fr33), Fury* (USA36), You 
Only Live Once* (37), You and Me 
(38), The Return of Frank James (40), 
Western Union (41), Man Hunt (41), 
Confirm or Deny (41) (completed by 
Archie Mayo), Hangmen Also Die (42), 



The Ministry of Fear (43), The Woman 
in the Window* (44), Scarlet Street* 
(45), Cloak and Dagger (46), The 
Secret Beyond the Door (48), House by 
the River (50), An American Guerrilla 
in the Philippines/ 1 Shall Return (50), 
Rancho Notorious (51), Clash by Night 

(52) , The Blue Gardenia (53), The Big 
Heat (53), Human Desire* (54), Moon- 
fleet (55), While the City Sleeps (56), 
Beyond a Reasonable Doubt (USA56), 
Der Tiger von Eschnapur (GFR58), 
Dos Indische Grabmal (GFR59) (latter 
two films released as one film in 
English: The Tigress of Bengal), Die 
tausend Augen des Dr. Mabuse* (GFR 
60). 

LANGDON, Harry Dm USA. (Council Bluff 
June 15, 1884-Hollywood Dec 22, 1944) 
Former vaudeville actor who appeared 
in numerous short Sennett (q.v.) com- 
edies and whose unique whimsical comic 
gifts make him at least part auteur of 
his own best films: The Strong Man*, 
Tramp, Tramp, Tramp*, and Long 
Pants*, all three of which owe much to 
Frank Capra (q.v.). [He directed his own 
less successful Three's a Crowd (27), The 
Chaser (28), and Heart Trouble (28), 
but did not successfully survive the in- 
troduction of sound.] 

LANGUEPIN, Jean-Jacque> DIR France. 

(Paris Nov 12, 1924- ) Good docu- 
mentarist, specializing in aviation and 
mountain films, notably: Terre des 
glaces (49), Groenland (51) (co-dir: 
Ichac), Des hommes et des montagnes 

(53) , Neiges (55), La Route des cimes 
(57), Saint-Exupéry (57), Des hommes 
dans le ciel (59), La Vitesse est à vous 
(61). 

LA PATELUERE, Denys de DIR France. 

(Nantes March 8, 1921- ) Diligent 
director who has made a number of 
commercially successful films since 1958. 
dir (notably): Les Aristocrates (55), 
Le Salaire du péché (56), Retour de 
manivelle (57), Thérèse Etienne (58), 
Les Grandes Familles (58), Rue des 
prairies (59), Un taxi pour Tobrouk 
(61), Le Bateau d'Emile (62), Tempo 
di Roma (63), Marco le Magnifique 
(65), Du Rififi à Paname (66). 

Laroche, Piorre scen France. (Paris May 
7, 1902-Paris 1962) Spirited, stubborn 
and committed scriptwriter who, with 



Uopy riQhtod mstcnsl 



Jacques Prévert (q.v.) t co-authored 
Grémillon's Lumière d'été* and Carné's 
Les Visiteurs du soir* before writing a 
number of scripts alone, largely for his 
wife Jacqueline Audry (q. v.): Les Mal- 
heurs de Sophie (45), Gigi (49), Minne 
(50), Huis clos (54), La Garçonne (57). 

LASKOS, Orattis Dm Greece. (Eleusis 1908- 
) A pioneer of the Greek cinema who 
began as an actor and scriptwriter and 
made, notably, Daphnis and Chloe (30) 
before directing numerous commercial 
melodramas. 

•LASKY, JtM L prod USA. (San Fran- 
cisco Sept 13, 1880-Hollywood Jan 13, 
1958) One-time cornet player and then 
vaudeville impresario, he was persuaded 
to join the motion pioture industry in 
1913 with his brother-in-law Sam Gold- 
wyn (q.v.) and formed the Lasky Fea- 
ture Play Company, whose first film was 
Cecil B. DeMille's The Squaw Man (13). 
His company later merged with Zukor's 
(q.v.) Famous Players to form Famous 
Players-Lasky Corporation, which in 
turn acquired Paramount Pictures Cor- 
poration in 1916. Lasky remained as 
executive head of production. He went 
bankrupt in the Depression, left Para- 
mount, and later produced for Warner 
Brothers, RKO, and 20th Century-Fox. 

•LASKY, Jms* Jr. scen USA. (New York 
Sept 19, 1910- ) Son of the Holly- 
wood pioneer (see above), who, in addi- 
tion to writing novels and poetry, had 
a long collaboration with DeMille (q.v.) 
on many of his spectaculars, from Union 
Pacific* (39), to The Ten Command- 
ments* (56) and The Buccaneer (58). 
He has sometimes worked in collabora- 
tion with his wife, the writer Pat Silver. 

IASSAUY, Walter PHOTOG Britain/Greece. 
(Berlin Dec 18, 1926- ) Former mem- 
ber of the British Free Cinema docu- 
mentary group in the Fifties who later 
developed into one of the world's most 
imaginative and skillful cameramen. His 
feeling for natural sets, sense of at- 
mosphere, and evocative photography 
of faces has contributed much to the 
Greek films of Cacoyannis (q.v.), to the 
exceptional Pakistani film, Day Shall 
Dawn, and to many of the British "new 
wave" films of the Sixties. His color work 
on Tom Jones was outstanding. 
[photoo (notably): for Lindsay Ander- 



son, Thursday's Children (53), Every 
Day Except Christmas (57); for Gavin 
Lambert, Another Sky (54); for L. Maz- 
zetti, Together (55); for Karel Reisz, 
Momma Don't Allow (55), We Are the 
Lambeth Boys (58); for Cacoyannis, 
To Koritsi me ta mavra/A Girl in Black* 
(Gr55), A Matter of Dignity (Gr57), 
Our Last Spring (Gr58), Elektra* 
(Gr61), Zorba the Greek* (Gr64), The 
Day the Fish Came Out (Gr67); for 
Kardar, Jago Hua Savera/Day Shall 
Dawn* (Pakistan58); for Edmond Gré- 
ville, Beat Girl (Br it 60) ; for Tony Rich- 
ardson, A Taste of Honey* (61), The 
Loneliness of the Long Distance Runner 
(62), Tom Jones* (63); for Alexander 
Singer, Psyche 59 (USA63); for Philip 
Saville, Oedipus the King* (Brit67); for 
Michael Same, Joanna (Brit67); for 
Jerome Epstein, The Adding Machine 
(Brit69); for George Stamboulopoulos, 
Anihti Episoli/Open Letter (Gr68-70), 
for Harold Prince, Somebody for Every- 
one (USA70).] 

lattuada, Alberto dir. Italy. (Milan Nov 
13, 1914- ) Talented Italian director, 
despite the fact that he has had to accept 
various commercial assignments in his 
career and has occasionally lost himself 
artistically. His work is too little known 
abroad. He was originally a writer and, 
even before he took up directing, made 
a major contribution to the Italian cin- 
ema as founder of the Milan film archive, 
Cineteca Italian a, and by showing cer- 
tain banned films (such as La Grande 
Illusion) in film clubs. He worked as 
assistant and scriptwriter on Soldati's 
Piccolo Motido antico (40) and his 
first films as director were in the "decora- 
tive" style. Rather than serve the regime 
he directed refined, mannered films: Gia- 
como I'idealista (42) and La Freccia nel 
fianco (44). As soon as neorealism ap- 
peared in liberated Italy, he directed 
several notable films in this style: The 
Bandit (46), Without Pity (48), The 
Mill on the Po (49). He looked forward 
to the time when "film stock can be 
bought for the price of paper and a 
camera for the price of an electric razor,' 1 
giving everyone the possibility of true 
freedom of expression. His best film, 
// Cappotto (an adaptation of Gogol's 
The Cloak) is an evolution of neorealism 
into a kind of fantasy-realism. 
dir. (notably): Giacomo I'idealista (42), 
La Freccia nel fianco (44), // Bandito 



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(46) , // D ditto di Giovanni Episcopo 

(47) , Senna Pieta* (48), // Mulino del 
Po (49), Luci del Varietà* (50) (co- 
dir: Fellini), Anna (51), // Cappotto/ 
The Overcoat* (52), La Lupa (53), 
Amove in città (53) (one episode), La 
Spiaggia (53), Scualo Eiementare (54), 
Guendalina (57), La Tempesta (58), / 
Dolci lnganni (60), Letter a di una Novt- 
zia (60), Lo Imprevisto (61), Adoles- 
cent (61), La Steppa (61), Mafioso 
(63), La Mandragola (65), L'Amante di 
Gramigna (66), Matchless (66), Don 
Giovanni in Sicilia (67), Frdulein Dok- 
tor (Yug/It68), Fen^a fl prendere il 
caffè da noi (70). 

lauritzen, Lou Dm Denmark (Silkeborg 
March 18, 1878-Silkeborg July 2, 1938) 
The director of some 60-80 films be- 
tween 1911 and 1936 but best known as 
director of the delightful comic series 
in the Twenties that featured "Fy og By" 
("the Long and Short"), two characters 
played respectively by Carl Schenstr0m 
and Aage Bendixen. 

LAURITZEN, tau, Jr. Dm Sweden/Denmark 
(Vejle June 26, 1910- ) Son of the 
Danish director (see above), he was 
originally an actor then a fairly prolific 
director in Scandanavia. In Denmark he 
collaborated with Bodil Ipsen (q.v.) on 
his two best films, Afsporet (42) and De 
Rôde Enge (45), and in Sweden co- 
directed Julia Jubilerar (38) and Vast- 
kustens Hjàlter (40) with Alice O'Fred- 
ericks and Jag dlskar dig, Karlsson (47) 
with John Zacharias. 

LAUSTE, Eugène INVENTOR USA/France. 

(Paris 1856-USA June 27, 1935) On 
the technical level he is perhaps the 
principal inventor of motion pictures in 
the USA since, as engineer, he developed 
and perfected the Edison Kinetoscope 
in 1893 and the W. K. L. Dickson Bio- 
graph projector in 1895-97. He also 
played a role in the development of 
sound on film. His work with Ruhmer in 
Germany on the optical recording of 
sound led to a demonstration of the tech- 
nique in 1911 in the USA and to Lauste's 
later career at the Bell Laboratories in 
New Jersey. 

LAWSON, John Howord SCEN USA. (New 

York Sept 25, 1886- ) Former jour- 
nalist in Rome and dramatist for the 
Group Theater who became a Holly- 



wood scriptwriter and wrote the docu- 
mentary Heart of Spain (37) (dir: Paul 
Strand, Leo Hurwitz), Zoltan Korda's 
Sahara (43) and Counterattack (43), 
John Cromwell's Algiers* (38), Die- 
terle's Blockade (36), Heisler's Smash- 
Up (47), etc. He was politically active, 
first president of the Screen Writers 
Guild, and was one of the Hollywood 
Ten imprisoned for contempt of Con- 
gress. He also wrote the books, Film In 
the Battle of Ideas (1955), Film: The 
Creative Process (1964, second edition 
1967), and several other books on play- 
writing and screenwriling. 

LEACOCK, Philip dir Britain/USA, (Lon- 
don 1917- ) Former documentary film 
maker who has made many features, 
often with children, most notably The 
Kidnappers (53). His later work in 
Britain and the USA (including TV 
work) is mediocre. 

LEACOCK, Richard dir/photog USA. (Lon- 
don 1921- ) Younger brother of the 
above, he began his film career as a 
documentary cameraman (most memor- 
ably on Flaherty's Louisiana Story) and 
graduated into making many sensitive 
and intelligent "direct cinema" journalis- 
tic films for TV, using lightweight hand- 
held cameras and portable sound equip- 
ment Robert Drew has often collabo- 
rated with him and Albert Maysles (q.v.) 
worked as cameraman on several of the 
earlier films. 

[photog (notably): for Willard Van 
Dyke, To Hear Your Banjo Play (40), 
Mount Vernon (49), Years of Change 
(50), New York University (52); for 
Robert Flaherty, Louisiana Story* (48); 
for Don Penncbakcr, Monterey Pop 
(68), and footage for Quint City USA 
(63).] 

dir and/or photoo (notably): Toby and 
the Tall Corn (55), F 100 (56), Yanki 
No! (60), Primary* (60), On the Pole/ 
Eddie Sachs at Indianapolis (61), Pete 
and Johnnie (61), Kenya '61 (61), Foot- 
ball (61), X-15 (61), The New Frontier 
(61), David (62), Nehru (62), The 
Chair (63), Jane (63), Happy Birthday 
Blackie (63), Aga Khan (63), Happy 
Mother's Day (64), Republicans — the 
New Breed (64), Igor Stravinsky — a 
Portrait (66), Chiefs (70). 

LEAN, David dir Britain. (Croydon March 
25, 1908- ) A conscientious, honest, 

149 



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painstaking director who justifies the 
proverb, "Every soldier carries a field 
marshall's baton in his knapsack." Like 
many English directors he gained experi- 
ence as an editor, first on newsreels in 
the early Thirties, then on, e.g., Czinner's 
Escape Me Never (35) and Asquith's 
Pygmalion* (38) and French Without 
Tears (39). Noel Coward (q.v.) made 
him his co-director on the chauvinistic 
In Which We Serve (42) and wrote for 
him the equally chauvinistic This Happy 
Breed (43), as well as Blithe Spirit (44) 
and Brief Encounter (45). This latter 
film, an astute study of suburban mores, 
was improperly hailed as a masterpiece at 
the time. His two Dickens adaptations, 
Great Expectations (46) and Oliver Twist 
(47), were models of their kind, but 
his ensuing films, except for The Sound 
Barrier (52) and the entertaining com- 
edy Summer Madness (55) were rou- 
tinely handled. He regained his interna- 
tional stature with his decorously directed 
The Bridge on the River Kwai (57), re- 
taining the sense and significance of 
Pierre Boulle's original moral fable. He 
has since turned to large -budget epics 
and romances, spending several years 
directing Lawrence of Arabia, to the 
glory of the famous spy and his colonial- 
ist intrigues in the Middle East, [and 
the portentous, if often elegant, Dr. 
Zhivago and Ryan's Daughter. British 
playwright Robert Bolt wrote the scenar- 
ios of these last three films ] 
dir: In Which We Serve* (42) (co-dir: 
Noel Coward), This Happy Breed (43), 
Blithe Spirit (44), Brief Encounter* 
(45), Great Expectations (46), Oliver 
Twist (47), The Passionate Friends/ One 
Woman's Story (48), Madeleine (50), 
The Sound Barrier /Breaking the Sound 
Barrier (52), Hobson's Choice (53), 
Summer Madness /Summertime (55), The 
Bridge on the River Kwai* (57), Law- 
rence of Arabia (62), Doctor Zhivago 
(64), Ryan's Daughter (70). 

U CHANOIS, Jaon-Poul (J .-P. Dreyfus) DIR 

France. (Paris Oct 25, 1909- ) Former 
member of the French avant-garde and 
an actor and producer with the October 
Group, whose postwar films with their 
simple, straightforward, and appealing 
themes were often major popular suc- 
cesses. During the Thirties he worked 
on scripts for, and as assistant to, Duvi- 
vier, Maurice Tourneur, Alexander Korda, 
Litvak, Jean Renoir, and Max Ophiils 



(all q.v.). He has learned, he says "to 
restore the heart to its true place, that 
heart which is in all feelings and not 
least in the best" - a lesson amply justi- 
fied in his best films, such as L'Ecole 
buissonnière and Sans laisser d'adresse. 
dir: la Vie d'un homme (38) (docu- 
mentary), Le Temps des cerises (38), 
Au coeur de Vorage (47) (documentary 
feature on the Resistance), L'Ecole buis- 
sonnière /I Have a New Master* (48), 
Sans laisser d'adresse* (50), La Belle que 
voilà (51), Agence matrimoniale (52), 
Le Village magique (53), Papa, maman, 
la bonne, et moi (54), Les Evades (54), 
Papa, maman, ma femme, et moi (55), 
Le Cas du docteur Laurent (56), Les 
Misérables* (58), La Française et t 
amour (60) (one episode), Par-dessus le 
mur (61), Mandrin (63), Monsieur (64), 
Le Jardinier dArgenteuil (66). 

LEE, Jack dir Britain. (Stroud 1913- ) 
A quite good British director whose doc- 
umentary background is evident in his 
best fiction films. He was originally an 
associate producer with the GPO Film 
Unit and edited Jennings' London Can 
Take It (40). 

dir (notably): The Pilot is Safe (41) 
(documentary), Ordinary People (42) 
(documentary), Close Quarters (43) 
(documentary), Children on Trial (46) 
(documentary), The Woman in the Hall 
(47), Once a Jolly Swagman (48), The 
Wooden Horse (50), South of Algiers 
(52), Turn the Key Softly (53), A 
Town Like Alice (56), Robbery Under 
Arms (57), The Captain's Table (58), 
Circle of Deception (60). 

LEENHARDT, Roger dir France. (Paris July 
23, 1903- ) Documentary film maker 
and influential critic and theoretician on 
several film magazines (notably, Esprit 
1936-39 and Lettres françaises 1944- 
46) whose extreme circumspection and 
almost complete restriction to the short 
film form has not prevented his exerting 
a major influence on several nouvelle 
vague directors. His best feature film is 
the sensitive and individualistic Les 
Dernières Vacances (47), but he is 
equally well known for his shorts, which 
most often deal with art or literature 
and are largely produced and scripted by 
himself. 

[dir (shorts): L'Orient qui vient (34), 
Le Vrai jeu (34), Métro (34), Le Pain 
de Barbarie (34), Le Père Hugo (34), 



150 



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R.N. 37 (38), Revêtements routiers (38), 
Pavage moderne (38), Le Rezzou (38), 
Fêtes de France (40), A la poursuite du 
vent (43), Le Chant des ondes (43), Le 
Chantier en ruines (45), Lettre de Paris 
(45), Le Barrage de l'aigle (46), Nais- 
sance du cinéma (in English as two films: 
Animated Cartoons, The Toy That Grew 
Up and Biography of the Motion Picture 
Camera) (46), La Côte d'Azur (48), 
Le Pain de Barbarie (48), Entrez dans la 
danse (48), Métro (50), La Fugue de 
Mahmoud (50), Victor Hugo (51), Du 
Charbon et des hommes (52), La France 
est un jardin (53), François Mauriac 

(54) , Louis Capet (54) Ordinations 

(55) , La Conquête de l'Angleterre (55), 
No/re sang (55), Les Transmissions 
hydrauliques (55), Le Bru// (55), Pam 
et le désert français (57), Jean- Jacques 

(58) , fiârir a wo/re âge (58), En p/em 
m/flï (58), Daumier (58), Paw/ Kûfc'ry 

(59) , Le Maître de Montpelier (60), 
Entre Seine et mer (60), L'Homme à la 
pipe (62), Des Femmes et des fleurs 
(63), 1989 (63), Monsieur de Voltaire 
(63), George (63), Corrot (65), Afaw- 
jance de la photo (65), Le Coeur de la 
France (66), Le Beatnick et le minet 
(67). 

dir (features) : Les Dernières Vacances* 
(47), Le Rendez-vous de minuit (62), 
Une fille dans la montagne (64) (TV). 
scen: L'Amour de la maison (46) (dir: 
Pierre de Hérain), Aubusson (46) (dir: 
Jean Lods), his own features and most of 
his own shorts.] 

1EE THOMPSON, John DIR Britain/USA. 
(Bristol 1914- ) Former stage actor, 
playwright, and scriptwriter, who since 
1950 has directed several lively, if rou- 
tine, adventure films and comedies in a 
prolific directorial career in Britain and 
the USA. His best film is his portrait of 
behavior in Woman in a Dressing Gown 
(Brit57) rather than the stentorian Guns 
of Navarone (Brit61). Other notable 
films: Yield to the Night (Brit56), No 
Trees in the Street (59), Tiger Bay (59), 
Mackenna's Gold (USA68). 

LE febvre, Robert photoo France. (Paris 
March 19, 1907- ) After gaining ex- 
perience in the Thirties (with, e.g., Gance 
on Un grand amour de Beethoven in 
1936) he suddenly shot into prominence 
with his work on Becker's Casque d'or* 
(52), whose images are among the most 
beautiful in the French cinema. He has 



since made sensitive and delicate photo- 
graphic contributions on Clair's Les 
Grandes Manoeuvres* and Porte des Li- 
las*; Bunuel's Cela s'appelle l'aurore*; 
Astruc's Les Mauvaises Rencontres*. 

léger, Femand (Argentan Feb 1881-Paris 
Feb 1955) Major 20th-century artist 
who throughout his career was greatly 
attracted to the cinema and came near 
to abandoning his paint brush for the 
camera after his Ballet mécanique* film 
in 1924. Other work for the cinema in- 
cludes an uncompleted animated film. 
Chariot cubiste (21); sets for L'Herbier'a 
L'Inhumaine* (24); posters for Gance's 
La Roue*; set designs (never used) for 
Korda's production of Things to Come 
(36); one of the visual poems of Hans 
Richter's Dreams That Money Can Buy 
(47). 

LEGO SHIN, Vladimir DIR USSR. (Baku 

1904-Moscow 1955) Routine Soviet di- 
rector who had one major achievement 
in his career: Byeleyet parus odinoky/ 
The Lone White Sail* (37), a portrait 
of the 1905 Revolution in Odessa seen 
through the eyes of two children. He be- 
gan his career as Donskoy's (q.v.) col- 
laborator on Song about Happiness (34). 

* leg rand, Michel mus France. (France 
1931- ) Prolific French composer, 
closely associated with the nouvelle 
vague, who has written several atmo- 
spheric, and often catchy, scores, most 
notably for Jacques Demy (q.v.). His 
work established a fashion for French 
film composers and is often rather poorly 
imitated. 

mus (notably): for Francois Reichen- 
bach, L'Amérique insolite (59); for 
Demy, Lola* (61), La Baie des Anges 

(63) , Les Parapluies de Cherbourg* 

(64) , Les Demoiselles de Rochefort 
(66); for Agnès Varda, Cléo de 5 à 7* 
(62); for Godard, Une femme est une 
femme (61), Les Sept péchés capitaux 
(62) (episode), Vivre sa vie* (62), Les 
Plus belles escroqueries du monde (64) 
(episode), Bande à part* (64), Le Plus 
vieux métier du monde (66) (episode); 
for Joseph Losey, Eva (62); for Chris 
Marker, Le Joli mai* (62); for J.-P. 
Rappeneau, La Vie de château (64); for 
John Sturges, Ice Station Zebra (USA 
68); for Richard Brooks, The Happy 
Ending (69); for Anatole Litvak, The 



L/Opy riQhtod mstcnsl 



Lady in the Car with Glasses and a Gun 
(70). 

LEHRMAN, Henry (also "Pathi" Uhrman) 

dir USA. (Vienna March 30, 1886- 
Hollywood Nov 7, 1946) Pioneer di- 
rector of slapstick comedies who was 
Sennett's assistant (q.v.) and, in the 
opinion of some, responsible for much 
of the characteristic Keystone style. He 
is however best known now as the di- 
rector of Chaplin's (q.v.) first films in 
1914: Making a Living, Kid Auto Races 
at Venice, Mabel's Strange Predicament 
and Between Showers. He got his nick- 
name because he obtained his first film 
job with Biograph by pretending to 
have worked with Pathé in Paris. 

IEISER, Erwin Dm Sweden/Switzerland. 
(Berlin May 16, 1923- ) Documentary 
film maker responsible for two remark- 
able anti-Nazi compilation films: Den 
Blodiga Tiden/Mein Kampf (Swed60), 
Eichmann und das dritte Reich/Murder 
by Signature (Switz61), and Waehle das 
Leben (Switz63). 

UELOUCH, Claud* dir/photoo France. 
(1937- ) Young film maker whose films 
have a lush visual style and somewhat 
plastic emotions but almost always reach 
their audiences. His A Man and a 
Woman was a world-wide commercial 
success. He began his career as an ama- 
teur film maker and made 16mm TV 
shorts before directing his first feature. 
He has photographed and produced 
many of his own films. 
dir (shorts): Une ville pas comme les 
autres (57), USA en vrac (57), Quand 
le rideau se lève (57), Madame con- 
duit (61). Jean-Paul Belmondo (63), 
Pour un maillot jaune (65). 
DIR (features): Le Propre de Vhomme 
(60), f Amour avec des si . . . (63), 
La Femme spectacle (64), Une fille et 
des fusils (64), Les Grands moments 
(65), Un homme et une femme (66), 
Vivre pour vivre (67), Loin du Vietnam 

(67) (episode), 13 fours en France 

(68) (co-dir: F. Reichenbach), La Vie, 
l'amour, la mort (68), L'Homme qui 
me plaît /Love is a Funny Thing (69), 
Le Voyou/Simon the Swiss (70). 

UNI, Paul dir/art Dm Germany/USA. 
(Stuttgart July 8, 1885-Hollywood 1929) 
An important figure in the German ex- 
pressionist cinema, a director and art 



director with a fine sense of visual de- 
sign who had worked with Max Rein- 
hardt (q.v.) and Leopold Jessner on 
their famous stage productions. Though 
his Kammerspiel film, Backstairs (21)» 
is more of a trailblazer than a complete 
success, his expressionistic Waxworks 
(written by Henrik Galeen) is an im- 
portant work, both for its extravagant 
baroque style and for its portrait of 
tyrannical cruelty. Its worldwide success 
led to an invitation from Carl Laemmle 
(q.v.) to work in Hollywood, where 
Leni developed a new genre of horror 
films with The Cat and the Canary and 
The Last Warning. These involved 
macabre effects produced from ultra- 
mobile cameras and elaborately lighted 
and carefully designed decors set off 
against pleasant comic episodes. His 
early death cut short a promising career. 
dir: Das Râtsel von Bangalore (17), 
Dornroschen (17), Platonische Ehe (19), 
Prinz Kuckuck (19) (also script), Pa- 
tience (20), Die Verschwôrung zu Ge- 
nua/ Fiesco (20), Das Gespensterschiff 
(21), Die Hintertreppe I Backstairs (21) 
(co-dir: Leopold Jessner), Komôdie der 
Leidenschaften (21), Das Tagebuch des 
Dr. Hard (21), Das Wachsfigurenkabi- 
nett/ Waxworks* (24), The Cat and the 
Canary* (USA27), The Chinese Parrot 
(27), The Man Who Laughs (28), The 
Last Warning (29). 

[art dir: for Joe May, Veritas vinclt 
(18); for E. A. Dupont Der Weisse 
Pfau (20), Kinder der Finsternis (22); 
for Karl Grune, Frauenopfer (22); for 
Richard Oswald, Lady Hamilton (22) 
(co-art dir: Hans Dreier), Die Frau in 
vierzig Jahren (25); for Alexander Korda, 
Der Tanzer meiner Frau (25); for 
Michael Kertesz (Curtiz), Fiakr Nr. 13 
(26), Der Goldene Schmetterling (26); 
for Arthur Robison, Manon Lescaut 
(26); and for all his own German films.] 

LENICA, Jan ANiM Poland /France/Ger- 
man Federal Republic. (Poznan Jan 4, 
1928- ) Polish-born animator whose 
tragicomic, often surrealistic films gen- 
erally combine simplified, heavy black- 
line animation, cut-out figures, engraved 
backgrounds, and collage. [He studied 
music before turning to art and played 
a major role (since 1950) in the devel- 
opment of designs for the Polish cinema 
posters. He has also illustrated books 
and worked as an exhibition designer.] 
anim: Once Upon a Time (Pol57), Love 



152 



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Requited (Pol57), Dont/ House (Pol58) 
(all co-dir: Borowczyk), Monsieur Tête 
(Fr60) (co-dir: Henri Gruel), Janko 
the Musician (P0I6I), Italia 61 (P0I6I) 
(co-dir: Zamecznik), Labyrinth* (Pol 
63), Rhinoceros (GFR63), A (GFR64), 
The Flower Woman (GFR65), Adam II 
(GFR68). 

LEONARD, Robert Z(igler) DiR USA. (Den- 
ver Sept 7, 1889-1968) Hollywood di- 
rector who had occasional bright mo- 
ments in a long but mediocre career. In 
the Thirties he specialized, without much 
flair, in musical comedies and revues — 
of which the most famous is The Great 
Ziegfield (36)— and had the good for- 
tune to direct Fred Astaire's first film, 
Dancing Lady (33). He was also known 
as a good director of actresses, especially 
his wife, Mae Murray, all of whose films 
he directed from 1916-23, and Marion 
Davies 1928-32, plus several vehicles for 
Garbo, Jeanette MacDonald, Greer Gar- 
son, Lana Turner, etc. 

LEROY, Mervyn DiR USA. (San Francisco 
Oct 15, 1900- ) A film maker of 
great stature and artistry in the Thirties 
who later became an impersonal, routine 
director of largely uninteresting films. 
His early films, like Little Caesar (30), 
Five Star Final (31), / Am a Fugitive 
from a Chain Gang (32) and Gold Dig- 
gers of 1933 (33), probed American 
society during the Depression and he 
offered a vivid indictment of intolerance 
and mob brutality in They Won't Forget 
(37). Realism later gave way to romantic 
melodramas (Waterloo Bridge), routine 
theatrical adaptations, and lush spectacu- 
lars like Quo Vadis? 

Dm (notably): Little Caesar* (30), Five 
Star Final (31), / Am a Fugitive from 
a Chain Gang* (31), Three on a Match 
(32), Big City Blues (32), Two Seconds 

(32) , Hard to Handle (32), Gold Dig- 
gers of 1933* (33), Tugboat Annie 

(33) , Oil for the Lamps of China (35), 
Anthony Adverse (36), They Won't For- 
get (37), The Wizard of Oz (39), Wa- 
terloo Bridge (40), Escape (40), Ran- 
dom Harvest (42), Madame Curie (43), 
The House I Live In (45), Little Women 
(48), Any Number Can Play (49), Quo 
Vadis?* (51), Rose Marie (53), Mister 
Roberts (54) (begun by John Ford), 
The Bad Seed (55), Toward the Un- 
known (56), Moment to Moment (65). 



•LESTER, Richard DiR Britain. (Philadel- 
phia 1932- ) A film maker whose films 
have great pace and technical assurance 
and use a wide range of cinematic de- 
vices without merely being fashionable. 
He studied clinical psychology and tele- 
Vision at the University of Pennsylvania, 
moving to Britain in 1955 where he 
worked on TV commercials. He made 
over 100 commercials, worked on several 
TV comedy programs (notably the BBC 
"Goon Show") and made a short "Goon" 
film in 1959 before directing his first fea- 
ture. His two Beatles films, A Hard Day's 
Night and Help! have tremendous verve 
and an invigorating comic sense, traits 
evident also in his next three films. With 
Pet alia, on the air-conditioned nightmare 
of American society in turmoil, his work 
took on new depth and assurance. 
dir: The Running, Jumping, and Stand- 
ing Still Film (59) (short), Ifs Trad, 
Dad! (62), The Mouse on the Moon 
(63), A Hard Day's Night* (64), The 
Knack (65), Help!* (65), A Funny 
Thing Happened on the Way to the Fo- 
rum (66), How 1 Won the War (67), 
Petulia* (68), The Bed-Sitting Room 
(69). 

LEVIN, Htnry Dm USA. (Trenton June 5, 
1909- ) Mediocre Hollywood director 
(since 1944) credited with one good 
western, The Lonely Man (57). 

LEVY, Raoul prod/scen France. (Anvers 
April 14, 1922-Dec 31, 1966) A French 
producer in the grand Hollywood man- 
ner who built his extraordinary success 
on Brigitte Bardot's films, from And 
God Created Woman* (which he also 
wrote) to Babette Goes to War and La 
Vérité*. [He also produced, notably, Pe- 
ter Brook's Moderato Cantabile (60) 
and directed, produced, and wrote Je 
vous salue Mafia (65) and L'Espion/ 
The Defectors (66).] 

•LEWIN, Atbtrt PROD/DIR/SCEN USA. 

(Newark Sept 23, 1902-May 9. 1968) 
An MGM producer (Cuban Love Song, 
China Seas, The Good Earth, Mutiny 
on the Bounty, Zaza, So Ends Our 
Night), who became a director in 1942 
with his adaptation of The Moon and 
Sixpence from Somerset Maugham, a 
film whose theme appeared in one film 
or another in all his later work: the 
marvelous evocation of the Oscar Wilde 
universe, The Picture of Dorian Gray; 



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the stylistic Maupassant world of The 
Private Affairs of Bel Ami; and the sym- 
bolic paean to feminine beauty, Pandora 
and the Flying Dutchman. Perhaps the 
most cultured of Hollywood film makers 
and a man of evident cinematic talents, 
he never quite fulfilled his own promise 
and his last two films are mediocre, do- 
minated by a precious quality that lurks 
beneath the surface of his earlier work. 
dir/scen: The Moon and Sixpence (42) 
(co-dir: Steve Sekeley), The Picture of 
Dorian Gray (44), The Private Affairs 
of Bel Ami (47), Pandora and the Fly- 
ing Dutchman (51), Saadia (54), The 
Living Idol (57). 

LEWTON, Val (Vladimir Ivan Lewton) PROD 
USA. (Yalta May 7, 1904-USA March 
14, 1951) Imaginative Hollywood pro- 
ducer noted for his series of brilliant, 
low-budget horror films for RKO in the 
Forties: Jacques Tourneur's Cat Peo- 
ple* (42), / Walked with a Zombie 
(43), The Leopard Man (43); Mark 
Robson's The Seventh Victim (43), The 
Ghost Ship (43), Youth Runs Wild (44), 
Isle of the Dead (45), Bedlam (46); Rob- 
ert Wise's Curse of the Cat People* (44), 
Mademoiselle Fifi* (44) (from Maupas- 
sant), The Body Snatchers (45). He pro- 
duced three more films after he left RKO 
in 1946 {My Own True Love, Please 
Believe Me, Apache Drums), but none 
is distinctive. He died of a heart attack 
just after signing a contract with Stanley 
Kramer (q.v.). 

l'herbier. Marcel Dm France. (Paris April 
23, 1890- ) The master of French film 
impressionism, a cultured, subtle and 
intelligent film maker who was much 
enamored of art and experiment and who 
contributed significantly to the develop- 
ment of the means of cinematic expres- 
sion. He originally studied law and has 
been a poet and playwright. In 1917 he 
wrote scripts for Mercanton and Hervil, 
Torrent and Bouclette, and in 1919 he 
directed his first film, after serving with 
the Army's film unit during the war. 
His Eldorado (21) was hailed by Louis 
Delluc (q.v.) with his famous line, That's 
real cinema!" There are faults in L'In- 
humaine (23) and his ambitions for 
Don Juan et Faust (22) were not ful- 
filled, but his Feu Mathias Pascal (25) 
is a major achievement His budget prob- 
lems over Don Juan et Faust were met 



again later when too large resources 
crushed L'Argent (29). He has said of 
his career: "For ten years — 1918-28 - I 
made the films I chose in the way I in- 
tended. The next ten years were years 
of misfortunes and commercial con- 
straints." He has defined "the revolu- 
tionary art" of the cinema as "the most 
miraculous means of portraying man to 
other men, of educating man by other 
men, and of reconciling (an urgent task) 
man with other men." In 1943 he 
founded the Institut des Hautes Études 
Cinématographiques (IDHEC), the Paris 
film school whose international prestige 
has risen steadily over the years and of 
which he has remained president. He 
continued to make features, rather un- 
successfully, until 1954, when he became 
a TV, producer. 

dir: Phantasmes (17), Rose France (19), 
Le Carnaval des vérités (20), L'Homme 
du large (20) (from Balzac), Villa des- 
tin (21), Promethée banquier (21), El- 
dorado* (21), Don Juan et Faust (22), 
L'Inhumaine* (23), Feu Mathias Pascal* 
(25), Le Vestige (26), L'Argent (27) 
(from Zola), Le Diable au coeur (28), 
Nuits de prince (30), L'Enfant de l'amour 
(30), La Femme d'une nuit (30), Le 
Mystère de la chambre jaune (30), Le 
Parfum de la dame en noir (31), L'Eper- 
vier (33), Le Scandale (34), L'Aven- 
turier (34), Le Bonheur (34), La Route 
impériale (35), Veille d'armes (35), Les 
Hommes nouveaux (35), La Porte du 
large (35), La Citadelle du silence (37), 
Nuits de feu (37), Forfaiture /The Cheat* 
(37), Adrienne Lecouvreur (38), Terre 
de feu (38), La Tragédie impériale (38), 
Entente cordiale (39), La Brigade sau- 
vage (39), La Comédie du bonheur (41), 
Histoire de rire (41), La Nuit fantastique 
(42), L'Honorable Catherine (42), La 
vie de bohème (43), Au petit bonheur 
(45), L' Affair du collier de la reine (46), 
La Révoltée (47), Les Derniers jours de 
Pompéi (49), Le Père de mademoiselle 
(53). 

LIEBENEINER, Wolfgang dir Germany/Ger- 
man Federal Republic. (Liebau Sept 5, 
1905- ) Facile director, both during 
the Nazi era — with the glorification of 
Bismarck (40) and the propaganda for 
the extermination of the mentally unfit 
in Ich klage an (41)— and in postwar 
years with such family entertainment 
films as Die Trapp-Familie (56). He 
was head of production at UFA 1942-45. 



154 



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UNDER, Max (Gabriel Uvlelle) DIR/SCEN 
France/USA. (Saint Loubès, Gironde 
Dec 16, 1883-Paris Oct 30, 1925) The 
French genius of silent comedy, named 
by Charles Chaplin (q.v.) as a formative 
influence on his own work, who wrote 
and directed most of his own films from 
1910 until his suicide in 1925. He ap- 
peared in some 200-300 films from his 
first supporting roles in 1905. Of those 
he wrote and/or directed the following 
are of special interest (features com- 
plete): Max aeronaute (10), Les Débuts 
de Max au cinéma (10), Max se marie/ 
Le Mariage de Max (10), Max victime 
du quinquina* (11), Max lance la mode 
(11), Max professeur de tango* (12), 
Max toréador* (12), Max à Monaco 
(13), Le Hasard et l'amour (13), Max 
pedicure (14), Max et V espion (15), 
Max Comes Across (USA 17), Max in 
a Taxi (USA17), Le Petit café (19), Le 
Feu sacré (20), Be My Wife (USA21), 
Seven Years Bad Luck* (USA21), The 
Three Must-Get-Theres* (USA22), Au 
Secours! (23) (dir: Abel Gance), Der 
Zirkuskônig/The Circus King (Aust24). 

lindtberg, Leopold dir Switzerland. 
(Vienna June 1, 1902- ) The director 
of dozens of minor or mediocre features 
-e.g., Fiisilier Wipf (38), Die Miss- 
brauchten Liebesbriefe (40), the semi- 
documentary, Marie Louise (44), and 
Die Vier im Jeep /Four in a Jeep (51) 
— but justly famous for his best film, 
Die Letzte Chance* (45). 

HIPMAN, Jerxy PHOTOQ Poland. (1922- 
) Excellent Polish cameraman (he is 
a Lodz graduate) with a distinctive style, 
who is notable for his work with Wajda 
on A Generation*, Kanal*, Lotna, Ashes; 
with Kawaierowicz on The Shadow, The 
Real End of the Great War; with Alek- 
sander Ford on The Eighth Day of the 
Week; with Passendorfer on Zanach/ 
Answer to Violence (58); with Munk on 
Bad Luck; with Polanski on Knife in 
the Water; with Mikhail Bogin on Zozya 
(USSR67); with Jerzy Hoffman on Col- 
onel Wolodyjowski (69). 

UTVAK, AnotoU dir USA/Germany/ 
France/Britain. (Kiev, Russia May 10, 
1902- ) Although entirely conscien- 
tious, technically well trained, profes- 
sionally dedicated and with a special 
ability to select and direct actors, he 
has never been able to rise above the 



merely commercially successful level. 
[He worked in Germany, France, and 
Britain before settling in Hollywood in 
1937 and has, in the Sixties, worked 
largely in Europe, though on American 
productions. During the war he collabo- 
rated with Frank Capra (g.v.) on the 
Why We Fight* series.] 
dir (notably): Dolly macht Karriere 
(Ger30), Nie Wieder Liebe (Ger31), 
Sleeping Car (Brit33), Coeur de lilas 
(Fr33), L'Equipage (Fr35), Mayerling 
(Fr36), The Woman I Love (USA37) 
(remake of L'Equipage), Tovarich (38), 
The Amazing Dr. Clitterhouse (38), The 
Sisters (38), Confessions of a Nazi Spy 
(39), All This and Heaven Too (40), 
Castle on the Hudson (40), City for 
Conquest (40), Out of the Fog (41), 
Blues in the Night (41), This Above All 
(42), The Nazis Strike* (42) (docu- 
mentary, co-dir: Capra), Divide and 
Conquer* (43) (documentary, co-dir: 
Capra), The Battle of Russia* (44) 
(documentary), The Battle of China* 
(44) (documentary, co-dir: Capra), War 
Comes to America (45) (documentary). 
The Long Night* (47) (remake of Le 
Jour se lève*), The Snake Pit (48), 
Sorry, Wrong Number (48), Decision 
before Dawn (51), Act of Love (54), 
The Deep Blue Sea (Brit55), Anastasia 
(56), The Journey (58), Aimez-vous 
Brahms? /Goodbye Again (61), Le Cou- 
teau dans le plaie/Five Miles to Mid- 
night (62), The Night of the Generals 
(66), La Dame dans l'auto avec des 
lunettes et une fusil (Fr70). 

UU PAN Dm China. (Shanghai 190?- ) 
Imaginative Chinese director of the 
Shanghai school who has made at least 
two important works: the romantic epic 
New Heroes and Heroines and the pow- 
erfully realistic Gate No. 6. (His pseu- 
donym is derived from a street in the 
former French concession in Shanghai. 
His real name is not known.) 
Dm (notably): Tche Sen (25), Li Oke 
(25), New Heroes and Heroines (50) 
(co-dir: Si Tung), The Heroes of the 
Liulang Mountains (50) (co-dir: Yi 
Lin), Gate No. 6* (52), Heroic Rail- 
way Engineers (54), When the New Di- 
rector Arrives at His Post (56). 

UZZANI, Carlo DlR/sCEN Italy. (Rome 
April 3, 1922- ) As a film critic and 
later as a scriptwriter he played a role 
in the development of Italian neorealism 



155 



Uopy riQhtod mstcnsl 



but, as a director, he belonged to the 
somewhat ill-favored Fifties generation. 
In his first film, Achtung! Banditi! (51) 
— which also gave Gina Lollobrigida her 
first major role — he portrayed the Italian 
Resistance in some historical perspec- 
tive; in Chronicle of Poor Lovers (54) 
he evoked not the gaiety of the 1925 pe- 
riod but a Florence struggling against 
Fascism. 

scen (notably): for Vergano, // Sole 
Sorge Ancora* (46); for De Santis, 
Caccia Tragica* (47), Riso Amero* 
(49), Non c'è pace tra gli ulivi* (50); 
for Rossellini, Germania, Anno Zero* 

(48) ; for Lattuada, // Mulino del Po 

(49) ; and for his own films. (All scripts 
in collaboration.) 

dir: Nel Mezzogiorno qualcosa è cam- 
biato (50) (documentary), Achtung! 
Banditi! (51), Ai Margini della Metro- 
poli (54), Cronache di Poveri Amanti* 
(54), Lo Svitato(56), La Muraglia Ci- 
nese (58) (documentary feature), Este- 
rina (59), // Gobbo/The Hunchback of 
Rome (60), L'Oro di Roma (61), // 
Procesa di Verona (62), La Vita agra 
(64), La Celestina (64), Thrilling (65) 
(one episode), / Sette Fratelli (66), Sve- 
gliati e uccidi (66), A more e Rabbia/ 
Vangelo 70 (67) (one episode), Requies- 
cant (67), Assassinio a Sarajevo (68), 
Banditi a Milano (69). 

LLOYD, Frank dir USA. (Glasgow, Scot- 
land Feb 2, 1889-Hollywood 1960) 
Among the hundred or so films he di- 
rected from 1916 to 1956 are a number 
of careful adaptations of best-sellers and 
well-known literary works: Les Miséra- 
bles* (18), Madame X (20), Oliver 
Twist (22), East Lynne (30), Cavalcade* 
(33), Mutiny on the Bounty (35). 

* lloyd, Harold dir/scen USA. (Burchard, 
Nebraska April 20, 1893-March 8, 1971) 
One of the great creators of the silent 
comedy who, although not always cred- 
ited as "director," was more artistically 
responsible for his films than Sam Tay- 
lor, Fred Newmeyer, etc. He began with 
Essanay and Hal Roach (q.v.), then 
made features for Roach and for his own 
company. He did not successfully sur- 
vive the introduction of sound, his only 
good sound film being Movie Crazy. He 
appeared in some 200 films in his career, 
including the "Lonesome Luke" series. 
Features: A Sailor-Made Man (21), 
Grandma's Boy (22), Dr. Jack* (22), 



Safety Last* (23), Why Worry?* (23), 
Girl Shy (24), Hot Water (24), The 
Freshman* (25), For Heaven's Sake 
(26), The Kid Brother (27), Speedy 
(28), Welcome Danger (29), Feet First 
(30), Movie Crazv (32), The Catspaw 
(34), The Milky Way (36), Professor 
Beware (38), Mad Wednesday /The Sins 
of Harold Diddlebock (47). Released 
two feature-length compilation films: 
Harold Lloyd's World of Comedy and 
The Funny Side of Life. 

LODS, Jean dir France. (Vesoul March 4, 
1903- ) Major French documentary 
film maker who played an important 
role in the avant-garde and pioneered 
the film on art in 1942 with Maillol. 
dir (notably): 24 heures en trente mi- 
nutes (27), Champs-Elysées (28), La 
Vie d'un fleuve (31), Ladoumègue (32), 
Maillol (42), Aubusson (46), Mallarmé 
(60). 

LOEW, Marcus prod USA. (New York 
May 8, 1870-New York 1927) Born of 
poor Austrian immigrants in the slums 
of New York's East Side, he became a 
fur salesman and through his friend 
Adolph Zukor (q.v.) invested in the 
developing Nickelodeons, which quickly 
grew into a nationwide chain of vaude- 
ville and motion picture theaters. In 
1920 Loew's Inc. purchased Metro Pic- 
tures Corporation, which a few years 
later was amalgamated with Goldwyn's 
to form Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer. 

LOGAN, Joshua dir USA. (Texarcana, 
Texas Oct 5, 1908- ) The success of 
Picnic* (55) and Bus Stop* (56) led 
some to assume that Logan was a brilliant 
new film maker. But in fact he was an 
experienced theater director, well served 
by excellent scripts for his first two films, 
which he interpreted tastefully and intel- 
ligently. His admirers were disappointed 
with Sayonara (57), South Pacific (58), 
Tall Story (60), Fanny (61), Ensign 
Pulver (64), Camelot (67), Paint Your 
Wagon (69). 

i 

LOMNICKI, Jan dir Poland. (1929- ) 
The best of the younger generation of 
Polish documentary film makers, he has 
a sharp and sure touch and made strik- 
ing use of images and sound to show 
how A Ship is Born. In 1963 he made 
his first feature, The Dowry, and has 
since made several others. 

156 



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[dir (notably): Ziemia czeka (54), Mlstrz 
Nikif or /Master Nikifor (56), Doni sta- 
rych kobiet/The End of the Road (58), 
Huta 59 (59), Stal/Steel (59), Narod- 
liny miasta/The Birth of a Town (59), 
Koncert Wawelski/Wawel Concert (60), 
Narod ziny statku/A Ship is Born (61), 
Suita Polska/Polish Suite (62), Wiano/ 
The Dowry (63) (fiction feature), Spot- 
kania z Warszawal Meetings with War- 
saw (65) (documentary feature), Ah 
urbe condita (65), Kontrybucia/ Contri- 
bution (66) (fiction feature), Cyrograf 
dojrzalosci/ Compact of Maturity (67) 
(TV fiction feature).] 

lorentz, Part dir USA. (Clarksburg Dec 
11, 1905- ) Excellent American docu- 
mentary film maker in the Thirties, most 
famous for The Plow that Broke the 
Plains (36), The River* (37), The Fight 
for Life (41). [He was also a film critic 
and head of the short-lived US Govern- 
ment Film Service, for which he pro- 
duced Ivens's The Power and the Land 
and Flaherty's The Land*.] 

LORENZI, Stellio dir France. (Paris May 7, 
1921- ) The principal director of 
French TV, responsible for numerous 
documentary shorts from 1944 to 1957, 
who made his feature film debut by 
adapting Climats (62) from Maurois in 
his typical small-screen style. 

UOSEY, Joseph DIR Britain/USA. (La 
Crosse, Wisconsin Jan 14, 1909- ) A 
film maker of great visual sensibility 
who has developed from the "socially 
committed" films of his Hollywood days 
to a broader concern with examining 
characters under moral or physical pres- 
sures, the pressures of an age molded 
by technology and in social turmoil. He 
began his career in 1930 as a dramatic 
critic in New York, then worked as a 
theater director for the Theater Guild 
and others. He traveled to Europe and 
was much influenced by the work of 
Brecht (g. v.), an influence that has con- 
tinued throughout his film career, as he 
has often testified. In 1937 he began 
supervising documentaries and educa- 
tional films for the Rockefeller Founda- 
tion, the State Department, and the Na- 
tional Youth Administration and directed 
his first film, a short puppet film, in 1939. 
He was under contract to MGM from 
1943 to 1945, but it was not until 1948 
that he broke completely with the theater 



when he directed the morality fable The 
Boy with Green Hair, followed by the 
equally liberal The Lawless. His next 
three films revealed something of the 
style of bis later work: The Prowler, M 
(remake), and The Big Night all em- 
phasize character relationships in a sharp- 
edged, almost hysterical style. In 1950, 
hounded by the House Un-American Ac- 
tivities Committee, Losey left the USA 
and worked for some years in Europe 
under pseudonyms before re-establishing 
bis reputation with the moral and social 
analysis of Time without Pity (57). 
Since then his work has increased in 
depth and assurance through the bril- 
liant social thrillers, Blind Date and The 
Criminal, the bleak metaphysical fable 
The Damned, and the social tragicom- 
edies, The Servant and Accident. Eve is 
perhaps his most personal film and, 
even in the mutilated version, intensely 
poetic and brilliant, arguably comparable 
to Mizoguchi's Ugetsu*, though less af- 
firmative. In recent years his work has 
gained much from his association with 
scriptwriter Harold Pinter (q.v.) as ear- 
lier it had from his collaboration with 
production designer Richard Macdonald 
(q.v.) on many of his American and 
British films. He sees film-making as a 
collaborative venture: "I believe that 
everybody should make his particular 
contribution: the designer, the writer, the 
composer, the cameraman. Everyone 
must be free and encouraged to make 
his own contribution within an overall 
framework and control and discipline 
which obviously comes from the director 
. . . the more one works with people, 
the more one establishes an artistic lan- 
guage, and the more one can deepen 
one's work . . . There are in general 
two kinds of writers who work on films 
as far as I'm concerned. One is very per- 
sonal and contributive, like Pinter for 
instance . . ." Of his work in general 
he has said: "I don't regard my work 
as being particularly pessimistic because 
I think pessimism is an attitude that sees 
no hope in human beings or life in gen- 
eral, that has no compassion therefore; 
and to have compassion, I strongly be- 
lieve you have to examine the worst, the 
most tragic, the most crucifying aspects 
of life as well as the beautiful ones, and 
also the things that corrupt life, distort 
it, destroy it" 

DIR: Pete Roleum and His Cousins (USA 
39) (puppet short), A Child Went Forth 



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(USA41) (short), Youth Gets a Break 
(USA41) (short), A Gun in His Hand 
(USA41) (short in series Crime Does 
Not Pay), The Boy with Green Hair 
(USA48), The Lawless/The Dividing 
Une* (USA49), The Prowler (USA50), 
M* (USA50) (remake), The Big Night 
(USA51), Imbarco a Mezzanote/ Stranger 
on the Prowl/ Encounter (It51) (under 
pseud Andrea Forzano), The Sleeping 
Tiger (Brit54) (credited to Victor Han- 
bury), A Man on the Beach (55) (short), 
The Intimate Stranger/ Finger of Guilt 
(55) (under pseud Joseph Walton), Time 
without Pity* (56), The Gypsy and the 
Gentleman (57), Blind Date/Chance 
Meeting* (59), The Criminal/Concrete 
Jungle* (60), The Damned/These Are 
the Damned* (61), Eva/Eve (It62), The 
Servant* (Brit63), King and Country 
(64), Modesty Blaise (66), Accident 

(67) , Boom (68), Secret Ceremony 

(68) , Figures in a Landscape (70), The 
Go-between (71). 

lota*, Elt photog/dir France. (Paris 
Jan 30, 1905- ) Above all, a camera- 
man, responsible for the photography of 
Bunuel's Las Hurdes* and Storck's Les 
Maisons de la misère, he directed an im- 
portant short on the sordid life in Paris 
slums, Aubervilliers (46), from Jacques 
Prévert's script 

•LOW, Colin anim/dir Canada. (Cardston, 
Alberta 1926- ) After studying at the 
Calgary School of Fine Arts, he joined 
the National Film Board (NFB) of Can- 
ada in 1945 and collaborated with 
George Dunning (q.v.) on the animated 
Cadet Rousselle (47). He was named di- 
rector of the animation department at 
NFB in 1950 and made his most popular 
cartoon in 1952, The Romance of Trans- 
portation, somewhat in the UPA style. 
He later turned to documentary and co- 
directed, with Roman Kroitor, the fa- 
mous Universe (60). He was co-pro- 
ducer of Labyrinth at Expo '67 in Mon- 
treal and was responsible for the first 
participatory social film series, the Chal- 
lenge for Change program in Newfound- 
land. 

anim (notably): Cadet Rousselle (47), 
Time and Terrain (48), Science Against 
Cancer (48), The Romance of Transpor- 
tation (52), Jolifou Inn (55), It's a 
Crime (57) (co: Grant Munro). 
DiR (notably): Corral (54), Ci7y of Gold 
(57) (co-dir: Wolf Koenig), City Out 



of Time (59), Universe (60) (co-dir: 
Roman Kroitor), Circle of the Sun (61), 
The Days of Whisky Gap (61), The 
Hutterites (63). 

LOY, NqiwI dir Italy. (Cagliari 1925- ) 
Relatively new Italian director, best 
known for his portrayals of various 
events of the last war. 
dir (notably): // Marito (55) (co-dir: 
G. Puccini), Parola di Ladri (56), Au- 
dace Colpo dei Soliti Ignoti (59), Giorno 
da Leoni (61), La Battaglia di Napoli/ 
Four Days of Naples (62), // Padre di 
Famiglia (68). 

lubitsch, Ernst dir Germany/USA. (Ber- 
lin Jan 28, 1892-Hollywood Nov 30, 
1947) An artful, clever film maker whose 
films, even the most vulgar, never lacked 
verve or craftsmanship. He worked in 
many genres, most notably spectaculars 
and sophisticated comedies, and had 
many successes. He was the son of a 
Berlin tailor and at an early age had 
acting ambitions. Through the actor, Vic- 
tor Arnold, he met Max Reinhardt (q.v.) 
and joined his theater company in 1911. 
He played many stage roles and began 
appearing as an actor in films in 1912. 
He directed his first film, a short comedy, 
in 1914 and made numerous shorts 
(mostly onc-reelers) until he established 
his international reputation in 1918 with 
The Eyes of the Mummy Ma. This spec- 
tacular, based on the traditions of the 
Italian spectaculars, established a for- 
mula that he followed with varying suc- 
cess in Carmen, Madame Dubarry, Su- 
murun, Anna Boleyn, and The Loves of 
Pharaoh. [At this time he also made his 
first sophisticated, satirical comedies de- 
rived from the traditions of central Eu- 
ropean vaudeville: Die Austernprinzessin, 
Die Puppe, Kolhiesels Tôchter, Die Berg- 
katze, though these were then less well- 
known outside Germany than his histori- 
cal spectaculars.] He was invited to the 
USA by Mary Pickford to direct her next 
film (Rosita) and in the USA during 
the silent period made a series of stylish 
comedies of manners, The Marriage 
Circle, Three Women, Forbidden Para- 
dise, Lady Windermere's Fan, and So 
This Is Paris, in which, as a French 
critic of the time put it, "he set about 
bringing to the Americans the European 
comedy in all its charm, decadence, and 
frivolity." With the coming of sound, 
he developed a penchant for musical 



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comedy with The Love Parade, Monte 
Carlo, The Smiling Lieutenant, One 
Hour With You, and even a version of 
The Merry Widow. He never lost his 
taste for comedy, or, more exactly, for 
central European vaudeville, and his bril- 
liant films like Trouble in Paradise and 
Design for Living made him one of the 
founders of the Hollywood "screwball" 
comedies and the comedies of manners. 
He later turned to political propaganda 
with Ninotchka and used the background 
of Nazi-occupied Poland with great flair 
in To Be or Not to Be. During his career 
he gathered around him many collabora- 
tors of German extraction - like his 
scriptwriter Hans Kraly, set designer 
Hans Dreier, and in later years Billy 
Wilder and Otto Preminger (all q.v.) t 
who were to inherit his mantle. Pierre 
Henry justly characterized him in 1926 
as "a brilliant man but one who never 
completely lost his theatrical back- 
ground. 

Dm: F rtiule in Seijenschaum (Gerl4), 
Blinde Kuh (14), Meyer als soldat (14), 
Aufs Eis gefuhrt (15), Zucker und Zimt 

(15) (co-dir: F. Matray), Als Ich Tot 
War (16), Der Gemischte Frauenchor 

(16) , Leutnant auf Befehl (16), Wo 1st 
Mein Schatz (16), Der Schwarze Moritz 
(16), Schuhpalast Pinkus (16), Der 
GmbH Tenor (16), Der Erste Pa- 
tient (16), Ossis Tagebuch (17), Der 
Blusenkônig (17), Wenn Vier Dasselbe 
Tun (Machen) (17), Ein Fidèles Gef'àng- 
nis (17), Der Kraftmeyer (17), Prinz 
Sami (17), Der Letzte Anzug (17), Der 
Rodelkavalier (18), lch Môchte Kein 
Mann Sein (18), Der Fall Rosentopf 
(18), Die Augen der Mummie Ma (18), 
Dos Model vom Ballet (18), Carmen/ 
Gypsy Blood* (18), Fiihrmann Henschel 
(?) (18), Mar ion et ten (18), Meine Frau, 
Die Filmschauspielerin (18), Meier aus 
Berlin (18), Schabenmddle (19), Die 
Austernprinzessin* (19), Rausch (19), 
Madame Dubarry /Passion* (19), Die 
Puppe (19), Kolhlesels Totchter (20), 
Romeo und Julia im Schnee (20), Sumu- 
run/One Arabian Night (20), Anna 
Boleyn/ Deception (20), Die Tolle Rik- 
schau (?) (20), Die Bergkatze (21), 
Vendetta (?) (21) (18?), Das Weib des 
Pharaoh/The Loves of Pharaoh (22), 
Die Flamme /Montmartre (Ger22), Ro- 
sita (USA23), The Marriage Circle (24), 
Three Women (24), Forbidden Paradise 
(24), Kiss Me Again (25), Lady Win- 
dermere's Fan (25), So This is Paris 



(26), The Student Prince /In Old Hei- 
delberg (27), The Patriot (28), Eternal 
Love (29), The Love Parade* (29), 
Paramount on Parade (30) (in part), 
Monte Carlo (30), The Smiling Lieuten- 
ant (31), The Man I Killed/ Broken 
Lullaby (32). One Hour With You (32), 
Trouble in Paradise* (32), // / Had a 
Million (32) (one episode), Design for 
Living (33), The Merry Widow* (34), 
Desire (36) (supervised only, dir: Frank 
Borzage), Angel (37), Bluebeard's Eighth 
Wife (38), Ninotchka* (39), The Shop 
Around the Corner (40), That Un- 
certain Feeling (41), To Be or Not to 
Be* (42), Heaven Can Wait (43), A 
Royal Scandal (45) (remake of Forbid- 
den Paradise, supervised by Lubitsch, 
dir: Otto Preminger), Cluny Brown 
(46), That Lady in Ermine (48) (com- 
pleted by Preminger). 

LUKOV, Leonid dir USSR. (Ukraine May 
1909-Leningrad April 1963) Prolific film 
maker with an exuberant but often facile 
style, notable for Bolshaya zhizn/A 
Great Ufe (40) and Y a Lyublyu/l Love 
(36), a somewhat rosy portrait of the life 
of Donbas miners. 

IUMET, Sidney dir USA. (Philadelphia 
June 25, 1924- ) Not a film maker in 
the true sense but a talented and con- 
scientious technician with a passion for 
the theater and an ability to handle ac- 
tors. His work is usually as good as the 
original play or novel on which it is 
based. He began his career as a child 
actor and after the war became interested 
in directing. He was responsible for over 
250 teleplays in the Fifties. 
dir: 12 Angry Men* (56), Stage Struck 
(58) (remake of Morning Glory), That 
Kind of Woman (59), The Fugitive 
Kind (59), A View from the Bridge/ 
Vu du pont (Fr/USA61), Long Day's 
Journey Into Night (62), Fail Safe (63), 
The Pawnbroker* (64), The Hill (Brit 
65), The Group (66), The Deadly Af- 
fair (Brit67), Bye Bye Braver man (67), 
The Sea Gull (Brit68), The Appointment 
(69), Blood Kin (69), The Last of the 
Mobile Hot Shots (69), The Anderson 
Tapes (71). 

LUMIERE, AnteiM photoo France. (Ormay, 
Haute-Saône 1840-Lyon 190?) The fa- 
ther of Auguste and Louis Lumière was 
originally trained as a painter and in 
1860 became a photographer in Be s an- 



Uopy riQhtod mstcnsl 



çon, where his sons were born. In 1871 
he moved to Lyon and in 1881 he opened 
a factory for photographic products in 
Lyon-Montplaisir. His business prospered 
and became a major industry. By 1894 
he was taking less of an active role in 
the Société Antoine Lumière et ses fils 
(founded in 1893) but in that year he 
became enthusiastic over the Edison 
Kinetoscope, which he had seen in Paris. 
He purchased one of these and asked his 
sons to develop a means for projecting 
its pictures. In 1895 he took the appa- 
ratus his sons had patented and or- 
ganized the first public screening in Paris 
at the Grand Café with his friend and 
former collaborator, Clément Maurice. 
In 1896-97 he refused to sell the Ciné- 
matographe equipment to Georges Méliès 
and arranged for Georges Hatot to di- 
rect some films for their company. 

LUMIERE, August, inventor France. (Be- 
sancon Oct 20, 1862-Lyon April 10, 
1954) With his brother, Louis, he filed 
the original patents on the Cinémato- 
graphe, in the invention of which he 
played a small part. He later devoted 
himself to medical research. He directed 
one film: Mauvaises herbes/ les Brûleurs 
d'herbe (1896). 

LUMIERE, Louis inventor France. (Be- 
sançon Oct 5, 1864-Bandol, Var June 6, 
1948) He is, first and foremost, the in- 
ventor of the Cinématographe, but he 
was also an excellent film maker. In 
1895 the Cinématographe represented a 
major advance over all existing equip- 
ment (various parts of which he had 
adopted) because it could not only re- 
cord moving pictures anywhere but could 
project them on a screen. Its worldwide 
success was such that it gave birth to a 
new form of entertainment and a new 
industry; the name he gave the equip- 
ment has been adapted into the languages 
of most countries as the term for the art 
and industry of film. Few countries have 
retained the names of rival equipment — 
Bioskop, Biograph, etc. As a film maker 
he was the first to record "life as it hap- 
pened" in his first very short films, all 
of which reflect his feeling for visual 
qualities, background, and framing. He 
used "close-ups'* in Déjeuner de bébé, 
depth of field in Arrivée dun train, and 
devised the first "comedies" with L'Ar- 
roseur arrosé and Le Faux Cul-de-jatte. 
Ho trained numerous cameramen who 



traveled around the world and made 
major contributions to the development 
of documentaries, editing, and the film 
industry in various countries. His im- 
portance in the history of the cinema is 
considerable, even though he was even- 
tually outstripped by his competitors in 
making commercial films and was in- 
debted to the work of the Americans, 
Muybridge iq.v.), Armat, Jenkins (q.v.), 
and Latham and the German, Sklada- 
nowsky (q.v.) t who first demonstrated 
his equipment before Lumière. 1882: 
Perfected Van Monckhoven's silver bro- 
mide on gelatin formula, creating the 
Etiquette Bleue photographic plates on 
which the Lumière factory's success was 
based. December 1894: Developed a 
process for moving film using two per- 
forations per frame, abandoning the 
Marey chronophotographic camera and 
the Kinetoscope in the process. The first 
films were made on paper. January-Feb- 
ruary 1895: Developed the apparatus 
(prototype built by Charles Moisson) for 
making films on 35mm celluloid. Feb- 
ruary 13, 1895: Patent granted for an 
"apparatus used for obtaining and view- 
ing chronophotographic prints." March 
10, 1895: Additional patent granted for 
the perfected apparatus, now called Ciné- 
matographe. March 22, 1895: First pro- 
jection of the film, La Sortie des usines, 
to the Société pour L'Encouragement à 
l'Industrie. Other presentations to the 
Congrès des Sociétés Françaises de Pho- 
tographie (Lyon, June 10 and 12), to the 
Revue Générale des Sciences (Paris July 
11) and at the So r bon ne (Paris Nov 16). 
Louis Lumière made some 30-40 films 
during 1895. December 28, 1895: First 
public presentation of the Lumière Ciné- 
matographe in the Salon Indien of the 
Grand Café, 14 boulevard des Capucines, 
Paris. 1896: Louis Lumière hires and 
trains many cameramen and operators 
(including A. Promio and Félix Mes- 
guich) and sends them around the world. 
The Cinématographe is premiered in 
London (Feb 17), Brussels (Feb 29), 
Vienna and Madrid (April), Berlin 
(April 30), Geneva (May 1), Bombay 
(June 7), Belgrade (June 25), New York 
(June 28), Saint Petersburg (July 17), 
Bucharest (August), and later in Egypt, 
Japan, Australia, Canada, etc. 1897: 
Lumière's representative leaves New 
York. The Cinématographes are placed 
on sale. 1898-1900 Louis Lumière ex- 
i periments with large screen cinematog- 

160 



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raphy for the Paris Exposition. May-No- 
vember 1900: Projection of widescreen 
(21 meters by 16 meters) films photo- 
graphed on 72mm film with 8 pairs of 
perforations per frame. November 3 
1900: Lumière patent for stereoscopic 
cinema. December 29 1900: Lumière 
patent for Photorama, static, circular 
panoramic photography, which is exhib- 
ited in Paris in 1902. 1905: Last films 
made for the Société Lumière, which 
thereafter ceased the production and sale 
of films. 1920: Louis Lumière abandons 
his position with the Lumière factory. 
1934: Makes his first stereoscopic films. 
May 1 1936: Premiere in Paris of stereo- 
scopic films (which required special bi- 
colored glasses for viewing). 
Dm (in 1895, notably): La Sortie des 
usires (two versions), L'Arroseur arrosé/ 
Le Jardinier, Forgerons, Pompiers (four 
films), Le Déjeuner de Bébé/ Le Repas 
de Bébé, Pêche aux poissons rouges, Le 
Débarquement, Saute à la couverture/ 
Brimade dans una caserne, Lyon, place 
des Cordeliers, Characuterie mécanique, 
Ateliers de la Ciotat, Barque sortant du 
port /La Sortie du port, Arrivée d'un train 
en gare, Arrivée d'un train à La Ciotat, 
Partie d'écarté, Assiettes tournantes, 
Chapeaux à transformations, Photographe 
(71896), Démolition d'un mur (71896), 
Querelle enfantine, Aquarium, Partie de 
tric-trac, Le Déjeuner du chat, La Vol- 
tige, Départ en voiture, Enfants au jouets, 
Course en sac, Baignade en mer, Le 
Maréchal-ferrant, Lyon, place Bellecour, 



Récréation à la Marlinière, Lancement 
d'un navire à La Ciotat. See entry: 
Lumière Films in the companion Dic- 
tionary of Films. 

IUPU-PICK see pick, lupu 

LYE, Len anim/dir Britain. (Christ- 
church, New Zealand 1901- ) Imagi- 
native pioneer animator who invented 
the technique of drawing and painting 
dynamic forms onto film (in Colour 
Box) and worked for Grierson (g.v.) at 
the GPO Film Unit in the Thirties. His 
work considerably influenced Norman 
McLaren, who took up and developed 
his techniques, but he himself was not 
able to make a career in the cinema and 
later, after he moved to the USA, turned 
to more traditional art forms. [He also 
worked on documentary and compilation 
films, most notably Cameramen at War 
and the photomontage Trade Tattoo, but 
not on Germany Calling (a trick film 
in which the Nazis are made to dance 
the Lambeth Walk), although he has 
been credited with this in Europe.] 
anim/dir (notably): Experimental Ani- 
mation (33), Colour Box (35), Birth of 
a Robot (35) (with Humphrey Jen- 
nings), Rainbow Dance* (36), Kaleido- 
scope (36), Trade Tattoo (37), Musical 
Poster No. 1 (40), Swinging the Lambeth 
Walk (40), Kill or Be Killed (42), 
Women at War (43), Cameraman at 
War (44), Bells of Atlantis (52), Colour 
Cry (55), Free Radicals (57). 



161 



Copyrighted material 



MABROOK, HotMin DiR Somalia. (? - ) 
He would appear to be the director of 
the first Black African feature, Love 
Knows No Obstacle (61), a film in the 
Somali language, entirely conceived, 
staged, and acted by Africans. 

MACARTHUR, Charles SCEN/DIR USA. 

(Cranton Nov 5, 1895-New York April 
21, 1956) Playwright and excellent 
American scriptwriter of the Thirties 
who almost always worked in collabora- 
tion with Ben Hecht, both on scripts and 
on the series of independently produced 
films they co-directed. (See hecht for 
filmography.) A teleplay on his youth, 
Hello Charlie, was written in 1960 by 
Ben Hecht. 

MCCAREY, Uo DIR USA. (Los Angeles 
Oct 3, 1898-July 1969) From 1918-23 
he was Tod Browning's (q.v.) assistant; 
from 1923-28 he worked under Hal 
Roach (q.v.) and scripted and directed 
many notably Laurel and Hardy shorts. 
In the Thirties he directed several "screw- 
ball" comedies, including The Awful 
Truth (37) and Ruggles of Red Gap 
(35), and worked for some excellent 
comedians: for the Marx Brothers on 
Duck Soup* (33); for W. C. Fields on 
Six of a Kind (34); for Harold Lloyd 
on The Milky Way (36); for Eddie Can- 
tor on The Kid from Spain (32). He 
later gave his sentimental streak free 
vein in the religious propaganda of Going 
My Way* (44) and The Bells of St. 
Mary (45), the first of which won him 
Oscars for both best script and direc- 
tion. His later comedies and sentimental 
melodramas are of little interest. 

•MACDONAID, Richard ART DIR Britain. 
(Banffshire, Scotland c. 1920- ) Not 
an art director in the traditional sense 
but a "production designer" who designs 



a film's whole visual style, even the com- 
position of individual images. He studied 
at the Royal College of Art in London 
and began his film career as a sketch art- 
ist. It was in this capacity that he worked 
with Losey (q.v.) on his first British 
film, The Sleeping Tiger. For over ten 
years he collaborated closely with Losey, 
undoubtedly contributing much to the 
characteristic Losey style of this period: 
Time without Pity* (56), The Gypsy 
and the Gentleman* (57), Blind Date* 
(59), The Criminal* (60), The Damned* 
(61), Eve (62), The Servant* (63), 
King and Country (64), Modesty Blaise 
(66), Secret Ceremony (69). Also, for 
John Schlesinger, Far From the Madding 
Crowd (67); for Dick Clement, A Sev- 
ered Head (70). 

MACHATY, Gustav DiR Czechoslovakia/ 
USA, etc. (Prague May 9, 1901-Munich 
Dec 14, 1963) A film maker best re- 
membered for Erotikon and Extase, films 
whose worldwide success certainly 
stemmed from their erotic themes but 
which were, nevertheless, cinematically 
admirable. [From 1920-24 he worked 
in the USA as Stroheim's (q.v.), assis- 
tant. He also worked in the States from 
1936-45. 

DiR (notably): Sonata Kreutzerova (26), 
Erotikon* (29), Ze Soboty na Nedeli 
(31), Extase* (32), Nocturno (Aust34), 
Ballerine (It36), Within the Law (USA 
39), Jealousy (USA45), Suchkind 312 
(GFR55). 

scen: for Pabst, Es Geschah am 20 lull 
(Aust55), and for his own The Kreutzer 
Sonata, Erotikon, Extase, Jealousy.] 

MACHIN, Alfred (Eugene Alfred Jean-Baptist* 
Machin) DiR France/Belgium/Nether- 
lands. (Blandecques, Pas-de-Calais 1 877— 
1929) One of the most individual talents 
of the early cinema and one of the few 



162 



pre-1914 French film makers concerned 
with social themes (Au ravissement des 
dames, Le Moulin maudit). He began 
in 1908 as a cameraman-director for 
Pathé on outdoor animal films and in 
1911 directed comedies for Comica in 
Nice. He worked in the Netherlands and 
Belgium and during the war joined the 
French Army film service. He was Grif- 
fith's assistant on Hearts of the World*. 
After 1920 he returned to directing 
mainly animal films. 

[dir (notably): Chasse à THippopatame 
sur le Nil bleu (08), Chasse à la pan- 
thère (09), Babylas a hérite d'une pan- 
thère (11), Babylas explorateur (11), 
Le Dévouement d'un gosse (11), Little 
Moritz soldat d'Afrique (12, La Fleur 
sanglante (12), Het Lidjen van der 
Scheepsjongen (Nethl2), De Molens die 
Juichen en Weemen (Nethl2), L'His- 
toire d'un p'tit gars (Frl2), De Strijd 
der Geuzen (Nethl2), Histoire de Minna 
Claessens (Belgl2), Un episode à Wa- 
terloo (Belgl3), Le Moulin maudit/ 
Maudite soit la guerre* (Belgl3), 
L'Agent Rifolo et son chien policier 
(Belgl3), De Droppel Bloed (Nethl3), 
La Ronde infernale (Belgl3), Supreme 
sacrifice (Belgl3), Au ravissement des 
dames* (Belgl3), Napoléon: du sacre 
à Sainte-Hélène (Frl4), La Tulipe d'or 
(Belgl4), La Bataille de la Somme 
(Frl6), La Bataille de Verdun (Frl7), 
Une nuit agitée (Fr20), Pervenche 
(Fr21) (5 episodes), Bêtes . . . comme 
les hommes (Fr23), Moi aussi, f accuse 
(Fr23), Le Manoir de la peur (Fr27), 
Le Retour (Fr28), De la jungle à l'écran 
(Fr29) Robinson Junior /Black and 
White (Fr31).] 

MACKENDRICK, Alexander DIR/SCEN Britain/ 
USA. (Boston, USA 1912- ) Undoubt- 
edly the best British director to develop 
in the immediate postwar years, a film 
maker whose work retained and even in- 
creased in assurance after the demise of 
Ealing. He began in advertising and 
wrote documentary films before joining 
Ealing as a scriptwriter. He established 
his reputation with his first directorial 
effort, Whisky Galore (48), a truculent 
film in which his own Scottish ancestry 
served him well. Though Mandy is over- 
sentimental and The Ladykillers is built 
on stereotypes and hackneyed themes 
from the Ealing heyday, The Man in the 
White Suit has the depth of a modern 
morality fable and The Maggie and 



Whisky Galore are delightful satires. He 
made one of the best American films of 
the Fifties, the mordant The Sweet Smell 
of Success, while the underestimated 
Sammy Going South, High Wind in 
Jamaica, and Don't Make Waves have 
extremely subtle, delicate, and individu- 
alistic styles. 

scen (notably): The Pocket Cartoon 
(41) (short). Carnival in the Clothes 
Cupboard (42) (short). Fable of the 
Fabrics (43) (short), Abu series (43) 
(4 shorts), and for Sinclair Hill, Mid- 
night Menace (37); for Basil Dearden, 
Saraband for Dead Lovers (48), The 
Blue Lamp (50); for Charles Crichton, 
Dance Hall (50); and for his own 
Whisky Galore, The Man in the White 
Suit. 

dir: Whisky Galore/Tight Little Island* 
(48), The Man in the White Suit* (51), 
Mandy /The Crash of Silence (52), The 
Maggie/High and Dry* (53), The Lady- 
killers (55), The Sweet Smell of Suc- 
cess* (USA57), Sammy Going South/ A 
Boy Ten Feet Tall (Brit62), A High 
Wind in Jamaica (Brit65), Don't Make 
Waves (USA67), Mary Queen of Scots 
(in preparation 71). 

MCLAREN, Norman ANiM Canada/Britain. 
(Stirling, Scotland April 11, 1914- ) 
Undoubtedly the greatest contemporary 
creator of animated films, a film maker 
who went back to the genre's roots, par- 
ticularly to the work of Emile Cohl 
iq.y. ), He has employed a wide range 
of techniques — drawing and painting di- 
rectly onto film (see Len Lye) and mak- 
ing use of crayons, synthetic sound, 
pixilation (animation of objects and peo- 
ple), stereoscopy, etc. [He studied at 
Glasgow Art School and made his first 
films as an amateur after seeing the films 
of Oskar Fischingcr (q.v.). In 1935 John 
Grierson (<7.v.) offered him a position 
with the GPO Film Unit, where he 
worked on both animated films and doc- 
umentaries. In 1939 he went to the USA 
and made several films there before 
joining the National Film Board of 
Canada in 1941. He has worked at the 
NFB ever since, except for several 
months in China, 1949-50, and in India, 
1953, training students in animation tech- 
niques.] He has said: "Animation is not 
the art of putting designs into motion 
but of designed motion. What happens 
between two images is more important 
than a single image. Animation is the 



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art of knowing properly how to treat 
the invisible spaces that exist between 
images." 

anim/dir: Seven Till Five (33) (docu- 
mentary), Camera Makes Whoopee 
(35), Color Cocktail (35), Hell Un- 
limited (36), Book Bargain (37) (docu- 
mentary), News for the Navy (37) (doc- 
umentary), Money a Pickle (37), Love 
on the Wing (37), The Obedient Flame 
(39), Allegro (USA39), Rumba (USA 
39), Stars and Stripes (USA39), Dots 
(USA40), Loops (USA40), Boogie Doo- 
dle (USA40), Spook Sport (USA40) 
(coliab: Mary Ellen Bute), Mail Early 
for Christmas (Canada41), V for Vic- 
tory (41), Hen Hop (42), Five for Four 
(42), Dollar Dance (43), Keep Your 
Mouth Shut (44), Chants populaires 
series (44-46) (supervised all and di- 
rected Alouette, 44, C'est l'Aviron, 45, 
Là-haut sur ces montagnes, 46), A Little 
Fantasy on a 19th Century Painting 

(46) , Hoppity Pop (46), Fiddle De Dee 

(47) , La Poulette grise (47), Begone 
Dull Care (49), Pen Point Percussion 
(50) (documentary on the making of 
synthetic sound), Around is Around 
(50) (3D film produced in collaboration 
with the British Film Institute), Now is 
the Time (51) (3D film prod: in col- 
laboration with the British Film Insti- 
tute), A Fantasy (52), Neighbors* (52), 
Two Bagatelles (52), Blinkity Blank 
(54), Rythmetic (54), A Chairy Tale* 

(57) (collab: Claude Jutra), Le Merle 

(58) , Serenal (59), Short and Suite (59), 
Mail Early for Christmas (59), Lines 
Vertical (60), Opening Speech (60), 
New York Light board (60), Lines Hori- 
zontal (62), Canon (64), Mosaic (65), 
Pas de deux (67), Spheres (69). Other 
work includes: photography for Ivor 
Montagu's Defense of Madrid (Brit36), 
credit titles for The Wonderful World 
of Jack Paar (USA59, TV series), credit 
titles for the animation compilation, 
Christmas Crackers (Canada63). 

MCLEOD, Norman Z(enos) DIR USA. (Gray- 
long Sept 20, 1898-1964) An unpreten- 
tious Hollywood craftsman whose name 
will always be associated with several 
outstanding burlesque comedies in the 
early Thirties, [though he is hardly the 
creative genius behind the Marx Brothers 
or W. C. Fields. He began as an ani- 
mator, then became a scriptwriter. In the 
Forties he directed Danny Kaye in his 



most famous film, The Secret Life of 
Walter Mitty, and also directed several 
Bob Hope comedies.] 
Dm (notably): Monkey Business* (31), 
Horse Feathers (32) (both with the Marx 
Brothers), Alice in Wonderland (33), 
It's a Gift (34) (both with W. C. Fields), 
Topper (37), Lady Be Good (41), The 
Kid from Brooklyn (46) (remake of 
The Milky Way), The Secret Life of 
Walter Mitty* (47) (both with Danny 
Kaye), Road to Rio (48), The Pale- 
face (48), My Favorite Spy (51) (all 
with Bob Hope). 

♦MADDOW, Ben (David Wolff) SCEN/DIR 
(? - ) Imaginative scriptwriter with 
an often potent style, though it is some- 
what elusive since he has worked under 
various pseudonyms. In the Thirties, 
under his real name, he was a poet, 
left-wing writer, and a member of Fron- 
tier Films, for whom he wrote the com- 
mentary for Native Land* (42). He 
moved to Hollywood under the name 
Ben Maddow and wrote several notable 
scripts, including The Asphalt Jungle 
and Intruder in the Dust, before being 
blacklisted during the McCarthy era. 
It has been suggested that he wrote 
several uncredited scripts for Huston 
(q.v.) and under commission to Yorden 
(q.v.). He has returned to scriptwriting, 
under the name Maddow, in the Sixties. 
He co-directed the documentary, The 
Bridge, and directed the ferocious por- 
trait of a decadent society, The Savage 
Eye, and the mediocre An Affair of the 
Skin. 

scen (notably): for Richard Wallace, 
Framed (47); for Norman Foster, Kiss 
the Blood off My Hands (48); for Henry 
Levin, The Man from Colorado (48); 
for Huston, The Asphalt Jungle* (50), 
The Unforgiven (60); for Clarence 
Brown, Intruder in the Dust* (49); for 
Fred Wilcox, Shadow in the Sky (51); 
for Charles Walters, Two Loves /Spinster 
(61); for Joseph Strick, The Balcony 
(63), for J. Lee Thompson, The Most 
Dangerous Man in the World (Brit69), 
for Kramer, The Secret of Santa Vittoria 
(69), for Paul Wendkos, The Mephisto 
Waltz (70). 

dir: The Bridge (44) (co-dir: W. Van 
Dyke), The Savage Eye (59) (co-dir: 
Sidney Meyers, Joseph Strick), An Af- 
fair of the Skin (63), Storm of Strangers 
(69) (short). 



Copyrighted material 



MAETZIO, Kurt Dm German Democratic 
Republic (Berlin Jan 25, 1911- ) Co- 
founder of DEFA, the East German film 
production company, in 1945, he estab- 
lished his reputation as one of the new 
postwar talents with the sincere and 
somewhat melancholic Ehe im Schatten 
(47) and Die Buntkarierten (49), both 
better than his ambitious Roman einer 
jungen Ehe (51) and the two Ernst 
Thalmann films (53, 55). 

MAGDALENO, Maurice SCAN Mexico. (Villa 
de Refugios May 13, 1906- ) He was 
Emilio Fernandez's (q. v.) usual script- 
writer and contributed much to such 
major successes of this director as Maria 
Candelaria* and Rio Escondido*. 

MAGGl, Luigt Dm Italy. (Turin Dec 21, 
1867-Turin Aug 22, 1946) An important 
pioneer of the Italian cinema who began 
his career as an actor in Piedmontese 
dialect theater and was the first in Italy, 
before Martoglio (q.v.), to use the cin- 
ema for descriptive realism. He used 
flashbacks in La Lampada della nonna 
(12) and parallel action in Satana (12) 
and might have influenced Griffith (q.v.) 
and perhaps Dreyer (q.v.). Also, nota- 
bly: Gli Ultimi giornii di Pompei (08), 
Galileo Galilei (08), La Fiaccola sotto 
il Moggio (11), Nozze doro (11), // 
Ponte del Fantasmi (12). 

MAKK, Korely DIR Hungary. (1925- ) 
Gifted and intelligent Hungarian film 
maker who emerged as a major talent in 
the Fifties after serving as an assistant 
since the end of the war. 
dir: Liliomfi (54), 9-es korterem/Ward 
No. 9 (55), Mese a tizenket talalatrolf 
Tale on the Twelve Points (56), Haz a 
sziklak alatt/The House Under the Rocks 

(58) , A 39-es dandar/ Brigade No. 39 

(59) , Fure iepni szabad /Don't Keep off 
the Grass (60), Megszallottak/The Fa- 
natics (61), Elveszett paradicsom/The 
Last Paradise (62), Az Utolso elotti em- 
ber/The Last But One (63), Mit csinalt 
felseged 3-5-ig/His Majesty's Dates (64), 
Isten es ember elott/Before God and 
Man (68). 

MALLE, Louis dir France. (Thumeries, 
Nord Oct 30, 1932- ) Former nouvelle 
vague film maker who established an 
international reputation with Les Amants 
(58) and has continued to make worth- 



while films. Though he has not yet made 
a masterpiece, he has at least been con- 
cerned with making each new film a 
development in both mastery of tech- 
nique and of subject, moving from the 
stylistic exercise of the commercial thrill- 
er, Ascenseur pour l'échafaud, to the 
elegant treatment of sexual passion in 
Les Amants, to zaniness verging on 
tragedy in Zazie dans le Métro and to 
the extension of narrative method in the 
portrait of a film star's life in Vie 
privée. [With Le Feu follet he reached 
a new level of assurance but, regrettably, 
his later features have been largely vivid, 
colorful confections. Since he made a 
TV documentary in Thailand in 1963 he 
has shown increasing interest in a kind 
of subjective TV journalism, most no- 
tably in his curious series on India. He 
graduated from IDHEC, served as Cou- 
steau's (q.v.) assistant from 1953, and 
was Bresson's (q.v.) assistant on Un 
condamné à mort s'est échappé*.] 
dir: Fontaine de Vaucluse (53) (short), 
Station 307 (55) (short), Le Monde du 
silence* (56) (co-dir: Cousteau), As- 
censeur pour l'échafaud (57), Les 
Amants* (58), Zazie dans le Métro* 
(60), Vie privée (61), Le Feu follet* 
(63), Twiste encore (63) (short, in Vive 
le Tour), Bons baisers de Bangkok (63) 
(TV short), Viva Maria (65), Le Voleur 
(66), Loin de Vietnam (67) (in part), 
Histoires extraordinaires/ A Tre Passl 
del Delirio (67) (one episode), Calcutta 
(69), India (70) (7 TV shorts), Le 
Souffle au coeur (71) 

MALRAUX, André dir France. (Paris Nov 
3, 1901- ) Famous French novelist, 
essayist, philosopher of art and former 
revolutionary militant, who, more re- 
cently, was prominent in the Gaullist 
movement and was Minister of State for 
Cultural Affairs in the Fifth Republic. 
He has, since his youth, retained a deep 
interest in the cinema. He wrote his 
famous essay Sketch for a Psychology 
of the Moving Pictures in 1940 (re- 
printed in English in Reflections on Art, 
1958, edited by Susanne K. Langer) and 
made the feature film Espoir* (38-45) 
in Spain during the Civil War. 

MALTZ, Albert SCEN USA. (New York 
Oct 28, 1908- ) Excellent American 
scriptwriter, one of the Hollywood Ten 
imprisoned in 1949 for contempt of Con- 



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gress. [He was blacklisted for many 
years: in 1957 he was hired by Frank 
Sinatra to write The Execution of Private 
Slovick, but the pressure of anti-Com- 
munist groups, and even of John F. 
Kennedy, forced Sinatra to withdraw 
his offer. He has recently returned to 
scriptwriting in his own name. He is 
also the author of several novels. His 
scripts had an occasional tendency to 
rather wordy sermonizing.] 
scen (notably): for Archie Mayo, Black 
Legion (36); for W. S. Van Dyke, They 
Gave Him a Gun (37); for Frank Tut- 
tle, This Gun for Hire (42), Moscow 
Strikes Back (42) (English adaptation 
of The Defeat of the German Armies 
Near Moscow, USSR 42, dir: I. Kopalin, 
L. Varlamov); for Delmer Daves, Des- 
tination Tokyo (43), Pride of the Ma- 
rines (45); for Fritz Lang, Cloak and 
Dagger (46); for Jules Dassin, Naked 
City* (48); for Don Siegel, Two Mules 
for Sister Sara (69). 

MAMOULIAN, Reuben DIR USA. (TifllS, 
Armenia Oct 8, 1898- ) Undeniably 
a film maker of enormous talent who 
contributed many innovations both to 
Broadway and to the American cinema. 
Originally a stage director (best remem- 
bered for his Porgy and Bess), his im- 
aginative Hollywood films — from the 
revolutionary Applause (29) to the first 
three-color Technicolor film, Becky Sharp 
(35) — marked him as one of the great 
individual talents, but his later work, 
mainly remakes and theatrical adapta- 
tions, is largely routine. 
dir: Applause (29), City Streets* (31), 
Dr. Jekyll and Mr Hyde (31), Love Me 
Tonight (32), The Song of Songs (33), 
Queen Christina (33), We Live Again 
(34), Becky Sharp (35), The Gay Des- 
perado (36), High, Wide, and Hand- 
some (37), Golden Boy (39), The Mark 
of Zorro* (40), Blood and Sand (41), 
Rings on Her Fingers (42), Summer 
Holiday (48), The Wild Heart (51), 
(replaced Michael Powell but uncred- 
ited), Silk Stockings* (57), Porgy and 
Bess (59) (replaced by Otto Preminger), 
Cleopatra (63) (replaced by Joseph L, 
Mankiewicz). 

MANKIEWICZ, Herman SCEN USA. (New 
York Nov 7, 1897-New York March 
7, 1953) Good American scriptwriter 
(brother of Joseph Mankiewicz) in Hol- 
lywood from 1926, best known for his 



close collaboration with Orson Welles 
(q.v.) on the script of Citizen Kane*. 
[His son, Don Mankiewicz (1922- ) 
is also a scriptwriter, e.g., Mark Rob- 
son's Trial (55), Robert Wise's / Want 
to Live (58).] 

MANKIEWICZ, Joseph Leo DIR/SCEN/PROD 
USA. (Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania Feb 
11, 1909- ) A skillful, cultivated, and 
intelligent film maker who has worked 
in many genres — thrillers, melodramas, 
theatrical adaptations, musical comedies, 
and social comedies — and has above all 
excelled in such comedies of social mores 
as A Letter to Three Wives and All 
about Eve, films that continued the Lu- 
bitsch tradition. The studied extravagance 
of The Barefoot Contessa brought him 
many admirers. [He began his career in 
Berlin in 1928 writing English subtitles 
for UFA and in 1929 joined Paramount 
(through his brother Herman) in Holly- 
wood, where he became a dialogue 
writer. In 1933 he became a scriptwriter 
and later a producer for MGM. He di- 
rected his first film in 1946 and, until 
1953, when he formed his own com- 
pany, Figaro, made all his films for 
20th Century-Fox. His contract with 
Fox to make Cleopatra involved the sale 
to Fox of Figaro. He has scripted and 
produced most of his own films.] His 
later films leaned heavily on the star sys- 
tem, though his excessively costly Cleo- 
patra played a part in the crisis of this 
system, and the search for new, less ex- 
pensive actors. 

[scen (notably): for Edward Sutherland, 
Fast Company (29); for James Cruze, 
etc., // / Had a Million (32); for Eddie 
Cline, Million Dollar Legs* (32); for 
Norman Z. McLeod, Alice in Wonder- 
land (33); for W. S. Van Dyke, Man- 
hattan Madness (34), Forsaking All 
Others (34), 7 Live My Life (35), Love 
on the Run (36); for Robert Leonard, 
After Office Hours (35); for Frank 
Borzage, Mannequin (38), Strange Cargo 
(40); for John Stahl, The Keys of the 
' Kingdom (44); and most of his own 
films.] 

dir: Dragonwyck (46), Somewhere in 
the Night (46), The Late George Apley 
(47), The Ghost and Mrs. Muir (47), 
Escape (48), A Letter to Three Wives* 
(49), House of Strangers (49), No Way 
Out (50), All About Eve* (50), People 
Will Talk (51), Five Fingers (52), Ju- 
lius Caesar (53), The Barefoot Contessa* 

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(54), Guys and Dolls (55), The Quiet 
American (58), Suddenly Last Summer 
(59), Cleopatra* (63) (replaced various 
directors), Carol for Another Christmas 
(64) (TV), The Honev Pot (67), There 
Was a Crooked Man (70). 
[prod The Three Godfathers (36). 
Fury* (36). The Gorgeous Hussy (36), 
Love on the Run (36). The Bride Wore 
Red (37), Double Wedding (37), Man- 
nequin (37), Three Comrades (38), J/je 
Shopworn Angel (38). 77ie Shining 
Hour (38). /4 Christmas Carol (38), 
77ie Adventures of Huckleberry Finn 
(39), .Srra«£<r Car#o (40). The Phila- 
delphia Story* (40). The Wild Man of 
Borneo (41), The Feminine Touch (41). 
Woman of the Year (42), Cairo (42), 
Reunion in France (42), 77ie Â>yj o/ 
//i* Kingdom (44), / Wan/ ro Live (58). 
and most of his own films.] 

MANN, Anthony (Emil Bundsmann) DTR USA. 
(San Diego June 3^ 1906-April 29, 1967) 
Although not the equal of a director such 
as Howard Hawks (q.v.), he is, like him, 
an excellent example of all that is best 
in the American cinema: a feeling for 
character and story, an efficient style, 
and an intelligent use of landscape and 
background. Originally a Greenwich Vil- 
lage actor, director, and stage manager, 
he was hired by Selznick (q.v.) in 1938 
as a talent scout. From 1938-42 he 
was a casting director and assistant, no- 
tably to Preston Sturges (q.v.) on Sulli- 
van's Travels. He began his directorial 
career with mediocre B-pictures (includ- 
ing the worst kind of pseudo historical 
melodramas like Reign of Terror) and 
established his reputation in the Fifties 
with a series of brilliant, classical west- 
erns: Winchester ZL The Naked Spur, 
The Man from Laramie, The Far Coun- 
try, Man of the West, and Cimarron. 
His sense of style allowed him to make 
El Cid one of the most notable of epics 
without falling victim to the enormous 
financial resources at his command. 
DIR: Dr. Broadway (42), Moonlight in 
Havana (42). Nobody's Darling (43). 
My Best Gal (43). Strangers in the 
Night (44). The Great Flamarion (45). 
Two O'Clock Courage (45), Strange Im- 
personation (45), Sing Your Way Home 
(45), Bamboo Blonde (46), Desperate 

(47) , Railroaded (47), T-Men (48). 
Raw Deal (48). He Walked By Night 

(48) (completed by Alfred Werker), 
Reign of Terror (49), Border Incident 



(49) . Side Street (49), Devil's Doorway 

(50) , The Furies (50). Winchester 71 
(50), Quo Vadis* £50J (2nd unit, dir: 
LeRoy), The Tall Target (51), Bend of 
the River /Where the River Bends (52). 
The Naked Spur (53), Thunder Bay 
(53). The Glenn Miller Story (54), The 
Far Country (55). Strategic Air Com- 
mand (55), The Man from Laramie 

(55) . The Last Frontier (56), Serenade 

(56) . Men in War (57), The Tin Star 

(57) , God's Little Acre (57), Man of 
the West* (58). Cimarron (60J (com- 
pleted by Charles Walters), Spartacus 
(60) (replaced by Stanley Kubrick after 
directing the opening). El Cid* (61), 
The Fall of the Roman Empire (64), 
The Heroes of Telemark (Brit65), A 
Dandy in Aspic (Brit67) (completed by 
Laurence Harvey after Mann's death). 

MANN, Daniel dir USA. (New York Aug 
8j 1912- ) His moving adaptation of 
William Inge's play Come Back Little 
Sheba (52) could have led to his being 
taken for a film maker, but in fact he has 
remained true to his theatrical back- 
ground, photographing Broadway suc- 
cesses (and occasionally novels) for the 
Hollywood screen: The Rose Tattoo 

(55) , Teahouse of the August Moon 

(56) , Hot Spell (58), Butterfield & (60). 
Judith (65), etc. 

MANN, Delbert dir USA/Britain. (Law- 
rence Jan 30, 1920- ) Like Daniel 
Mann, he is more of a conscientious 
adaptor of stage and literary successes 
than a film maker, though his back- 
ground is more as a producer in TV 
(47-55) than in the theater. His first 
(and best) films, Marty* (55), Bachelor 
Party* (57), and The Middle of the 
Night (59), owe much, if not all, to 
Paddy Chayevsky (q.v.). [Also directed, 
notably, Separate Tables (58). Desire 
under the Elms (58). The Dark at the 
Top of the Stairs (60), The Outsider 
(62). That Touch of Mink (62). Quick 
Before It Melts (65). Fitzwilly (67). 
David Copperfield (Brit69), Jane Eyre 
(Brit70).] 

MAREY, Etienne Jules INVENTOR France. 

(Beaune March 5, 1830-Paris May 16^ 
1904) Brilliant French physiologist whose 
pioneering work on the development of 
photographic techniques for the study 
of animal locomotion directly influenced 
the invention of cinematography. His 



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Chronophotographe (1888), at first used 
with opaque film then with transparent, 
was the first piece of equipment that had 
the characteristics of a modern camera 
-apart from the use of sprockets and 
sprocket holes to guide the film. His 
communication of his work to the French 
Academy of Sciences in 1888 was re- 
ported around the world and seems to 
have influenced Edison, Le Prince, Skla- 
danowsky, Friese-Green, Le Roy, Lu- 
mière, and others working on the de- 
velopment of the projection of moving 
pictures on a screen. He was more in- 
terested in analyzing movements through 
slow speed and high speed studies than 
in synthesizing movement for exhibition 
purposes, but his work was seminal to 
the invention of the cinema. 
1859: Doctoral thesis on animal locomo- 
tion. 1865-67: First experiments with a 
graphic method for studying locomotion, 
using a pen that traced curves to record 
movement. 1869: Experiments in record- 
ing schematically the movements of a 
galloping horse. 1872-77: In California, 
Le I and Stanford hears of Marey's work 
and asks Muybridge (q.v.) to develop 
Marey's photographic techniques to set- 
tle a bet. 1882: Muybridge travels to 
Paris and meets Marey, who is impressed 
by his photographs. 1882-1888: Muy- 
bridge's work and the invention of the 
dry gelatino-bromide plate convince 
Marey to use photography. He first used 
a fusil photographique (the photo-gun) 
derived from the French astronomer 
Janssen's revolver photographique. He 
began work on the Chronophotographe, 
originally on a fixed photographic plate, 
then on a moving plate, and finally, in 
1888, on Kodak roll film. 1890-96: Im- 
perfect projections onto a screen in the 
laboratory. 



Years (59), Fapados szerelem/A Simple 
Love /Third-class Love (59), Hosszu at 
ut hazaig/It's a Long Way Home (60), 
Prohaut II est Trip (60), Pirosbetus het- 
koznapok/ Every Day Sunday (Hung/ 
Czech62), Karambol/ Goliath (64), Fu- 
gefalevel/Fig Leaf (66), Kotelek/ Bond- 
age (68). 

MARION, Frances scen USA. (San Fran- 
cisco Nov 18, 1888- ?) Hollywood 
scriptwriter who provided several notable 
scripts for some of the best directors of 
the Twenties and furnished Garbo and 
Valentino with some excellent roles. 
Though she worked on many routine 
commercial vehicles, her work with 
Henry King, Sjôstrôm, King Vidor, Cu- 
kor, and George Hill testifies to her 
talents. 

scen (notably): for Frank Borzage, 
Humoresque (20); for Paul Powell, Pol- 
lyanna (20); for Frances Marion, The 
Love Light (20); for Frank Lloyd, The 
Eternal Flame (22), Within the Law 
(23); for Henry King, Stella Dallas* 

(25) , The Winning of Barbara Worth 

(26) ; for Sjôstrôm, The Scarlet Letter* 
(26), The Wind* (28); for Edmund 
Goulding, Love (27); for Clarence 
Brown, Anna Christie (30); for George 
Hill, The Big House* (30); for King 
Vidor, The Champ (31); for George 
Cukor, Dinner at Eight* (33); for 
Jacques Feyder, Knight Without Armor 
(Brit37); for James Whale, Green Hell 
(40). 

MARISCHKA, Ernst Dm Austria. (Vienna 
Jan 2, 1893- ) After long experience 
in Viennese operetta with his brother 
Hubert (Vienna 1882-Vienna 1959), he 
directed Sissi/ Forever My Love (56) and 
the ensuing continuations. 



MAR I ASSY, Félix Dm Hungary. (1919- ) 
Good Hungarian film maker with a lyri- 
cal style and a special talent for family 
comedies in a working-class background. 
He has worked in films since 1939 and 
was Radvanyi's assistant on Somewhere 
in Europe*. 

dir: Szabone/Ann Szabo (49), Kis Kata- 
lin hazassaga I Catherine' s Marriage (49), 
T elfes gozzel/Full Steam Ahead (51), 
Rokonok/ Relatives (54), Egy pikolo vil- 
agos/A Glass of Beer (55), Budapest/ 
Spring in Budapest (55), A Legend of 
the Suburbs (57), Csempeszek/ Smug- 
glers (58), Almatlan evek/ Sleepless 



MARKER, Chris (Christian François Bouche- 
Vil le neuve) dir France. (Neuilly sur 
Seine July 29, 1921- ) A leader of 
the Left Bank group of film makers who 
has made numerous brilliant, personal, 
socially committed, often witty docu- 
mentaries: Dimanche à Pékin, Lettre de 
Sibérie, Cuba Si. [He began his career 
as a writer (Chris Marker is only one 
of several pseudonyms) and a jour- 
nalist who traveled around the world be- 
fore making his first film in 1952. He 
has been described as the cinema's first 
essayist, making films in a variety of 
styles but always on a subject of con- 



168 



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ted material 



ccrn to him.] André" Bazin wrote: "He is 
a member of that new generation of 
writers who feel that the era of the image 
has arrived but that it is not, however, 
necessary to sacrifice language . . . For 
him, the commentary is not something 
added onto the images but almost the 
primary, fundamental element." How- 
ever, it should not be forgotten that he 
used cinéma-vérité techniques in Le Joli 
Mai, a film in which the commentary 
is subordinate to the interrelationship of 
images and interviews. 
dir: Olympia 52 (52), Les Statues meur- 
en taussi (53) (co-dir: Resnais), Dim- 
anche à Pékin (55), Le Mystère de Y atel- 
ier 15 (57) (co-dir: Resnais, A. Hein- 
rich), Lettre de Sibérie (57), Les Astro- 
nautes (59) (co-dir: W. Borowczyk), 
Description d'un combat (60), Cuba 
SU* (61), La Jetée* (62, released 64), 
Le Joli mai* (63), Le Mystère Koumiko 
(65), Si j'avais 4 dromadaires (66), 
Loin de Vietnam (67) (in collab), 
Rhoudiacéta (69), La Bataille des 10 
millions (70). 

[commentary: for Ruspoli, Les Hommes 
de la Baleine (56); for Paviot, Django 
Reinhardt (57); for Languepin, Des 
Hommes dans le ciel (58); for Vogel, Ce 
siècle a soif (58), La Mer et les jours 
(58); for Ivan s, A Valparaiso (63); for 
Haroun Tazieff, Le Volcan interdit (66).] 

martelli, oieiio PHOTOQ Italy. (Rome 
May 10, 1903- ) An assistant in the 
silent days, he developed a reputation 
after World War H for his often som- 
ber photography, particularly for the 
films of Fellini (q.v.) and De Santis 
(<?.v.). 

[photog (notably): for Blasetti, Vecchta 
Guardia (34); for Rossellini, Paisa* 
(46), Amore (47), Stromboli (49); for 
De Santis, Caccia Tragica* (47), Riso 
Amero* (49), Roma Ore 11* (52); for 
Fellini, Luci del Varieta* (50), / Vitel- 
loni* (53), La Strada* (54), // Bidone* 
(55), La Dolce Vita* (59), Boccaccio 
'70 (62) (also De Sïca episode); for 
Mario Soldati, La Donna del Fiume 
(55); for Réné Clément, La Diga sul 
Pacifico (58); for Dassin, La Loi (58); 
for Emmer, La Ragazza in Vetrlna (60); 
for Bolognini, La Mia Signora (64), / 
Tre Volti (64), La Donna è una cosa 
meravigliosa (65). 

MARTIN-DUNCAN, f. DIR Britain. (? - 
?) A professional biologist and the 



most important pioneer of the science film 
with his series of microscopic studies 
for Charles Urban: Natural History 
series (03), Unseen World series (03), 
Marine Studies series (05), etc. He later 
worked on the Secrets of Nature series 
(1924 on) as consulting editor. 

MARTOGUO, Nino dir Italy. (Catania Dec 
3, 1870-Catania Sept 13, 1920) With a 
background in naturalistic Sicilian dialect 
drama, he made two masterpieces Sper- 
duti nel Buio* (14) and Teresa Raquin* 
(15), both precursors of Italian neo- 
realism. 

MARX Brothers: Greueho (Julius) (New York 
1895- ), Chico (Leonard) (New York 
1891-1961), Harpo (Adolph) (New York 
1893-1964) These three masters of an- 
archic comedy and zaniness were largely 
responsible for their own films, though 
they were, in fact, "directed" by other 
hands: Cocoanuts (29), Animal Crack- 
ers* (30), Monkey Business* (31), 
Horse Feathers (32), Duck Soup* (33), 
A Night at the Opera* (35), A Day at 
the Races (37), Room Service (38), At 
the Circus (39), Go West* (40), The 
Big Store (41), A Night in Casablanca 
(46), Love Happy (50). [They also ap- 
peared, separately, in other films. Orig- 
inally there were two other brothers: 
Gummo, who left the act at an early 
date, and Zeppo (New York 1901- ) 
who left after playing romantic support- 
ing roles in their first five films.] 

MASEUI, Francesco Dm Italy. (Rome Dec 
9, 1930- ) After working as Antoni- 
oni's (q.v.) assistant (47-50) and mak- 
ing two shorts, he made a remarkable 
debut in feature films, at the age of 23, 
with his episode in Amore in Città (53), 
and then confirmed his talents and vision 
of the world in Gli Sbandati (55). How- 
ever, his youthful spirit was not evident 
in his later films, La Donna del Giorno 
(56), / Delfini (60), Gli Indifferent! 
(63), etc. 

MATE, Rudolf (ofso Rudolph, Rudy) (Rudolf 
Mothéh) photog Germany/France/USA 
dir USA. (Cracow 1898-Hollywood 
Nov 1964) The famous cameraman on 
Dreyer's Passion de Jeanne d'Arc and 
Vampyr, he began his career as assistant 
to Alexander Korda (q.v.) in Hungary, 
became assistant cameraman to Karl 
Freund in Germany in 1925, and might 



169 



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be considered as merely a conscientious 
technician for Dreyer if his work for 
other directors were not often equally 
remarkable, e.g., Le Dernier Milliardaire, 
Gilda, Foreign Correspondent. He began 
directing in 1947, but his work, mostly 
adventure films, is almost totally medi- 
ocre. 

[photog (notably): for Dreyer, La Pas- 
sion de Jeanne d'Arc* (Fr28), Vampyr* 
(Fr/Ger31); for A. Genina, Prix de 
beauté (Fr29); for Clair, Le Dernier 
Milliardaire* (Fr34); for Fritz Lang, 
Llliom (Fr34); for Wyles, Hawks, Come 
and Get It* (USA36); for King Vidor, 
Stella Dallas* (USA37); for Leo Mc- 
Carey, Love Affair (USA39); for Hitch- 
cock, Foreign Correspondent (40); for 
Tay Garnett, Seven Sinners (40); for 
Lubitsch, To Be or Not to Be (USA42); 
for Charles Vidor, Cover Girl (USA44), 
Gilda* (USA46). 

Dm (notably): The Dark Past (48), No 
Sad Songs for Me (50), Union Station 
(50), When Worlds Collide (51), Mis- 
sissippi Gambler (53), The Violent Men/ 
Rough Company (55), The Rawhide 
Years (56), Three Violent People (56), 
Serenade einer Grossen Liebe (GFR58), 
For the First Time (59), The 300 Spar- 
tans (It62), Seven Seas to Calais (It62).] 

MATH IS, Juno scen/ed USA. (Leadvfllo 
188?-New York July 27, 1927) Com- 
mercially successful Hollywood script- 
writer and sometime editor in the Twen- 
ties— The Four Horsemen of the Apoc- 
alypse* (21), Ben Hur* (26), and others 
— who was also responsible for the final 
mutilated version of Stroheim's Greed*. 

MATRAS, Christian photog France. (Val- 
ence Dec 29, 1903- ) Masterly French 
cameraman who drew on his early ex- 
perience in documentaries and newsreels 
when he shot Epstein's L'Or des mers 
and Renoir's La Grande Illusion. He 
later developed a fluid, impressionistic 
style and a use of color to which Ophiils 
postwar French period films owe much. 
[photoo (notably): for Epstein, L'Or 
des mers* (32); for Renoir La Grande 
Illusion* (37); for Marc Allégret, Entrée 
des artistes (38); for Georges Lampin 
L'Idiot* (46); for Christian-Jaque, Boule 
de suife* (45), Fanfan la tulipe* (52); 
for Jean Dellanoy, Les Jeux sont faits 
(47); for Cocteau, L'Aigle à deux têtes 
(47); for Ophiils, La Ronde* (50), Le 
Plaisir* (52), Madame De . . .* (53), 



Lola Montés* (55); for Becker, Mont- 
parnasse 19 (57); for Clouzot, Les Es- 
pions (57); for Franju, Thérèse Des- 
queroux (62); for Clair, Les Fêtes Gal- 
antes (65); for Bunuel, La Voie lactée 
(68).] 

MATTSSON, Ara* Din Sweden. (Uppsala 
Dec 2, 1919- ) A director whose best 
period was in the early Fifties, when he 
made not only the extraordinary por- 
trait of adolescent passion. One Summer 
of Happiness* (51), but also several 
dramas, notably, Woman in White (49) 
and Salka Valka (54). His later work 
suffers from poor scripts but is often 
visually imaginative, e.g., his remake of 
The Phantom Chariot* (58). 

MAURO, Humbert© Dm Brazil. (Volta 
Grande April 30, 1897- ) A pioneer of 
Brazilian cinema and an important film 
maker with a profoundly cinematic vi- 
sion, ingenuous but not naive, whose 
work is unfortunately little known out- 
side Brazil. As a self-taught former 
electrician, he was drawn to the cinema 
by his delight in westerns, serials, and 
the films of Stroheim (q.v.) and as an 
amateur made his first film, Valadiao o 
Cratera (25) in tribute to them. He was 
soon discovered and supported by the 
film society movement in Brazil and 
directed a series of unique features that 
are indebted to no one: Te sour o Per- 
dido, Brasa Dormida, and Sangre Min- 
eiro. Though the plots of his society 
dramas are often clichéd, he had a re- 
markable feeling for images and back- 
grounds, a highly original conception 
of filmic space, and an impassioned feel- 
ing for people and the landscapes of his 
country. Ganga Bruta (33) is his best 
film and a landmark in the history of the 
Brazilian cinema. Mauro's use of erotic 
symbolism in the film earned him the 
name "the suburban Freud." Argila was 
his last major work: the difficulties of 
the Brazilian film industry forced him 
after that to restrict his activities mainly 
to directing short documentaries. He is, 
nevertheless, a great film maker who will 
inevitably one day receive the interna- 
tional reputation he deserves. 
Dm: Valadiao o cratera (25) (amateur 
documentary), Na Primavera da Vida 
(26), Tesouro Perdido (28), Sangre 
Mineiro (28), Brasa Dormida* (28), 
Labios sem Beijos (30), Mulher (32), 
Ganga Bruta* (33), Voz do Carnaval 



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(34), Faveta dos Meus Amores (34), 
Cidadè Mulher (37), O Descobrimento 
do Brasil (37), Argila* (40) (co-dir: 
Carmen Santos), Os Bandeirantes (40), 
Licao de Taxiderma (50), O Canto de 
Sandade (52), Joco de Barro (55). 

MAY, Job (Joseph Mandai)» Dm Germany/ 

USA. (Vienna Nov 7, 1880-HolIywood 
May 5, 1954) A pioneer of the German 
cinema (which he saw mainly as an en- 
tertainment industry), he began directing 
in 1911, founded his own company in 
1914, and directed the first German 
serials and thrillers — Stuart Webb series 
(13-14), Veritas vinctt (18), etc. He 
gave Fritz Lang (q.v,) his first oppor- 
tunities as scriptwriter on Hilde Warren 
und der Tod (17), Dos Indische Grab- 
ma!, I and II/r/ie Mysteries of India/ 
Above the Law (21), etc Under the in- 
fluence of Kammerspiel and New Ob- 
jectivity he directed his two best films, 
Heimkehr/ Homecoming (28) and As- 
phalt* (29). He moved to Hollywood 
in 1934 and directed mainly B-pictures: 
The Invisible Man Returns* (40), The 
House of Seven Gables (40), Johnny 
Doesn't Live Here Any More (44), etc. 

MAY, Pawl (Paul Ostermayr) DIR German 
Federal Republic. (Munich May 9, 1909- 
) Talented West German director best 
known for his trilogy - 08/15 (54), 
08/15, H teil (55), 08/15 In der Heimat 
(55) — based on Hans-Helmuth Kirst's 
novels about an ordinary soldier in the 
war. 

MAYER, Carl scen Germany. (Graz Feb 
20, 1894-London July 1, 1944) The most 
original scriptwriter during the most cre- 
ative period of the German cinema, 
1920-30, [Who "had the soul and eyes 
of a poet — a poet who wrote in visual 
images rather than in words'* (Gabriel 
Pascal). He was not a voluminous writer, 
as Ivor Montague wrote: "We have only 
to run over the record of Mayer's work 
to see how many original conceptions 
it includes, to see how often in their re- 
alization good directors, good camera- 
men, good actors and actresses achieved 
each the outstanding performances of 
their careers, to realize what a powerful 
original force in the team was there at 
work. His influence pervaded and mould- 
ed all his colleagues." He was originally 
an actor and literary manager.] His first 
script (with Hans Janowitz), The Cabinet 



of Dr. Callgarl (19) was the first expres- 
sionist masterpiece but, after Genuine 
he abandoned the fantastic and grotesque 
to concentrate primarily on the everyday 
life of ordinary people in their usual sur- 
roundings. These Kammerspiel films (he 
was also the principal theoretician of 
Kammerspiel) are distinguished by their 
strict unity of time, place, and action, 
their naturalistic, spare style, their air 
of finality and social destiny, their "typi- 
cal" characters, their avoidance of ex- 
planatory titles, and the significance of 
their sets and objects as symbols or 
metaphors. After Backstairs, his first, 
somewhat unsuccessful, attempt at this 
approach, he created the brilliant "tril- 
ogy" of Scherben, Sylvester, and The Last 
Laugh. He was also a brilliant adaptor, 
most notably in his fluent treatment of 
Stendhal's Vanina Vaninl for Arthur 
von Gerlach (q.v.). New Objectivity 
also benefited from his work, since Rutt- 
mann's Berlin, The Symphony of a Great 
City was based on his original ideas. 
[When Murnau left for Hollywood in 
1927, Mayer was invited to accompany 
him. He declined, but nevertheless wrote 
for Murnau perhaps his most poetic 
screen ballad, Sunrise. He worked on two 
films for Czinner, left Germany in Janu- 
ary 1933 when Hitler rose to power, and 
settled in England. He wrote no more 
scripts but was associated with Gabriel 
Pascal on Pygmalion* (38) and Major 
Barbara (40), worked with documentar- 
ist Paul Rot ha {q.v.), and was adviser to 
the Two Cities production company.] 
scen: for Robert Weine, Dos Cabinett 
des Dr. Caligari* (19) (co-scen: Jano- 
witz), Genuine (20), Tragikomodie (22), 
Der Puppenmacher von Kiang-Ning 
(23); for Hans Kobe, Brandherd (20); 
for Murnau, Der Buckllge und die Tan- 
zerin (20), Der Gang in die Nacht (20), 
Schoss Vogelôd (21), Phantom (22), 
Der Letzte Mann* (24), Tartuffe (25), 
Sunrise* (USA27), Four Devils (USA 
28); for Karl Gerhardt, Johannes Goth 
(20); for Lupu Pick, Das Lachende 
Grauen (20), Grausige Nâchte (21), 
Scherben* (21), Sylvester* (23); for 
Leopold Jessner and Paul Leni, Die 
Hintertreppe (21); for Arthur von Ger- 
lach, Vanina oder die Galgenhochzelt 
(22); for Leopold Jessner, Erdgeist (23); 
for Carl Boese, Die Letzte Droschke von 
Berlin (26) (7); for Paul Czinner, Ariane 
(31), Der Trdumende Mund (32) (and 
remake, 1953). Also: ideas for Karl 



171 



Grunc's Die Strasse* (23), Am Ran Je 
der Welt (27). and for Walther Rutt- 
man's Berlin — die Symphonie einer 
Grosstadt* (27); "consultant" on Paul 
Rotha's The Fourth Estate (Brit40). 

•MAYER, Louis B[urr] pRoo USA. (Russia 
1885? 18827-Hollywood Oct 29, 1957) 
A typical example of a Hollywood ty- 
coon, he was for many years the produc- 
tion chief of MGM. He emigrated with 
his parents from Russia (original Chris- 
tian names and birthdate uncertain) to 
New Brunswick, Canada, and was at 
first a scrap-metal dealer before becom- 
ing involved in show business as a the- 
ater owner and the owner of a film ex- 
change in Boston. In 1915 he formed 
Metro Pictures Corporation with three 
partners, sold out in 1917, worked for 
various companies, and finally estab- 
lished his own Louis B. Mayer Produc- 
tion Company. When Loew's Inc. ac- 
quired Metro and, later, Goldwyn, Mayer 
was named vice-president and general 
manager of the new production company 
— which eventually became MGM. He 
was a great believer in the star system 
and built up the fortunes of MGM in 
the Thirties with a wide range of talented 
actors, directors, and technicians. After 
an internal company struggle, he was 
forced to resign in 1951. 

MAYSLES, Albert (1933- ) and David 
(1931- ) Dm USA. Sensitive, intelligent 
cinéma vérité film makers. Former cam- 
eramen for Leacock (q.v.) — Drew — 
Pennebaker on, e.g., Primary*, Yanki 
No!*, they have made a number of shorts 
together, a portrait of the American pro- 
ducer Joseph E. Levine, Showman (62), 
and The Beatles in New York (64), 
Salesman (69), Gimme Shelter (70). 

MEERSON, Lozor* ART DiR France/Britain. 
(Russia 1900-London June 1938) The 
most influential art director of the Twen- 
ties and Thirties, a designer whose studio- 
built street scenes and sets for Feyder 
(q.v.) and Clair (q.v.) broke com- 
pletely away from expressionism, im- 
pressionism, and conventional studio 
"naturalism" to create an ambience at 
once realistic and poetic. He is undoubt- 
edly one of the major contributors to 
the development of French poetic re- 
alism. His early death ended a remark- 
able career, but even in the Sixties many 
French designers (some of them his 



former assistants) were still profiting 
from his lessons. 

art DiR (notably): for Feyder, Gribiche 

(25) , Carmen* (26), Les Nouveaux 
Messieurs* (28), Le Grand jeu* (34), 
Pension mimosas* (35), La Kermesse 
héroïque* (35), Knight without Armour 
(Brit37); for L'Herbier, Feu Mathias 
Pascal* (25), (co: Cavalcanti), L'Ar- 
gent (29), Le Parfum de la dame en 
noir (31); for Clair, La Proie du vent 

(26) , Un chapeau de paille d'Italie* 

(27) , Les Deux timides (28), Sous les 
toits de Paris* (30), Le Million* (31), 
A nous la liberté* (31), Quatorze juillet 

(32) , Break the News (Brit37); for Rich- 
ard Oswald, Cagliostro (29); for Duvi- 
vier, David Colder (30); for W. Thiele, 
Le Bal (31); for J. Choux, Jean de la 
lune (31); for Autant-Lara, Ciboulette 

(33) ; for Fedor Ozep, Amok (34); for 
Marc Aîlégret, Les Beaux jours (35); 
for dinner As You Like It (Brit36); 
for King Vidor, The Citadel (Brit38). 

MEHBOOB KHAN, Ramjakhan DIR/PROD In- 
dia. (Bilimora 1907-Bombay 1964) Orig- 
inally an actor, he began directing in 
1935 and established his own production 
company in Bombay in 1942. His early 
films - Bread, The Only Life- have so- 
cial themes but it was his spectacular 
Aan that brought him the greatest suc- 
cess; its popularity in the Middle East, 
Asia, and Africa gave the Indian film 
industry new access to the large inter- 
national market. His Mother India had 
equal success. Although adventure films, 
they are not devoid of power and beauty 
in their imagery. 

DiR (notably): Roti/Bread (36), Watan 
(36), We Three (39) (a version of 
Devdas*), Aural/ 'Woman (40), Manno- 
han (40), Ekhi Rosta/The Only Life 
(41), Jadirdar (42), Andaz (42), Huma 
Gun Anmogaldl (46), Amar (48), Aan/ 
Savage Princess* (52), Motlier India 
(57), Son of India (60). 

MEMES, George* DiR France. (Paris Dec 
8, 1861-Paris Jan 21, 1938) He is the 
father of the narrative cinema, the first 
director of story films and the first man 
in the world to decide consciously that 
he wanted to make films; he is the Giotto 
and Ucello of the seventh art, the artist 
who guided its initial development Orig- 
inally an itinerant conjuror, in 1888 he 
purchased the Théâtre Robert Houdin, 
where he staged many illusionist spec- 



172 



oupynyr 



taclcs. He attempted to purchase a 
Lumière Cinématographe from Antoine 
Lumière (q.v.) for 10,000 francs and 
when this was refused, he purchased a 
Bioscope from William Paul in London 
and installed it in his theater. The first 
presentation was on April 5, 1896 and 
soon thereafter Méliès established his 
Star Film company and began produc- 
tion of simple films. The following year 
he constructed on his property at Mon- 
treuil-sous-Bois a film studio with a stage 
and theatrical machinery and there made 
films using not only all the usual the- 
atrical resources — actors, costumes, sets, 
scripts, make-up, etc. — but also new 
cinematic tricks that he invented. In 
this, his approach was radically different 
from that of Lumière, who was busy 
recording "life as it happened." Though 
he very soon abandoned the use of 
natural sets in favor of carefully de- 
signed studio re-creations, he did not 
totally abandon reality for fantasy. His 
first long film (about 650 ft.), L'Affaire 
Dreyfus (1899), is also the first film 
committed to expressing a particular so- 
ciopolitical viewpoint, while one of his 
last films, La Civilisation à travers les 
âges (08), is a tract directed against war, 
violence, and intolerance. His greatest 
speciality was fantasy films (Cendrillon, 
Barbe-Bleue, Le Royaume des fées, 
L'Ange de Noël, La Fée Carabosse) and 
his amusing science fiction films in the 
Jules Verne manner (A la conquête du 
Pôle, 20,000 lieues sous les mers, Le 
Voyage à travers l'impossible, Le Voy- 
age dans la lune). This latter film, made 
in 1902, brought him international fame 
and, for a time, a financial fortune. Its 
worldwide success also assured the in- 
ternational future of the story film and 
so marks the true birth of the motion 
picture art and industry. For some years 
Méliès was able to devote himself to his 
delight in fantasy, tricks, and illusions. 
He gave free rein to his mischievous im- 
agination in dozens of films, all marked 
by their rhythm, visually inventive de- 
signs, and marvelous sense of detail — 
though he never completely abandoned 
his identification of stage with screen. 
However, the formidable machine he 
had set in motion soon became bigger 
than the individual artist Better business- 
men than he plagiarized his ideas and 
built up monopolies and trusts that over- 
ran his modest Montreuil company. 
Techniques he had developed were 



adopted everywhere and, after 1908, he 
lost touch with the rapid evolution of 
the cinema. Once a rich man, he was 
completely bankrupt at the end of the 
First World War and was reduced to 
selling toys and candies in a Paris Métro 
station. His talents were unwanted, his 
films forgotten. But, before he died in 
a rest home, several young film enthusi- 
asts (including Henri Langlois) redis- 
covered some of his masterpieces and 
restored them and the artist who made 
them to their rightful place in the an- 
nals of film history. 

dir: some 500 films, of which the fol- 
lowing is a selection: Une partie de 
cartes (first film), Séance de prestidigita- 
tion, Plus fort que le maître, Un bon 
petit diable, Escamotage d'une dame chez 
Robert Houdin, Le Fakir Mystère Indien, 
Sauvetage en rivière, Une nuit terrible, 
Cortège du Tzar allant à Versailles (ail 
1896); Paulus chantant (3 films), Le 
Malade Imaginaire, Episode de guerre, 
Le Cabinet de Mephistophélès, Après le 
bal/Le Bain de la Parisienne, Vente 
d'esclaves au harem, Magie diabolique, 
La Cigale et la Fourmi, En cabinet par' 
ticulier, L'Auberge ensorcelée (ail 1897); 
Le Cuirassé Main, Pygmalion et Galatée, 
Damnation de Faust, La Caverne mau- 
dite, Rêve d'artiste, L'Homme de tête, 
La Tentation de Saint Antoine, La Lune 
a un mètre (ail 1898); Un vol dans la 
tombe de Cléopâtre, La Danse de feu, 
L'Affaire Dreyfus*, Le Coucher de la 
mariée. Le Diable au couvent, Le Christ 
marchant sur les eaux, Le Miroir de 
Cagliostro, Cendrillon, L'Homme Protée 
(ail 1899); L'Exposition de 1900, 
L'Homme orchestre, Jeanne d'Arc*, Le 
Livre magique, Le Rêve de Noël, Le 
Déshabillage impossible, L'Homme qui 
a des roues dans la tête. Une maison 
tranquille (ail 1900); Le Petit Chaperon 
rouge, Barbe-bleue, L'Homme à la tête 
de caoutchouc, Le Diable géant/Le Mir- 
acle de la Madone, L'Oeuf magique 
prolifique, La Danseuse microscopique 
(ail 01); L'Eruption du mont Pelé, Le 
Voyage dans la lune*, Le Voyage de 
Gulliver à Lilliput et chez les géants, 
Les Adventures de Robinson Crusoe 
(all 02); Le Cake-Walk infernal, Le 
Mélomane, Le Royaume des fées, La 
Lanterne magique, Faust aux enfers, Le 
Rêve du maître de ballet (ail 03); Ben- 
venuto Cellini I Curieuse évasion, Damna- 
tion du Dr. Faust, Le Barbier de Seville, 
Le Voyage à travers l'impossible* (ail 



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04); L'Ange de Noël, Le Palais des Mille 
et une nuits, La Tour de Londres, Le 
Raid Paris-Monte Carlo en deux heures, 
La Legènde de Rip Van Winkle (all 05); 
Jack le ramoneur, La Magie à travers 
les âges. Les Incendiaires, Les 400 farces 
du diable, La Fie carabosse, Les Affiches 
en goguette, Les Bulles de savon animées 
(ail 06); 20,000 lieues sous les mers, Le 
Tunnel sous la Manche, Hamlet*, Shake' 
speare écrivant 'Jules César 1 , Eclipse du 
soleil en pleine lune (ail 07); Le Tam- 
bourin fantastique, La Civilisation à 
travers les âges, 1* Génie du feu, La 
Prophétesse de Thèbes, L'Habit ne fait 
pas le moine, La Rêve d'un fumeur 
d'opium, La Curiosité punie Lulli, Tar- 
tarln de Tarascon, Rivalité d'amour, La 
Fée Libellule, L'Ascension de la rosière. 
Conte de la grand-mère et rêve de Ven- 
font, Pochardiana, Le Génie des cloches, 
La Poupée vivante (ail 08); Hydro- 
thérapie fantastique, Les Illusions fan- 
taisistes, Les Papillons fantastiques. Si 
fêtais roi, L'Homme aux mille inven- 
tions, Le Mousquetaire de la reine (ail 
09-10), Les Hallucinations du baron de 
Munchhausen* (11), A la conquête du 
Pole* (12), Le Chevalier des neiges 
(13), Le Voyage de la famille Bour- 
richon (13). 

MELVILLE, J«on-Pi«rre (J.an-Piwe Grunbach) 

dir France. (Paris Oct 20, 1917- ) 
Interested in the cinema from an early 
age, he made many amateur films as an 
adolescent, founded his own production 
company in 1945, and made a good debut 
on his first feature, Le Silence de la mer 
(47), notable for its exemplary fidelity to 
the original story. His next film, Les En- 
fants terribles, was of lesser quality, and 
Deux hommes dans Manhattan was a 
failure. Quand tu liras cette lettre (53) 
allowed him to construct his own film 
studio and achieve commercial success 
with Belmondo in Léon Morin, prêtre 
and le Doulos. [Melville is fascinated 
by the dark, urban universe of crime, 
which has dominated his work since his 
first underworld film, Bob le Flambeur 
(55), except for Léon Morin. Even his 
austere lament for the French Resistance, 
L'Armée des ombres, reveals his interests; 
its taut, economical, unflamboyant style 
is a continuation of that- developed in 
his masterly trio of gangster films, Le 
Doulos, Le Deuxième souffle, and Le 
Samouraï, in which he ritualized the 
gangster genre to create deep tragedies 



of love and loyalty, betrayal and deceit 
He has scripted all his own films except 
Quand tu liras cette lettre and has worked 
on the photography and editing of some 
of them. He has also appeared as an 
actor in several films, including his own 
Deux hommes dans Manhattan, Coo 
teau's Orphée*, and Godard's A bout 
de souffle*.] 

Dm: Vingt-quatre heures de la vie d'un 
clown (45) (short). Le Silence de la 
mer* (47), Les Enfants terribles (49), 
Quand tu liras cette lettre (53), Bob le 
Flambeur (55), Deux hommes dans 
Manhattan (58), Léon Morin, prêtre* 
(61), Le Doulos /The Fingerman (62), 
L'Aîné des Ferchaux (63), Le Deuxième 
souffle (65), Le Samouraï (67), L'Armée 
des ombres (68), Le Cercle rouge (70). 

*MENZEL, jirî Dm Czechoslovakia. ( 1938- 
) The youngest member of the new 
Czechoslovak cinema of the Sixties, a 
film maker with a delicious sense of wry 
comedy drawn from everyday situations. 
He graduated from the state film school 
in 1963 and directed his first professional 
feature in 1965. He enjoys acting and 
has appeared in many films, including 
his own. 

dir: The Death of Mr. Foerster (63) 
(graduation film), Perlicky na dne /Pearls 
at the Bottom (65) (one episode), 
Zlocin v divci skole/Crime at the Girl's 
School (65) (one episode), Ostre sledo- 
vane vlaky /Closely Watched Trains* 
(66), Rozmarne Leto/ Capricious Sum- 
mer (68), Zlocin v santanu/ Crime at 
the Nightclub (69), Skrlvancl na nitich/ 
Larks on a String (70). 

MENZIES, William Cameron ART DIR/DIR 

USA. (New Haven, Connecticut July 
29, 1896-Hollywood March 5, 1957) 
Perhaps the most famous of Hollywood 
art directors and certainly one of the 
most imaginative, he was a designer with 
a baroque and abundantly lavish style in- 
fluenced by German expressionism. His 
work as a director is of far less interest, 
except for his famous Things to Come — 
memorable more for his set designs than 
his direction. 

art Dm (notably): for Lubitsch, Rosita 
(23); for Raoul Walsh, The Thief of 
Bagdad (24); for Howard Hawks, Fig 
Leaves (26); for Sam Taylor The Tem- 
pest (27); for Norman Z. McLeod, Alice 
in Wonderland (33); for Norman Tau- 
rog, The Adventures of Tom Sawyer 



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(38); for Victor Fleming, Gone With 
the Wind* (39); for Hitchcock, Foreign 
Correspondent (40); for Milestone, Arch 
of Triumph (48); for Anthony Mann, 
Reign of Terror (49); for Michael An- 
derson, Around the World in 80 Days 
(56); and for his own Things to Come, 
Chandu the Magician, Drums in the 
Deep South. 

[dir (notably): Chandu the Magician 
(32) (co-dir: M. Varnel), Things to 
Come (Brit36), The Green Cockatoo 
(Brit40), Address Unknown (44), Drums 
in the Deep South (51), Whip Hand 
(51), Invaders from Mars (53), The 
Maze (53).] 

•MESSTER, Olkar Edward INVENTOR/PROD/ 
dir Germany. (Berlin Nov 21, 1866- 
Tegernsee Dec 7, 1943) Pioneer of the 
German cinema who, after taking over 
his father's optical laboratory in 1895— 
96, patented his own Kinematograph 
system for transporting film through a 
camera without jerking. He established 
his own production company in 1896 
and released 84 of his own films the 
following year. He produced all his com- 
pany's films until 1913 and directed 
many until 1910. The first German film 
star, Henry Porten, began under his 
aegis, as did Emil Jannings, Lil Dagover, 
Conrad Veidt, etc. His various companies 
for production, distribution, and the 
manufacture of film equipment came un- 
der UFA control in 1917, but he con- 
tinued as a producer until 1924. 

•METZNER, Erno art dir Germany /USA 
dir Germany. (Hungary 1892- ) One 
of the most important German designers 
of the naturalist school, notable for his 
association with Pabst (q.v.) on Diary 
of a Lost Girl, Westfront 1918, and 
Kameradschaft. He also directed several 
silent German films and his Der Ueber- 
fall was a major contribution to the 
naturalistic movement. He left Germany 
in 1933, worked briefly in France and 
Britain, then settled in Hollywood. 
art dir (notably): for Lubitsch, Sumu- 
run (20), Das Weib des Pharao (21); 
for Hans Behrendt, Alt-Heidelberg/The 
Student Prince (23); for Anton von 
Cserepy, Fridericus Rex (23) (co: Hans 
Dreier); for Karl G rune, Arabella (24); 
for Friedrich Feher, Hotelgeheimnisse 

(28) , The Robber Symphony* (Brit36); 
for Pabst, Tagebuch einer Verlorenen* 

(29) , Die Weisse Hoik vom Piz PalQ 



(29), Westfront 1918* (30), Kamerad- 
schaft* (31), Die Herrin von Atlantis/ 
L'Atlantide* (32), Du haut en bas (Fr 
33); for Walter Forde, Chu Chin Chow 
(Brit34); for René Clair, // Happened 
Tomorrow (USA43); for Zoltan Korda, 
The Macomber Affair (USA47), and 
for most of his own films. 
dir (notably): Salome (22) (co-dir: L. 
Kozma), Man Steigt Nach (27), Der 
Ueberfall/Polizeibericht Ueberfall/A cci- 
dent (28), Rivalen im Weltrekord (32). 

MEYER, George pseud MUNDVILLER, Jos«ph- 
Louis {q.v.) 

MEYER, Paul DIR Belgium. (Limai Sept 
29, 1920- ) Excellent Belgian film 
maker notable for a very beautiful cine- 
matic short story, Klinkart (57), and a 
feature on the miners of the Borinage, 
Déjà s'envole la fleur maigre* (60). 

•MEYERS, Sidney (also Robert Stebbins) DIR/ 
ed/scen USA. (1906-1969) Best known 
as director of The Quiet One* (48), but 
also a major contributor to the indepen- 
dent, realist school of film-making over 
some 30 years. He entered films in 1934 
as a film critic under the name, Robert 
Stebbins, and under that name was a 
founder member of Frontier Films in 
1936. With Frontier Films he worked 
as writer-producer on China Strikes Back, 
as co-director on People of the Cumber- 
land (38), The White Flood (39-40) 
and The History and Romance of Trans- 
portation (41), and as sound editor on 
Native Land*. During the war he was 
American editor for British Information 
Services and then chief film editor for 
the Office of War Information (The 
Cummington Story, etc.). He directed 
and produced independently The Quiet 
One and later worked as an editor in 
Hollywood, e.g., Ritt's Edge of the City* 
(56). In 1959 he directed (with Joseph 
Strick and Ben Maddow) The Savage 
Eye, a ferocious portrait of a decadent 
society. His last work was as editor on 
Joseph Strick's Tropic of Cancer (69). 

MICHEL, Andre dir France. (Paris Nov 7, 
1910- ) Sensitive, intelligent, individual- 
istic film maker who began his career 
with two successes - the short, La Rose 
et le Réséda (45), and the feature, Trois 
femmes (52) — but found himself out of 
favor with the French film industry of 



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the Fifties, which was not propitious to 
newcomers. 

MILER, zdonak a ni m Czechoslovakia. 
(Kladno Feb 21, 1929- ) He made a 
remarkable debut with the strange and 
powerful The Man Who Stole the Sun 

(48) and then made numerous children's 
cartoons before regaining his originality 
in The Red Stain (63). 

MILESTONE, Lewis dir USA. (Russia Sept 
30, 1895- ) In the early sound period 
he was one of the best American direc- 
tors, but his work since has never quite 
matched this earlier promise. He made, 
one after another, the beautiful classic 
war film, All Quiet on the Western Front 

(30) , and the extraordinary cinematic 
comedy-thriller adaptation, Front Page 

(31) . [He emigrated to the USA in 1913, 
started working in 1918 as assistant to 
King, Ince, and Sennett (all q.v.) and 
as an editor, and directed his first film 
in 1925. He has also worked as stage 
and TV producer.] 

dir: Seven Sinners (25), The Cave Man 
(26), The New Klondike (26), Two 
Arabian Nights (27), The Garden of 
Eden (28), The Racket (28), Betrayal 
(29), New York Nights (29), All Quiet 
on the Western Front* (30), Front 
Page* (31), Rain (32), Hallalujah, I'm 
a Bum (33), The Captain Hates the 
Sea (34), Paris in the Spring (35), 
Anything Goes (36), The General Died 
at Dawn (36), Night of Nights (39), 
Of Mice and Men (39), Lucky Partners 
(40), My Life with Caroline (41), Edge 
of Darkness (43), North Star/ Armored 
Attack (43), The Purple Heart (44), 
A Walk in the Sun /Salerno Beachhead* 

(45) , The Strange Love of Martha Ivers 

(46) , Guest in the House (46), (replaced 
John Brahm), No Minor Vices (48), 
Arch of Triumph (48), The Red Pony 

(49) , The Halls of Montezuma (50), 
Kangaroo (52), Les Misérables* (52), 
Melba (53), They Who Dare (Brit54), 
The Widow (55), Pork-Chop Hill (59), 
Ocean's Eleven (60), Mutiny on the 
Bounty (62), (remake, replaced Carol 
Reed), PT-109 (63) (completed by Les- 
lie Martinson), The Dirty Game (66) 
(replaced by Terence Young). 

MILHAUD, Darius mus France. (Aix-en- 
Provence Sept 4, 1892- ) This great 
French composer has been interested in 
the cinema since the Twenties and has 



written several distinguished film scores. 
mus (notably): for L'Herbier, L'Inhu- 
maine* (23), La Citadelle du silence 

(37) , La Tragédie impériale (38); for 
Cavalcanti, La P'tite Lilie (28); for 
Bunuel, Las Hurdes* (32); for Jean 
Painlevé, L'Hippocampe* (34); for Re- 
noir, Madame Bovary (34); for Curtis 
Bernhardt, 77»e Beloved Vagabond (Brit 
38); for Robert Siodmak, Mollenard 

(38) ; for Malraux, Espoir* (39); for 
Hans Richter, Dreams That Money Can 
Buy (USA46); for Nicole Vedrès, La 
Vie commence demain (50); for Albert 
Lewin, The Private Affair of Bel Ami 
(USA47); for Resnais, Gauguin (50). 

MILLER, Arthur scen USA. (New York 
Oct 17, 1915- ) Distinguished Ameri- 
can playwright who has written one 
original film script, The Misfits* (61), 
for his ex-wife, Marilyn Monroe, and 
contributed to the script of Cukor's 
Let's Make Love (60). Several of his 
plays have been adapted for the cinema: 
All My Sons (48) (dir: Irving Reis), 
The Death of a Salesman* (52) (dir: 
L. Benedek), Les Sorcières de Salem 
(Fr/GDR56), A View from the Bridge 
(61) (dir: Sidney Lumct). 

•MILLER, Arthur C. PHOTOG USA. (c.1895- 

July 1970) Professional craftsman in 
Hollywood since the early Twenties, a 
winner of several Oscars and best known 
for his contributions to How Green Was 
My Valley* (41), The Ox-Bow Incident* 
(42), The Song of Bernadette (43), The 
Razor's Edge (46), Anna and the King 
of Siam (46), A Letter to Three Wives* 
(48), The Gunfighter (50). 

MIMICA, Vatreslav anim/dir Yugoslavia. 
(Dalmatia 1923- ) A leading light of 
the Zagreb school, a highly original ani- 
mator with an acid sense of comedy and 
a somewhat mannered graphic style. [He 
began his career as an art director, then 
directed three features before turning to 
animation for nine years. He has since 
returned to directing features.] 
anim (notably): The Storm (55), The 
Scarecrow (57), Alone /The Lonely Man 
(58), Happy Ending (58), At the Pho- 
tographer's (58), The Egg (60), The 
Inspector Goes Home (60), A Little 
Story (62), Typhoid (63), Perpetual 
Motion (63). 

[dir.- U oluji/In the Storm (52), Jubilej 
G. Ikla/Mr. Ikla's Jubilee (55), Soli- 



176 



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mano il Conquistare (It61), The Tele- 
phone (62) (short), Mr. Marzipan's 
Marriage (63) (short), Prometej sa otoka 
Visevice /Prometheus from Visevica Is- 
land (65), Ponedeljak Hi utorak/ Mon- 
day or Tuesday (66), Kaja, ubit eu te/ 
Kaya, TU Kill You (67).] 

MlNNElll, Vincnt. dir. USA. (Chicago 
Feb 28, 1913- ) Former set and cos- 
tume designer of Earl Carroll's Vanities 
and the Ziegfeld Follies, whose films 
at their best have an excellent, some- 
times exhilarating, sense of visual de- 
sign and color, but at their worst are far 
less baroque than mid-Thirties Hollywood 
rococo. His specialty has always been 
musical comedy and, in this genre, he 
has made several excellent films, largely 
in the florid MGM tradition - with Fred 
Astaire, Yolande and the Thief, Zieg- 
feld Follies, and The Band Wagon; with 
Gene Kelly, The Pirate, An American in 
Paris, and Brigcdoon; with Judy Gar- 
land, Meet Me in Saint Louis. He has 
been less at home with literary adapta- 
tions and failed to capture the French 
atmosphere in Madame Bovary, Gigi, 
and The Four Horsemen of the Apoc- 
alypse because he drew on Hollywood 
stereotyped effects rather than on his 
own experiences of the country that he 
likes and knows quite well. Deprived of 
musical support, his films often end up 
as mere melodramas or statically photo- 
graphed theater. He considers that "the 
search for an appropriate style is as im- 
portant for a dramatic comedy as for a 
dramatic film. A story must be told in 
the most stylistic way to allow the in- 
troduction of a little magic. It isn't al- 
ways easy to capture shades of meaning.** 
DIR: Cabin in the Sky (42), / Dood It 
(43), Meet Me in Saint Louis* (44), 
The Clock/Under the Clock (45), Zieg- 
feld Follies (45), Yolanda and the Thief* 
(45), Undercurrent (46), The Pirate 
(47), Madame Bovary (49), Father of 
the Bride (50), An American in Paris* 
(51), Father's Little Dividend (51), The 
Bad and the Beautiful (52), The Band 
Wagon (53), The Story of Three Loves 
(53) (one episode), The Long, Long 
Trailer (54), Brigadoon* (54), Kismet 

(55) , The Cobweb (55), Lust for Life 

(56) , Tea and Sympathy (56), Design- 
ing Woman (57), Gigi (58), The Re- 
luctant Debutante (58), Some Came 
Running* (58), Home from the Hill 
(60), Bells Are Ringing (60), The Four 



Horsemen of the Apocalypse* (62) (re- 
make), Two Weeks in Another Town 

(62) , The Courtship of Eddie's Father 

(63) , Goodbye Charlie (64), The Sand- 
piper (65), On a Clear Day You Can 
See Forever (69). Also directed some 
sequences of The Seventh Sin (57), dir: 
Ronald Neame, during the latter's illness. 

•MIRISCH, Walter M. PROD USA. (Nov 8, 

1921- ) After ten years (1947-57) 
as a producer of cheap B-films he joined 
with his brothers, Harold (1907-1968) 
and Marvin (1918- ), in founding 
Mirisch Brothers, the most successful of 
the independent production companies 
in the Sixties, under whose banner many 
popular successes appeared. Walter 
Mirisch has continued to play an active 
role as producer on the company's films, 
notably: Man of the West* (58), The 
Magnificent Seven* (60), West Side 
Story* (61), Two for the Seesaw (62), 
The Children's Hour (62), The Great 
Escape (63), Toys in the Attic (63), 
The Pink Panther (64), Hawaii (66), 
The Russians Are Coming, the Russians 
Are Coming (66), The Fortune Cookie 
(66), In the Heat of the Night (67), 
The Hawaiians (70), The Landlord (70), 
They Call Me "Mister" Tibbst (70). 

misraki, Paul mus France. (Istanbul Jan 
28, 1908- ) Composer with an often 
mystical, Middle-Eastern style, at his 
best creating atmosphere music for psy- 
chological thrillers and poignant trag- 
edies. 

mus (notably): for Decoin, Retour à 
Vaube (38), Battement de coeur (39); 
for Clouzot, Manon (48); for Yves 
Allégret, Les Orgueilleux (53); for Or- 
son Welles, Confidential Report/Mr. 
Arkadin* (55); for Vadim, Et Dieu créa 
la femme* (56); for Bunuel, Le Mort 
en ce jardin (56), La Fièvre monte à 
El Pao (59); for Becker, Montparnasse 
19 (57); for Chabrol, Les Cousins* 
(58), A double tour (59), Les Bonnes 
femmes* (59); for Godard, Alphaville* 
(65). 

*miyagawa, Kazuo PHOTOO Japan. (Ky- 
oto 1908- ) One of the most distin- 
guished Japanese cinematographers, es- 
pecially skilled in tracking shots, who 
has made important contributions to 
the work of Mizoguchi (q.v.) and Ichi- 
kawa (q.v.). 

photog (notably) : for Kurosawa, Rasho- 



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mon* (50), Yojimbo (61); for Mizo- 
guchi, U get su Monogatari* (53), Gion 
Festival Music (53), Sansho Dayu* (54), 
Uwasa no Onna (54), Chikainatsu Mon- 
ogatari (54), Shin Heike Monogatari 
(55), Akasen Chitai (56); for Ichikawa, 
Enjo* (58), Kagi (59), flo*c/if (60), 
Ototo (60), (61), Zen/ no Odori 

(64), Tofcyo Olympiad (64); for Ito, 
TA* Cay Masquerade (58), 77i« Woman 
and the Pirates (59), Kwwr Sa&uro 
(60); for Ozu, Floating Weeds (59); for 
Mori, A Certain Killer (67); for Kcnji 
Misumi, Devil's Temple (69). 

♦mizoguchi, Kenji DiR Japan. (Tokyo 
May 16, 1898-Kyoto Aug 24, 1956) 
One of the great artists of the Japanese 
cinema, a director whose film career 
spanned 34 years and some 90 films. His 
style involved the distillation of the es- 
sence of a situation with the minimum 
of images, incorporating all the elements 
of design, composition, and fluid camera 
movements. Throughout his career he 
had a deep interest in feminine psy- 
chology and, since the Thirties, his films 
tended to follow a unified thematic pat- 
tern: an elucidation of the conflicts in 
past and present societies, usually cen- 
tered on portraits of the feminine condi- 
dition within that society. Like most 
directors, he had his share of "imposed'* 
commercial films, especially in the first 
years of his career and under the mili- 
tarist regime. But those on which he was 
a completely free agent, and especially 
those on which he worked with script- 
writer Yoshikata Yoda (from 1936), re- 
veal his interests: a basic humanism 
and a concern for an absolute social 
good and evil. He designed his scripts 
carefully in advance, often polishing and 
repolishing for months until he was satis- 
fied, before filming quickly in a short 
period of time. In 1954 he said: "It is 
important to reflect for five or six years 
before beginning a film." He studied as 
a painter, drifted into film acting, and, 
after the introduction of female actresses 
and the ensuing strike of female im- 
personators, became a director's assistant 
and then a director in 1922. From then 
on he was a very prolific film maker. 
His first films were routine thrillers and 
melodramas, but in films like Harbor in 
the Fog (23) his concern for pictorial 
qualities was already evident. In 1925 
he became interested in the social "ten- 
dency" film and made Street Sketches 



in the "slice of life" technique. The fol- 
lowing year he made in a similar style, 
A Paper Doll's Whisper of Spring, of 
which he said, "it was at this time I be- 
gan to find my voice." In 1929 he made 
not only his first Meiji-mono film set in 
the Meiji period (1868-1912), but two of 
his most famous films, both concerned 
with contemporary social issues, Tokyo 
March and Metropolitan Symphony. 
This latter film (long disappeared and 
never shown outside Asia) used dynamic 
montage in the Russian manner and 
seems to have anticipated in some way 
French poetic realism, Italian neorealism, 
and the work of the postwar Japanese in- 
dependents. After 1930 and Nevertheless, 
They Go On (31)— a sympathetic film 
about the proletariat that suffered severe 
censorship difficulties — he turned increas- 
ingly to period films in an attempt to 
avoid the restrictions imposed on con- 
temporary themes, though he occasion- 
ally had to make patriotic "policy" films. 
In 1936 he made his first two master- 
pieces, Naniwa Elegy and The Sisters 
of Gion: "It was at this time that I began 
to use my technique of never changing 
a set-up during a sequence, leaving the 
camera immobile at a certain distance 
from the action. ... I have tried to 
use it very spontaneously as the most 
precise and specific expression for in- 
tense psychological moments. . . ." After 
the war he made a series of impassioned 
films that he characterized as "barbarous 
... I think at that time I had been 
accumulating a sense of resentment dur- 
ing the long war period that I wanted 
to work off on something. You could 
call this 'Mizoguchi's postwar style* or 
else the misplaced bravura of an old 
man." The last six years of his life con- 
tained a succession of brilliant films, in- 
cluding his greatest films, O'Haru, Gion 
Festival Music (a remake of Sisters of 
Gion), Sansho the Bailiff, Chikamatsu 
Monogatari, and, above all, U get su Mon- 
ogatari, of which he said: "I'm not happy 
with the result. Personally, I think the 
original novel has a more lasting qual- 
ity. For example, the man played by 
Ozawa shouldn't change his mind at 
the end but continue his ambitious social 
climb regardless. But Daiei didn't want 
this ending and forced me to change it." 
O'Haru (52) can lay justifiable claim to 
being his most perfect film; it is certainly 
the most characteristic example of his 
work, both as a portrait of social prcdes- 



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tination seen through the eyes of a 
woman and in its simple, perfectly 
constructed and controlled style, with 
extensive use of the moving camera. 
In 1950 he spoke of his life and 
work: "To tell you the truth I have 
not yet made a film that pleases me 
... It was only when I passed forty 
that I began to understand the human 
truths I want to express in my films. 
And since then, the cinema has become 
an extremely difficult art for me . . ." 
dir: Ai ni Yomigaeru Hi/Resurrection 
of Love (22), Furusato/ Home Town 
(22), Seishun no Yumeji/Dream of 
Youth (22), Joen no Chimata I Harbor 
of Desire (22), Haizan no Ufa Wa 
Kanashi/The Song of Failure (22), 813/ 
Rupimono/The Adventures of Arsène 
Lupin (22), Chi to Rei/ Blood and Soul 
(22), Kiri no Minato i 'Harbor in the 
Fog /Foggy Harbor (23), Yoru/The 
Night (23), Haikyo no Naka/ln the 
Ruins (23), Toge no U ta/ The Song of 
the Mountain Pass (23), Kanashiki 
Hakuchi/The Sad Idiot (24), Gendai no 
Jo-on/The Queen of Modern Times (24), 
Josei wa Tsuyoshi/ Strong is the Female 
(24), Jin-kyo/This Dusty World (24), 
Shichimencho no Yukue /The Trace of a 
Turkey/Turkeys in a Row/Turkeys: 
Whereabouts Unknown (24), Samidare 
Zoshi/ Chronicle of the May Rain (24), 
Kanraku no Onnal Woman of Pleasure 
(24), Aka-tsuki no Shi /Death in the Dawn 

(24) , Kyokubadan no Jo-O/ Queen of 
the Circus (24), Musen Fusen/No 
Money, No Fight (25), Gakuso o Idete/ 
Out of College (25), Shirayuri wa Na- 
geku/The White Lily Laments (25), 
Akai Yuhi ni Terasarete/ Under the Crim- 
son Sunset (25), Daichi wa Hohoemu/ 
The Earth Smiles (25), A-a Tokumukan 
Kanto/Ah, the Special Service Vessel 

(25) (one episode), Furusato no Uta( 
The Song of Hometown (25), Ningen/ 
The Human Being (25), G ai jo no Su- 
ketchi/A Sketch on the Road/Street 
Sketches/Street Scenes (25) (one epi- 
sode), Nogi Taisho to Kuma-San/ Gen- 
eral Nogi and Kuma-San (25), Doka-of 
The Copper Coin King (26), Kami 
Ningyo Haru no Sasayaki/A Paper Doll's 
Whisper of Spring (26), Shin Onoga 
Tsumi/It's My Fault (26), Kyoren no 
Onna Shisho/The Passion of a Woman 
Teacher /The Love-Mad Tutoress (26), 
Kaikoku Danji/The Boys from the Sea/ 
The Boy from the Navy (26), Kane 
(or Kin) /Money /Gold "(26), Ko-on/ 



The Imperial Grace (27), Jihi Shincho/ 
The Cuckoo (27), Hito no lssho/A Man's 
Life (27) (in 3 parts), Musume Ka- 
waiva/My Loving Daughter (28), Nihon 
Bashi/The Nihon Bridge (29), Tokyo 
Koshin-Kyoku/ Tokyo March (29), Asahi 
wa Kagayaku/The Morning Sun Shines 
(29), Tokai Kokyogaku/ Metropolitan 
Symphony /Symphony of the Metropolis/ 
City Symphony* (29), Tojin Okichi/ 
Okichi, Mistress of a Foreigner (30), 
Furusato/ Hometown (30), Shikamo 
Karera wa Iku/ Nevertheless, They Go 
On/ And Yet They Go On (31), Manmo 
Kenkoku no Reimei/Dawn in Manchu- 
ria/The Dawn of the Founding of Man- 
chuko (32), Toki no Ujigami/The Man 
of the Right Moment/Timely Mediator 

(32) , Taki no Shiraito/fhe White 
Threads of the Waterfall (33), Gion 
Matsuri/Gion Festival (33), Shimpu- 
Ren/The Shimpu Group (also known 
as Kamikaze-Ren /The Kamikaze Group) 

(33) , Aizo to Ge/The Mountain Pass 
of Love and Hate (34), Orizuru O-Scnf 
The Downfall (34), Maria no O-Yuki/ 
O'Yuki, the Virgin (35), Gubijinso/The 
Poppies (35), Naniwa Ereji/Naniwa 
Hika/Naniwa Elegy /Osaka Elegy* (36), 
Gion no Shimai/The Sisters of Gion* 
(36), Aienkyo/The Straits of Love and 
Hate (37), A-a Furusato/ A-a Kokyo/ 
Ah, My Hometown (38), Roei no Uta/ 
The Song of the Camp (38), Zangiku 
Monogatari/The Story of the Late Chry- 
santhemums (39), Naniwa Onna/ Woman 
of Naniwa/The Woman of Osaka(40), 
Geido Ichidai O toko /The Life of an 
Actor (41), Genroku Chushingura (Part 
I) /The 47 Ronin/The Loyal 47 Ronin 
of the Genroku Era* (41), Genroku 
Chushingura (Part \\) /The 47 Ronin* 
(42), Danjuro Sandai/Three Generations 
of the Danjuro Family/Three Danjuros 
(44), Hissyo ka/Song of Victory (45), 
Musashi Miyamoto/Miyamoto Musashi, 
the Swordsman (45), Meito Bijo-Maru/ 
Bijo-Maru, the Noted Sword (45), Josei 
no Shori/The Victory of Women/ 
Women's Victory (46), Utamaro o Me- 
guru Gonin no Onna/ Utamaro and His 
Five Women (46), Joyu Sumako no Koi/ 
The Love of Sumako, the Actress (47), 
Yoru no Onnatachi/ Women of the Night 

(48) , Waga Koi wa Moenu/My Love 
Has Been Burning/Flame of My Love 

(49) , Y uki Fujin Ezu/ Picture of Ma- 
dame Y uki/ Sketch of Madame Y uki 

(50) , Oyu-Sama/Miss Oyu (51), Musa- 
shino Fujin/ Lady Mushashino (51), Sai- 



Copy righted material 



kaku Ichidai Onna/The Life of O'Haru/ 
The Life of a Woman by Saikaku/ 
O'Haru* (52), Ugetsu Monogatari /Tales 
of the Pale and Silvery Moon After the 
Rain* (53), G ion Bayashi/Cion Festival 
Music* (53), Sansho Dayu/The Super- 
intendent Sansho/Sansho, the Bailiff* 
(54), Uwasa no Onna/The Woman of 
Rumor I The Crucified Woman (54), 
Chikamatsu Monogatari/ A Story from 
Chikamatsu/The Crucified Lovers* (54), 
Yokihi/The Empress Yang Kwei-Fei/ 
The Princess Yang* (55), Shin Heike 
Monogatari /New Tales of the Taira 
Clan/Saga of the Taira Clan/The Sacri- 
legious Hero (55), Akasen Chitai/ Street 
of Shame /Red-Light District (56), Osaka 
Monogatari/ An Osaka Story (56) (com- 
pleted by Kimisaburo Yoshimura (q.v.) 
after Mizoguchi's death). 

MOCKY, Jean-Pierre (Jean Moki.jewtkî) DIR 

France. (Nice July 6, 1929- ) Former 
actor (e.g., Franju's La Tête contre les 
murs*) who turned full time director 
after the commercial success of his first 
film, Les Drageurs (59), and has since 
made Un couple (60), Les Snobs (61), 
Les Vierges (63), Un drôle de paroissien 
(63), La Grande frousse (64), La Bourse 
et la vie (65), Les Compagnons de la 
Marguerite (66), La Grand lessive (68), 
L'Etalon (69), Solo (69). L'Albatros 
(70). 

MOGUY, Ltonlde (leenlde Maguittvtky) 

dir France/USA/Italy. (St. Petersburg 
July 14, 1899- ) Former director of 
newsreels and short* who emigrated to 
France in 1929 and worked as an editor, 
technical supervisor, and journalist be- 
fore directing his first feature. He spent 
the war years in the USA. As a director, 
he was much involved in the themes he 
handled and made several successful 
films, including: Prison sans barreaux, 
Je t'attendrai, and Domani e troppo 
Tardi. 

[dir: Le Mioche (Fr36), Prison sans 
barreaux (38), Conflict (38), Je t'atten- 
drai (39), L'Empreinte du Dieu (40), 
I'll Wait for You (USA41) (remake, ? 
under name, Robert B. Sinclair), Paris 
After Dark (44), Action in Arabia (44), 
Whistle Stop (45), Bethsabee (Fr46), 
Domani e troppo Tardi (It49), Domani 
e un altro Giorno (It49), Les Enfants 
de l'amour (Fr53), Le Long des troit- 
toirs (56), Donnez-moi ma chance (57), 
Les Hommes veulent vivre (67).] 



molander. Guttaf dir/scen Sweden. 
(Helsinki Nov 18, 1888- ) Though 
not the equal of Stiller (q.v.) or Sjôs- 
trom (q.v.), he started his career along- 
side them — first as a stage actor, then 
as a scriptwriter, and later as a director 
— during the great period of the Swedish 
cinema. He was able to continue some- 
thing of their tradition during the low 
period, 1925-40, and thus laid the 
groundwork for the renaissance of the 
Swedish cinema. He directed most of 
Ingrid Bergman's Swedish films (Sweden' 
hielms, On the Sunnyside, Intermezzo, 
Dollar, A Woman's Face) and Ingmar 
Bergman's second script (Woman With' 
out a Face) was written for him. 
[scen (notably): for Konrad Tallroth, 
Millers dokument (16); for Sjôstrôm, 
Ter je Vigen (17); for Stiller, Thomas 
Graal's Best Film (17), Thomas Graal's 
First Child (18), Song of the Scarlet 
Flower (19), Sir Arne's Treasure* (19), 
Gunnar Hede's Saga* (23); and for 
many of his own films.] 
dir: Bodakungen/King of Boda (20), 
Thomas Graals myndling/Thomas Graal's 
Ward (22), Amatôrfilmen/The Amateur 
Film (22), 33.333 (24), Polls Paul us 
paskasmall/ Constable Paulas' s Easter 
Bomb (25), Ingmarsarvet/The Ingmar 
lnheritance(25), Till Osterland/To the 
Orient (26), Hon, den enda/She the Only 
One (26), Hans engelska fru/His En- 
glish Wife (27), Fôrseglade lap par/ 
Sealed Lips (27), Parisskor /Woman of 
Paris (28), Synd/Sin (28), Hjârtats 
triumf /Triumph of the Heart (29), Fri- 
das Visor I F rida' s Song (30), Charlotte 
Lôwenskôld (30), En natt/One Night 

(31) , Svarta rosor /Black Roses (32), 
Kdrlek och kassabrist/Love and Deficit 

(32) , Vi som gar koksvSgen/We Go 
Through the Kitchen (32), Kara Sldktcn/ 
Dear Relatives (33), En stille flirt /A 
Quiet Affair (33), Fosters Millioner/ 
My Aunt's Millions (34), Ungkarspap- 
pan/Bachelor Father (34), Swedenhielms 

(35) , Under falsk flagg/Under False 
Colors (35), Brôllopsresan/The Honey- 
moon Trip (36), Pa so! si dan /On the 
Sunny Side (36), Intermezzo (36), 
Familjens hemlighet/The Family Secret 

(36) , Sara Vdr sig folkvett/Sara Learns 
Manners (37), Dollar (38), En Kvinnas 
ansikte/A Woman's Face (38), En enda 
natt/One Single Night (38), Ombyte 
fomofer /Variety is the Spice of Life 
(39), Emilie Hogquist (39), En, men ett 
Lejon/One, But a Lion (40), Den Lju- 



Copyrighted material 



sonde framtld/ Bright Prospects (41), / 
nait eller aldrig I Tonight or Never (41), 
Stridcn gar v id are /The Fight Goes on 
(41), Jacobs stege/ Jacob's Ladder (42), 
Rid i mtt I Ride Tonight (42), Det Brin- 
ner en eld/ There Burned a Flame (43), 
Alskling, fag ger mig/Darling, I Sur- 
render (43), Ordet/The Word* (43), 
Den Osynliga muren/The Invisible Wall 
(44), Kejsarn av Portugallien/The Em- 
peror of Portugal (44), Galgamannenf 
Mandragora (45), Det Ar min modell/ 
If s My Model (46), Kvinna utan an- 
sikte/ Woman Without a Face (47), Nu 
bôrjar livet/Life Begins Now (48), Eva 
(48), Kdrleken segrar/Love Will Con- 
quer (49), Kvartetten som Sprangdes/ 
The Quartet That Split Up (50), Fustmd 
V thy res/ Fiancée for Hire (51), Fran- 
skild I Divorced (51), Trots /Defiance 
(52), Kàrlek/Love (52), G lasberget/ Un- 
married (53), Herr Ames penningar 
(sic) /Sir Arne's Treasure* (54) (re- 
make), Enhorningen/The Unicorn (55), 
Sangen om den eldrdda blomman/The 
Song of the Scarlet Flower (56) (re- 
make), Stimulantia (65, released 67) 
(one episode). 

MOUNARO, Edouard DIR France. (1928- 
) A film enthusiast, intelligent and 
cultured, who began by making short 
films but in his feature films has rarely 
been able to break away from com- 
mercial considerations, specializing in 
routine thrillers and comedies. 
[Dm: Chemins d'avril (53) (short), 
L'Honneur est sauf (54) (short), La Mer 
remonte à Rouen (55) (short), Les Biens 
de ce monde (56) (short), Appelez le 
17 (56) (short), Les Alchimistes (57) 
(short), Los Dos au mur /Evidence in 
Concrete (57), Des femmes disparais- 
sent (58), Un témoin dans la ville (59), 
Une fille pour l'été (59), La Morte de 
Belle (60), Les Ennemis (61), Les Sept 
péchés capitaux (61) (one episode), Ar- 
sène Lupin (62), Une ravissante idiote 
(63), La Chasse à l'homme /The Gentle 
Art of Seduction (64), Quand paissent 
les faisans (65), Peau d'espion /To Com- 
mit a Murder (66), Oscar (67), Hiber- 
natus (69), Mon oncle Benjamin (69), 
La Liberté en croupe (70), Les Aveux 
les plus doux (70). 

MONCA, ©•orgttDiR France. (1877-1940) 
Originally an actor, he became, together 
with Capellani (q.v.), one of the direc- 
tors of SCAGL 1908-14, and there made 



the majority of the Prince Rigadin com- 
edies. He made numerous mediocre films 
until 1920. 

MONICELU, Mario DIR Italy. (May 15, 
1915- ) After some years as an assis- 
tant (from 1935) and later as a script- 
writer, he made a modest debut as a 
director on a series of minor comedies 
(co-directed and scripted by S. Steno) 
often featuring the comedian, Toto. He 
later confirmed his own talents and 
ability, making two notable comic suc- 
cesses, / Soliti Ignoti and Le Grande 
Guerra, but after the excellent The Or- 
ganizer he has tended to concentrate on 
minor episode films. 

co-scen: for Pietro Germi, In Nome 
della Legge* (49); for De Santis, Riso 
Amaro* (49); and for most of his own 
films. 

co-dir (with S. Steno, notably): Totd 
Cerca Casa (49), Totd e i re di Roma 
(51), Guardie e Ladri/Cops and Robbers 

(51) , Totd e le Donne (52), Le Infedell 

(52) . 

DiR (notably): Proibito (54), Totd e 
Carolina (55), Padri e figli (57), / Soliti 
Ignoti /Persons Unknown (58), Le 
Grande Guerra (59), Risate di Gioia 
(60), Boccaccio 70 (62) (one episode), 
/ Compagni/The Organizer (63), Alta 
Infedeltà (64) (one episode), Casanova 
'70 ( 64) (one episode), L'Armata Bran- 
caleone (65), Le Streghe (66) (one epi- 
sode), Le Fata (66) (one episode), La 
Ragazza con la Pistola (67), 11 Frigori- 
fero (70) (co-dir: L. Comencini). 

MONTAZEl, Piorr» photog/dir France. 
(Senlis 1911- ) He began brilliantly 
during the war with his impressionist- 
inspired images for Le Lit à colonnes. 
After his excellent photography for Beck- 
er's Antoine et Antoinette (47), he 
turned to directing, but never achieved 
the quality of his earlier work. 

MONTUORI, Carlo PHOTOG Italy. (Casaca- 
lenda Aug 3, 1885- ) The doyen of 
Italian cameramen and one of the best, 
he developed a technique for artificial 
lighting, worked on many of the extrav- 
agant Italian melodramas from 1912 on. 
He also worked on part of the 1926 
Ben Hur*, on the bittersweet comedies 
of Camerini (q.v.) in the Thirties, on 
"white telephone" films of the war pe- 
riod and, above all, on De Sica's Bicycle 
Thieves*. 



181 



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morlhon, Camille de Dm France. (? -c. 
1945) A prc-1914 Pathé director, respon- 
sible for several brazen society dramas: 
L'Ambitieuse (12), Sacrifice surhumain 
(13), Sous Vuniforme (14), Une brute 
humaine (14). 

MORSI, Ahmad Kamel see KAMEL MORSI, 
AHMAD 

MOSKVIN, Andrei PHOTOG USSR. (Saint 

Petersburg 1901 -Leningrad 1961) One 
of the most distinguished of Soviet cam- 
eramen, he began his career in FEKS in 
the Twenties and collaborated for many 
years with Kozintsev (q.v.) and Trau- 
berg (q.v): [The Devil's Wheel (26), 
The Cloak* (26), The Club of the Big 
Deed* (27), Bratishka (27), The New 
Babylon* (29), Alone* (31), Maxim 
trilogy*, Ordinary People (45); with 
Kozintsev alone: Pirogov (47), Be lin sky 
(53), Don Quixote* (57), and Hamlet* 
(64) (died during shooting). Also, no- 
tably, for Ermler, Katka's Reinette Ap- 
ples* (27); for Yutkevich, Stories About 
Lenin (57); for Heifitz, Lady With a 
Little Dog* (60), and for Eisenstein, 
the unforgettable images of Ivan the 
Terrible*.] 

MUNDV1LLER, Joseph-Lou,, fl/sO. ill Russia, 

George Meyer) PHOTOG France/Russia. 
(Mulhouse April 10, 1886- ) [After 
a year at the Pathé studios in Paris, he 
was appointed chief cameraman in the 
Russian Pa the studio and was there 
1908-14, shooting, e.g., Cossacks of the 
Don (08), Peter the Great (10), Ro- 
mance with Double Bass (11), 1812 
(12), God of Vengeance (12), Keys to 
Happiness (13).] On his return to France 
he contributed many skillful and polished 
images to the French cinema, especially 
in the Twenties. From 1944-60 he was 
a professor at IDHEC. 
photog (notably): for Volkoff, La Mai- 
son du mystère (22), Kean (23); for 
Mosjoukine, Le Brasier ardent (23); for 
Epstein, Le Lion des Moguls (24); for 
Gance, Napoléon* (27) (as Jean-Paul 
Mundviller?); for Bernard, Le Jouer 
d'échecs (27); for Renoir, Le Tournoi 
dans la cité (29), Le Bled (29). 

MUNK, Andrzcj DIR Poland. (Cracow Oct 
16, 1921-Sept 25, 1961) The most gifted 
film maker, together with Wajda (q.v.), 
of the group of new Polish directors 
who reached international prominence 
in the Fifties. He was trained as a cam- 



eraman and director at the Lodz film 
school and made several outstanding 
documentaries before turning to features. 
He was one of the first to use an or- 
chestration of exclusively natural sounds 
as an accompaniment to his documen- 
taries. His probing style continued in his 
features as he tackled various social ta- 
boos in a manner that was characteris- 
tically tinged with bitter irony: pointless 
heroism in Eroica, the career of an op- 
portunist under various regimes in Bad 
Luck, unjustified suspicion of political 
unreliability in his best film, Man on 
the Track. These, and his unfinished but 
potentially brilliant Passenger, illustrate 
perfectly his own observation: "I con- 
sider it impossible to judge men in too 
schematic a manner, everything black 
or everything white, as happened during 
the period when people were almost 
denying the existence of gray." His pre- 
mature death (in a car crash) was a 
major loss to the Polish cinema. 
Dm (documentaries): Zaczelo sie w 
Hiszpanii/lt Began in Spain (50), Kie- 
runek Nowa Huta/ Direction Nowa Huta 
(51), Nauka blizej zycia I Science Closer 
to Life (51), Bajka w Ursusie/Tale at 
Ursus (52), Pamietnniki chlopow/ Diaries 
of the Peasants (53), Kole jar skie slowo/ 
A Railwayman's Word (53), Gwiazdy 
musza plonacf Stars Must Shine (54) 
(co-dir: W. Lesiewicz), Niedzielny pora- 
nek/On a Sunday Morning (55), Spa- 
ccrek staromiejski/A Walk in the Old 
City (58), Kronika jubileuszowa/ Jubilee 
Story (59). 

DIR (features): Blekitny Krzyz/Men of 
the Blue Cross (55), Czlowiek na torze/ 
Man on the Track* (57), Eroica* (58), 
Zezowate szcze scie /Bad Luck (60), Pa- 
sazcrka/ Passenger* (63) (completed by 
W. Lesiewicz). 

MURNAU, Friedrich Wilhelm (Friedrich Wit- 
helm Plumpe) dir Germany/USA. (Biele- 
feld Dec 28, 1888-California March 11, 
1931) Murnau and Fritz Lang are the 
two greatest directors of the German 
silent cinema. Murnau studied art and 
literature, was a pupil of Max Rcinhardt 
(q.v.), and an assistant director and 
stage director in Berlin before making 
his first feature in 1919. After Burning 
Soil in 1922 his individualistic approach 
kept him from being identified with any 
of the characteristic schools of the Ger- 
man cinema. Nosferatu, which estab- 
lished his international reputation, is 
more expressionistic in its script and 



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theme than in its sets, often uncharacter- 
istically realistic. Even The Last Laugh, 
despite its Carl Mayer script, is only on 
the outer fringe of Kammerspiel. He said 
then: 'The designers who made Cali- 
gari* didn't imagine the importance their 
film would have, and yet they discovered 
some astonishing things. Simplicity, 
greater simplicity, and greater simplicity 
still, that must be the nature of the films 
of the future . . . All our efforts must 
be directed toward abstracting every- 
thing that isn't true cinema, toward 
sweeping away everything that isn't the 
true domain of the cinema, everything 
that is trivial and acquired from other 
sources — all the tricks, devices, and 
clichés inherited from the stage and from 
books. This is what happens when certain 
films reach the level of great art." In 
The Last Laugh, a film hailed in the 
USA at the time as the best film in the 
world, Murnau made extensive use of 
the subjective camera, expressing through 
its movements what the expressionists 
had through their distortions and lighting. 
The sets and ancillary objects played a 
similar role: "On account of the way 
they (objects) were placed or photo- 
graphed, their image is a visual drama. 
In their relationship with other objects 
or with the characters, they are units in 
the symphony of the film" (Murnau). 
After a somewhat ponderous Tartuffe, 
he undertook a version of Faust for 
which he was given almost unlimited 
financial resources; it was, however, a 
financial failure. He signed a contract 
with William Fox (q.v.) to work in 
Hollywood on condition he could make 
one film of his own choice. That film 
was Sunrise, one of the last great silent 
films, masterfully expressive, and one 
that again dealt with the loss and redemp- 
tion of love, a theme as recurrent in his 
work as his obsession with death — usu- 
ally through the intervention of a divine 
malediction, as that which kills the Maori 
lovers in Tabu. [His other two films for 
Fox were much less successful: Four 
Devils was routine melodrama and Our 
Daily Bread, intended as a lyrical epic 
of peasant life, was mutilated by Fox 
and released as City Girl.] Tabu is far 
from the ethnographic documentary en- 
visaged by Flaherty (q.v.) but is a visu- 
ally evocative, modern tragedy and a 
characteristic Murnau film. This was his 
last film: he died in a car crash a week 
before its premiere. 

Dm: Der Knabe in Blau (19), Satanas 



(19) , Abend . . . Nacht . . . Morgen 

(20) , Der Buck lige und die Tdnzerin 
(20), Der Gang in die Nacht (20), Der 
Januskopf /Janus-Faced (20), Sehnsucht/ 
Bajazzo (20), Marina, gennant die 
Schmugglermadonna (21), Schloss Voge- 
lod/Vogelôd Castle (21), Der Brennende 
Acker/ Burning Soil (22), Nosferatu- 
Eine Symphonie des Grauens* (22), 
Phantom (22), Die Austreihung (23), Die 
Finanzen des Grossherzogs/The Grand 
Duke's Fiancées (23), Der Letzte Mann/ 
The Last Laugh* (24), Tartii ff (25), 
Faust* (26), Sunrise* (27), Four Devils 
(28), Our Daily Bread/City Girl* (29, 
released 30), Tabu* (31). 

MUSTAFA, Nia» DIR Egypt. (1903- ) 

Since 1938 he has been a very prolific 
and widely popular director of musical 
comedies, of "Bedouin Westerns" Rahba 
(45), and of thrillers, comedies, and such 
traditional legends as Antar wa Abla 
(45), etc. 

MUYBRIDGE, Eadweard INVENTOR USA. 

(Kingston-upon-Thames April 4, 1830- 
Kingston-upon-Thames May 8, 1904) 
English-born photographer working in 
San Francisco, who, according to legend, 
was asked by California's Governor Le- 
land Stanford to settle a wager about 
whether all four of a horse's legs are off 
the ground at once as it trots. After 
five years of work, he succeeded in 1877 
(using an idea by John D. Isaacs, an 
engineer) in analyzing the motion of a 
horse by using 24 cameras, each attached 
to a trip wire. His work was a great 
success and, after joining the University 
of Pennsylvania, he took sequence photo- 
graphs of all manner of animals and 
of man in every conceivable movement, 
publishing them in eight volumes that 
contained 20,000 photographs in 1887. 
In 1881 he traveled to Europe and met 
Marey (<7.v.), who was much impressed 
by his photographs. [He also took over a 
machine invented in Paris by Jean Louis 
Meissonier, the Zoopraxinoscope, which 
resynthesized the movements of his photo- 
graphs, renamed it the Zoopraxoscope, 
and used it to exhibit his pictures during 
personal lectures. His fame as an in- 
ventor rests on the ideas of two other 
men and there is no evidence to suggest 
he had any conception of "motion pic- 
tures." Nevertheless, as his published 
work testifies, he was a remarkable pho- 
tographer.] 



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m 



NARUSE, Mikio dfr Japan. (Tokyo Aug 
20, 1905-1969) Distinguished Japanese 
director, though not the equal of Mizo- 
guchi, Ozu, Gosho, Kinoshita, or Kuro- 
sawa (all q.v.). His films have a real 
sense of everyday life, behavior, and 
feelings and of the family in its social 
contest — qualities that made Okaasan/ 
Mother his best film. His career began 
in 1926 as assistant to Yoshinobu Ikeda 
at Shochiku. His first films as director 
were largely comedies and routine melo- 
dramas until he established his reputation 
as a director of Shomin-geki films deal- 
ing with the lower middle-classes. 
DIR (notably): Chambara Fufu/Mr. and 
Mrs. S wordplay (29) (short comedy), 
Junjo/Pure Love (29), Shinkon-ki/ 
Record of Newly weds (30), Ne Kofun 
Siiicha lyayo/Now Don't Get Excited 
(31), Uwaki wa Kisha ni Notte/ Fickle- 
ness Gets on the Train (31), Kind to 
Wakarete/ Apart from You* (32), Yo 
Goto no Y urne/ 'Every night Dreams (33), 
Otome Gokoro San-nin Shimai/ Three 
Sisters with Maiden Hearts (34), Uwasa 
no Musume/The Girl in the Rumor 
(35), Tsuma yc Bar a no yo ni /Wife! 
Be Like a Rose.'/Kimiko (35), Tsuru- 
hachi Tsurujiro (38), Urashima Taro 
no Koe/The Descendants of Tara Ura- 
shima (46), Ishinaka Sensei Gyojoki/ 
Conduct Report on Professor Ishinaka 
(50), Shiroi Yaju/White Beast (50), 
Meshi/ Repast (51), Okaasan /Mother* 

(52) , Inazuma/ Lightning (52), Ani 
Imoto/Older Brother, Younger Sister 

(53) , Fuful Husband and Wife (53), 
Tsuma/The Wife (53), Bangiku/Late 
Chrysanthemums (54), Yama no Oto/ 
Sounds from the Mountains (54), Shuu/ 
Sudden Rain (54), Tsuma no Kokoro/ 
A Wife's Heart (55), 13 kigomo/ Floating 
Clouds (55), Nagareru I Flowing (56), 
Arakure/ Untamed Woman (57), An- 
zukko (58), Iwashi Gumo/ Herringbone 



Clouds /Summer Clouds (58), Kotan no 
Kuchibue/A Whistle in My Heart (59), 
Onnaga Kaidao Agaru Toki/When a 
Woman Climbs the Stairs (60), Yoruno 
Nagare/The Lovelorn Geisha (60), Mu- 
sume, Tsuma, Haha/ Daughters, Wives, 
and a Mother (60), Aki Tachinu/The 
Approach of Autumn (60), Tsuma To- 
shite, Onna Toshite/Like a Wife, Like 
a Woman (61), Horoki I Lonely Lane 

(62) , Onna no rekishi/A Woman's Story 

(63) , Midareru/ Y earning (64), Onna 
no Naka ri Iru Tanin/The Thin Line 
(65), Hit and Run (66), Hikinige/Mo- 
ment of Terror (67), Midare-gumo/ 
Two in the Shadow (67). 

NASR, Georges M. see NASSER, GEORGES M. 

NASSER, George» M. {alto Nasr) DIR Leba- 
non. (Tripoli 1917- ) Lebanese director 
responsible for the interesting lia Ayn/ 
Whither?* (56) in the neorealist manner. 
His later attempt to "internationalize" 
his style in the quasi-French new wave 
Al Gharib Al Saghir/The Small Stranger 
(62) was abortive. 

NAUMOV, Vladimir DIR USSR. (1921- ) 
see alov, Alexander with whom he has 
collaborated. 

NEAME, Ronald dir/photog/prod Britain/ 
USA. (London 1911- ) Former cam- 
eraman (Major Barbara, In Which We 
Serve*, Blithe Spirit, etc.) who turned 
producer after the war and developed 
into a solid director of major commer- 
cial successes that did not have much 
flair but often bad excellent acting 
performances. 

Dir: Take My Life (47), The Golden 
Salamander (49), The Card /The Pro- 
moter (52), The Million Pound Note 
(53), The Man Who Never Was (55), 
Windom's Way (57), The Seventh Sin 



Copyrighted material 



(USA57), The Horse's Mouth (58), 
Tunes of Glory (60), / Could Go on 
Singing (62), The Chalk Garden (63), 
Mister Moses (64), A Man Could Get 
Killed (USA66) (co-dir: Cliff Owen), 
Gambit (USA66), The Prime of Miss 
Jean Brodie (68), Scrooge (70). 
prod (notably): David Lean's Brief 
Encounter* (45), Great Expectations 
(46), Oliver Twist (48), The Passionate 
Friends (49); John Boulting's The Magic 
Box (51). 

NEGRONI, (Comte) Baldassare DIR Italy. 
(Rome 1877-Rome 1948) Cultured, 
knowledgeable, Italian film pioneer who 
specialized in typical Italian society dra- 
mas and literary adaptations and whose 
Histoire d'un pierrot (13) might have 
been an important precursor of neo- 
realism. 

•NEMEC, Jan DiR Czechoslovakia. Prague 
July 12, 1936- ) Young Czech director 
obsessed with exploring memory and 
the tensions created by physical and 
psychological stress who has evolved a 
characteristic staccato, aloof style that 
reflects undercurrents of anguish. He has 
said: "My aim was to portray man as he 
is. Through his destiny I want to find 
out more about him than I already know. 
I am concerned with man's reactions to 
the drastic situation in which, through 
no fault of his own, he may find himself. 
After all, so many people's fates rest in 
the hands of others. I want to interpret 
the emotions a man goes through in such 
situations, to assess the meaning of his 
striving." Though said in relation to his 
first feature, Diamonds of the Night 

(64) , this statement could equally apply 
to his episode, "The Liars," in Pearls 
at the Bottom, which dealt with the self- 
cheating memories of two old men, and 
to his allegory of social and political 
conformism, Report on the Party and 
the Guests, a film which brought him 
official displeasure. He has scripted or 
co-scripted all his own films. 

dir: Sousto/The Loaf of Bread /A Bite 
to Eat (59) (short), The Memory of 
Our Day (63) (short), Demanty Noci/ 
Diamonds of the Night* (64), Perlicky 
na dne/Pearls at the Bottom (64) (one 
episode), Life After Ninety Minutes 

(65) (short, co-dir: Jan Schmidt), O 
Slavnostia Hostech/ Report on the Party 
and the Guests (66), Mucednici Lasky/ 



The Martyrs of Love (66), Mother and 
Son (Neth/GFR67) (short). 

* NEWMAN, Alfred mus USA. (Connec- 
ticut 1901-Los Angeles Feb 1970) The 
most prolific (some 200 films) of Holly- 
wood composers, highly skilled in creat- 
ing "mood" music in a classical sym- 
phonic manner for every kind of film. 
He began his career as a child pianist, 
became a conductor, and moved to Hol- 
lywood in the early years of sound. As 
examples of their kind, his music for 
The Grapes of Wrath, How Green Was 
My Valley, My Darling Clementine, The 
Gunfighter, and The Razor's Edge could 
hardly be bettered. 

mus (notably): for John Ford, Arrow- 
smith (31), The Hurricane (37), Young 
Mr. Lincoln (39), Drums Along the 
Mohawk (39), The Grapes of Wrath* 
(40), How Green Was My Valley* (41), 
My Darling Clementine* (46); for King 
Vidor, Cynara (32), Our Daily Bread* 
(33), Stella Dallas* (37); for Raoul 
Walsh, The Bowery (33); for Dorothy 
Arzncr, Nana* (34); for William Wyler, 
Dodsworth (36), Dead End* (37); for 
Henry King, Alexander's Ragtime Band 
(38), The Song of Bernadette (44), The 
Gunfighter (50), Love is a Many Splen- 
dored Thing (55); for George Stevens, 
Gunga Din (39), The Diary of Anne 
Frank (58); for William Wellman, Call 
of the Wild (35), Yellow Sky (48), The 
Iron Curtain (48); for Hitchcock, For- 
eign Correspondent (40); for Fritz Lang, 
Man Hunt (41); for Edmund Goulding, 
The Razor's Edge (46); for Elia Kazan, 
A Tree Grows in Brooklyn (44), Gen- 
tleman's Agreement* (47), Pinky (49), 
Panic in the Streets (50); for Joseph 
L. Mankiewicz, Dragonwyck (46), A 
Letter to Three Wives* (48), All About 
Eve* (50), People Will Talk (51); for 
Preston Sturges, Unfaithfully Yours 
(48); for Walter Lang, Call Me Madame 
(53), The King and I (56); for Billy 
Wilder, The Seven Year Itch* (55); for 
George Seaton, The Counterfeit Traitor 
(61) Airport (69); for Henry Hatha- 
way, How the West Was Won* (62), 
Nevada Smith (66). 

NIBLO, Fred (Federico Nobile) DIR USA. 
(Nebraska Jan 6, 1874-New Orleans 
Nov 11, 1948) Famous Hollywood di- 
rector of the Twenties after starting his 
career with stage and vaudeville expe- 
rience and working for Thomas Ince 



185 



(q.v.), notable for The Mark of Zorro* 
(20) and The Three Musketeers (21) 
(both with Douglas Fairbanks), Blood 
and Sand (22) (with Valentino), The 
Red Lily (23), Thy Name is Woman 
(24), The Temptress (26), The Myste- 
rious Lady (28) (both with Garbo), 
Camille (27), and especially Ben Hur* 
(26). He left Hollywood in the early 
Thirties to return to the stage. 

NICHOLS, Dudley SCEN/dir USA. (Wapa- 
koncta, Ohio April 6, 1895-Los Angeles 
1960) Perhaps the best Hollywood script- 
writer of the Thirties and Forties and 
one of the most prolific (47 films 1936- 
56), he is best known for his long and 
fruitful collaboration with John Ford 
(The Informer, Stagecoach), but he 
wrote with equal brilliance for Hawks 
(Bringing Up Baby, Air Force), Lang 
(Man Hunt, Scarlet Street), Clair (// 
Happened Tomorrow), Renoir (Swamp 
Water), and Mann (The Tin Star). 
[scen (notably): for John Ford, Men 
Without Women (30), Born Reckless 
(30), Seas Beneath (31), Pilgrimage 

(33) , The Lost Patrol* (34), Judge Priest 

(34) , The Informer* (35), Steamboat 
Round the Bend (35), The Plough and 
the Stars (36), Mary of Scotland (36), 
The Hurricane (37), Stagecoach* (39), 
The Long Voyage Home (40), The 
Fugitive (47); for Cecil B. DeMille, The 
Crusades (35); for George Marshall, 
Life Begins at Forty (35); for Hawks, 
Bringing Up Baby* (38), Air Force* 
(43), The Big Sky (52); for Mark Sand- 
rich, Carefree (38); for Fritz Lang, Man 
Hunt (41), Scarlet Street* (45); for Re- 
noir Swamp Water (41), This Land is 
Mine (42); for Clair, // Happened To- 
morrow* (43), And Then There Were 
None /Ten Little Indians (45); for Sam 
Wood, For Whom the Bell Tolls (43); 
for Leo McCarey, The Bells of St. Mary's 

(45) ; for Elia Kazan, Pinky (49); for 
Hathaway, Rawhide (51), Prince Valiant 
(54); for Delmer Daves, Return of the 
Texan (52); for Roy Boulting, Run for 
the Sun* (55); for Anthony Mann, The 
Tin Star (57); for Michael Curtiz, The 
Hangman (59); for Cukor, Heller in 
Pink Tights (60), and for his own films. 
dir: Government Girl (43), Sister Kenny 

(46) , Mourning Becomes Electra (47).] 

♦NICHOLS, Mike (Michael Igor Peschkowsky) 

dir USA. (Germany 1931- ) Former 



cabaret performer who made an excellent 
directorial debut on the well-staged adap- 
tation of Who's Afraid of Virginia 
Woolf?* (66) and the often brilliant 
The Graduate* (67), but flopped badly 
with the large-budget Catch 22 (70). 
Also, Carnal Knowledge (71 ). 

NIEPCE, Joseph Nicéphore INVENTOR France. 
(Chalon-sur-Saône 1765-1833) The true 
inventor of photography who first suc- 
ceeded in recording an image in 1820 
after 12 hours exposure to a silver-io- 
dide-coated metal plate. He later worked 
with Daguerre (q.v.), who marketed 
the process. His cousin, Niepce de Saint- 
Victor (1805-1870), later developed the 
technique of negatives on glass and posi- 
tive prints on paper. 

NILSSON, Leopoldo Torre See TORRE NILS- 
SON, LEOPOLDO 

NIOUN, Mahoun Tien DIR Burma. (? - ) 

The director of a somewhat saturnine 
Burmese melodrama, The Ratanapoum 
House (56). 

* nordgren, Erik mus Sweden. (1913- ) 
The most distinguished, versatile, and 
prolific of Swedish composers, with an 
ascetic, economical style that often in- 
corporates baroque elements, most no- 
tably in his long collaboration with 
Bergman (q.v.), 1944-64: Thirst*, This 
Can't Happen Here, Summer Interlude*, 
Waiting Women, Summer with Monika*, 
Smiles of a Summer Night*, The Seventh 
Seal*, Wild Strawberries*, The Face, The 
Virgin Spring*, Now about These 
Women. Also, notably: for Erik Faust- 
man, Crime and Punishment (45); for 
Gustaf Molander, Woman without a Face 
(47), Life Begins Now (48), Eva (48), 
Love Will Conquer (49), Divorced (51), 
Defiance (52), Unmarried (53); for 
Lars-Eric Kjellgren, Vald/ Violence (55), 
Leg pa regnbagen/ Playing on the Rain- 
bow (58), Brott i paradiset/ Crime in 
Paradise (59); for Hasse Ekman, Ga- 
brielle (54), Private Entrance (56), 
Ratataa (56), The Decimals of Love 
(60), On the Bench in the Park (60); 
for Alf Kjellin, Lust gar den / 'Pleasure 
Garden (61), for Vilgot Sjoman, Kldn- 
ningen/The Dress (64); for Torbjôrn 
Axelman, Ojojoj/Well Well Well (65); 
for Jan Troell, 4x4 (65) (one episode), 



L/opynyr 



Har har du ditt liv/Here is Your Life 
(66), Ole dole doff (68). 

•NYKVIST, Sv«n PHOTOG Sweden. (Moheda 
1922- ) Bergman's (<?.v.) regular cam- 
eraman in the Sixties and unquestionably 
one of the world's greatest cinematog- 
raphers, particularly skillful in convey- 
ing the bleakly beautiful Swedish land- 
scape and in giving a translucent clarity 
to his images. The realistic yet other- 
worldly images of The Silence were due 
to his use of specially treated film stock. 
He joined Sandrews in 1941 as an as- 
sistant and shot his first film in 1945. 
photoo (notably) : for Alf Sjoberg, Bar- 
abbas (53), Karin Mansdotter (54), The 
Judge (60); for Bergman, Sawdust and 
Tinsel* (53) (interiors only), The Virgin 
Spring* (60), Through a Glass Darkly* 



(61), Winter Light* (62), The Silence* 

(63) , Now about These Women (64), 
Persona (66), Hour of the Wolf* (68), 
Shame (68), The Rite (69), A Passion 
(69); for Arne Matt son, Storm over 
Tjurô (54), Salka Valka (54), Girl in 
a Dress Coat (56), Lady in Black (58); 
for Gunnar Hellstrôm, Nattbarn/ Chil- 
dren of the Night (56), Synnôve Solbak- 
ken (57); for Rolf Husberg, Laila (GFR/ 
Swed58); for Vilgot Sjôman, Klan- 
ningen/The Dress (64); for Mai Zet- 
terling, Alskande par/Loving Couples 

(64) ; for Jorn Donner, Att Alskar/To 
Love (64); for Hans Abramson, Rose- 
anna (67), Brant barn /The Sinning Urge 
(67); for Arne Skouen, An-Magritt 
(Norway69). 

dir/photog: Gorilla (56), Lianbron/ 
Vine Bridge (65). 



187 



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*OBOUR, Arch dir/scen/prod USA. (Chi- 
cago 1909- ) Independent producer- 
director-writer (who finances his own 
films) with a long and famous radio 
career as a committed writer-producer 
('This Precious Freedom," "To the Pres- 
ident," "Plays for Americans," "Oboler 
Omnibus," "Free World Theater"). His 
film career has been rather mixed, rang- 
ing from often well-written but point- 
lessly mannered B-films (Bewitched, 
Strange Holiday) to his brilliant science- 
fiction drama staged like a piece of 
reportage. Five. He made a fortune out 
of the first 3-D feature, the mediocre 
Bwana Devil, and made another stereo- 
scopic film. The Bubble, in 1966, ap- 
parently using a new process, but this 
has mysteriously disappeared and has 
never had a general public release. 
dir/scen: Bewitched (45), Strange Holi- 
day (46), The Arnelo Affair (47), Five 
(51), Bwana Devil* (53), The Twonky 
(53), One Plus One /Exploring the Kin- 
sey Report (Canada61), The Bubble 
(66). 

*ODETS, CRfford scen/dir USA. (Phila- 
delphia July 18, 1906-New York 1963) 
Famous American playwright (Waiting 
for Lefty, Awake and Sing, Paradise 
Lost, Golden Boy, Clash By Night, The 
Big Knife, Country Girl) who influenced 
many writers and film directors through 
his collaboration with them at the Group 
Theater. He wrote two brilliant scripts: 
Milestone's The General Died at Dawn 
and Mackendrick's The Sweet Smell of 
Success. Also: Negulesco's Humoresque 
(46), Harold Clurman's Deadline at 
Dawn (46), Philip Dunne's Wild in the 
Country (61). His plays were adapted 
in Mamoulian's Golden Boy (39), Sea- 
ton's The Country Girl (54), and Al- 
drich's The Big Knife. 
dir/scen: None But the Lonely Heart 
(44), The Story on Page One (59). 



OFUGf, Ncburo ATOM Japan. (? -1960) 
Pioneer Japanese animator who worked 
with both a shadow-theater technique and 
multiplanar chiyogaml (transparent col- 
ored paper), notably in The Whale (two 
versions, 27 and 52). 

OKHLOPKOV, Nikolai Dm USSR. (Irkutsk 
1900- ) Former film actor who di- 
rected only three films (all comedies), 
including the highly original The Sold 
Appetite, before returning to the stage as 
a director at the Krasnaya Presnoya 
(Realistic) Theater, where his imagina- 
tive work exercised considerable in- 
fluence. 

dir: Mitya (27), Prodannyi appétit /The 
Sold Appetite (28), Put entuziastov/Way 
of the Enthusiasts (30, not released). 

OLIVEIRA, Manuel do DTR/PROD Portugal. 

(Passamarinas Dec 12, 1905- ) The 
best Portuguese director, sensitive, en- 
amored of art, and knowledgeable, who 
began by making experimental documen- 
taries (Douro Faina Fluvial) and later 
made, outside of the official industry, 
Aniki Bobo (42), a precursor of Italian 
neorealism. 

Dm (notably): Douro Faina Fluvial 
(29), Estatuas de Lisboa (32), A Can- 
cao de Lisboa (33), Miramar (39), Praia 
de Rosas (39), Aniki Bobo* (42), Opin- 
tor ea Citade (56) (prod/photog only, 
dir: Lopez Fernandez) O Coracao (58), 
O Poo (59), Acto de Primavera (60), 
A Caça (61). 

OLIVIER, (Sir) loortneo Dm Britain. (Dork- 
ing, Surrey May 22, 1907- ) The most 
distinguished figure in modern British 
theater, a consummate stage actor who 
has also appeared in many film roles. He 
drew on his stage experience in his im- 
portant trio of Shakespeare films: Henry 
V* (45), Hamlet* (48), and Richard 111 

188 



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(56) . Though one might argue with his 
interpretations of the plays and his man- 
ner of adaptation, these are not merely 
photographed theater but films in which 
Olivier used visual means to amplify 
and expand the original text. Also di- 
rected: The Prince and the Showgirl 

(57) and the Chekhov adaptation, Three 
Sisters (70). 

•OLMI, Ermanno DIR Italy. (Bergamo 1931- 
) Young Italian film maker, former 
stage producer and documentarist, whose 
sympathetic films are largely concerned 
with the routines of everyday life in 
modern, industrialized society. He nor- 
mally uses nonprofessional actors and 
has a precise feeling for gesture and the 
comedy inherent in everyday situations. 
He established his international reputa- 
tion with the appealing The Job and 
The Fiancés and after a somewhat mori- 
bund period confirmed his position as 
one of the major Italian film makers 
with One Fine Day and with the oblique 
look at the aftermath of war, The Scav- 
engers. 

DiR (shorts, notably): La Pattuglia di 
Passo San Giacomo (54), Buongiorno 
Nature (55), La Mia Vaile (55), Ma- 
non: finestra 2 (56), Tre fili ftno a Mi- 
lano (58), // Pensionato (58), Venezia, 
Città Modernà (58), Alto Chiese (59), 
Le Grand Barrage /Time Stood Still (61). 
DiR (features): // Tempo si è fermato 
(59), // Posto/The Job* (61), / Fidan- 
zati/The Fiancés (62), E Venne un 
Uomo/A Man Named John (64), Beata 
Gioventu (67) (TV), Un Certo Giomo/ 
One Fine Day (69), / Recupcranti/The 
Scavengers (70) (TV). 

OPHULS, Max (Max Oppenheimer) DIR Ger- 

many/France/USA. (Saarbrucken May 
6, 1902-Hamburg March 26, 1957) A 
totally dedicated film maker, enamored 
of the cinema and its techniques, even 
though his experience was as a stage 
actor and producer (1919-32). He began 
working in films in 1930 as an assistant 
and dialogue director for Anatole Litvak 
(q.v.) on Dolly macht Karriere. After 
directing three routine dramas he estab- 
lished his reputation with the lavish, 
rhythmic The Bartered Bride (32) and 
especially with Liebelei (32), whose 
evocative style and bittersweet quality 
prevented it from being merely routine 
Viennese froth. He left Germany when 
Hitler came to power and for the en- 



suing seven years worked in France, Italy, 
and the Netherlands; he became a French 
citizen in 1938. According to him, 
"This was a real rupture; it was difficult 
to find in France themes that were, let 
us say, poetic. I had an opportunity 
with Werther but I bungled it." His diffi- 
cult position as an exile forced him 
to accept routine commissions such as 
Yoshiwara, but his personal touch was 
evident in the charming La Tendre en- 
nemie, Divine, and Sans lendemain. 
After the fall of France he went to 
Switzerland, where he worked briefly 
on the unfinished Ecole des femmes, 
leaving, in 1941, for Hollywood, where 
he spent four years out of work. He was 
rediscovered by Preston Sturges (q.v.), 
worked abortively on Howard Hughes's 
(q.v.) Vendetta, then made four char- 
acteristically stylish films, including Let- 
ter From an Unknown Woman. He re- 
turned to France in 1949 and made his 
four last, and unquestionably best, films, 
founded on his 30 years of theatrical 
and cinematic experiments and the mis- 
fortunes of his life and career. In the 
bittersweet sexual comedies, La Ronde, 
Madame de. . . , and Le Plaisir, and 
especially in the ironic Lola Montés, he 
transcended the scripts with his elabo- 
rately fluid visual style and with the 
sense of nostalgia and of love betrayed 
that runs through them. According to 
François Truffaut and lacques Rivette: 
"He was as subtle as he was thought 
ponderous, as profound as he was 
thought superficial, as pure as he was 
thought vulgar. He was considered old- 
fashioned, out-of-date, antiquated though 
he dealt with eternal themes: passion 
without love, pleasure without love, love 
without reciprocation. Luxury and in- 
souciance only provided a favorable 
framework for this savage painter." He 
was obsessed less by "baroque" than by 
a passion for decor (especially staircases, 
chandeliers, mirrors, gauzes, cages) and 
for tracking shots and crane shots that 
he used to create an often intoxicatingly 
fluid style. His style is sometimes remi- 
niscent of expressionism, of French pic- 
torial impressionism, and even of the 
UFA decorative style of the Thirties. 
dir: Dann schon lieber Lebertran (Ger 
30), Die Lachende Erben (Ger31), die 
Verliebte Fir ma (Ger31), die Verkaufte 
Braut/The Bartered Bride (Ger32), Lie- 
belei* (Ger33), Une histoire d'amour 
(Fr33) (French version, with new close- 



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ups, of Liebeki), On a volé un homme 
(Fr33), La Signora di Tutti (It34), Di- 
vine (Fr35), Komedie om Geld/The 
Trouble with Money (Neth36), Ave 
Maria de Schubert (Fr36) (short), La 
Valse Brillante (Fr36) (short), La Ten- 
dre ennemie* (Fr36), Yoshiwara (Fr37), 
Werther (Fr38), Sans lendemain (Fr39), 
De Mayerling à Sarajevo (Fr40), Ven- 
detta (USA46) (completed by Mel Fer- 
rer and Howard Hughes), The Exile 
(USA47), Letter from an Unknown 
Woman (USA48), Caught (USA48), 
The Reckless Moment (USA49), La 
Ronde* (Fr50), Le Plaisir* (Fr51). 
Madame de . . .* (Fr/It53), Lola Mon- 
tés* (Fr/GFR55). 

note His son Marcel Ophiils (Frankfurt 
am Main 1927- ) is a well-established 
French TV and film director. 

ORKIN, Ruth dir USA. Independent New 
York film maker who works in collabora- 
tion with her husband, Morris Engel 
{q.v.) on, eg., The Utile Fugitive*. 

•OSHIMA, Nagisa dir Japan. (Kyoto 
March 31, 1932- ) Independent Jap- 
anese film maker with a highly personal 
style who is somewhat the obverse of 
Ozu (q.v.): where Ozu affirms the values 
of family and traditional social values, 
Oshima rejects them. Very much a 
member of the postwar Japanese genera- 
tion who grew up during the period of 
industrialization and urbanization in the 
Western manner, his films are vigorous 
explorations of the personal and social 
implications of the values of modern Jap- 
anese society. He joined Shochiku in 1954 
as an assistant and directed his first film 
in 1959. His early films, notably The 
Sun's Burial, were quasi-documentary 
portraits of adolescent crime, an ap- 
proach he maintained in his first major 
film, The Catch (61), a violent denuncia- 
tion of the nationalistic values of the 
older generation. His later films aban- 
doned traditional narrative realism in 
favor of a complex style that uses illu- 
sion and fantasy to interpret events that 
inevitably exist on varying levels of re- 
ality and to query traditional moral and 
social assumptions. Double Suicide, Diary 
of a Shinjuku Thief, The Boy, and Death 
by Hanging have confirmed him as one 
of the most original and searching of 
contemporary film makers. 
Dot: Ai to Kibo no Machi/A Town of 
Love and Hope (59), Seishun Zankoku 



Monogatari/Cruel Story of Youth/Naked 
Youth (60), Taiyo no Hakaba/The Sun's 
Burial (60), Nihon no Yoru to Kiri/ 
Night and Fog in Japan (60), Shiku/The 
Catch (61), Amakusa Shiro Tokisadaf 
The Revolutionary (62), Chiisana Boken 
Ryoko/A Small Child's First Adventure 
(64), Watashii wa Belle tt/ It' s Me Here, 
Bellett (64), Etsuraku/ Pleasures of the 
Flesh (65), Yunbogi no Nikki/The Diary 
of Yunbogi (65), Hakuchu no Torima/ 
Violence at Noon (66), Ninja Bugeicho/ 
Band of Ninja (67), Nihon Shunka-Ko/ 
Sing a Song of Sex/ A Treatise on Jap- 
anese Bawdy Songs (67), Muri Shinju 
Nihon no Natsu/ Japanese Summer: Dou- 
ble Suicide /Night of the Killer (67). 
Koshikei/ Death by Hanging (68), Shin- 
juku Dorobo Nikki/Diary of a Shinjuku 
Thief (68), Kaettekita Yopparai/A Sin- 
ner in Paradise (68), Shonen/The Boy 
(69), Tokyo Senso Sengo Hiwa — Eigade 
lshoo no Koshite Shinda Otokono Mono- 
gatari (70). 

Otani, Tokejiro prod Japan. (Kyoto Dec 
13, 1 877-7) A Japanese executive pro- 
ducer in the Hollywood manner who co- 
founded, with Matsujiro Shirai, the Sho- 
chiku Cinema Company, a dominant 
influence on the Japanese cinema in the 
Twenties that has continued to be one 
of the major production-releasing com- 
panies. He began his career as a peanut 
vendor, initially developed Shochiku into 
a theatrical monopoly owning Kabuki 
troupes and many theaters, and became 
interested in films after observing the 
tremendous box-office success of In- 
tolerance*. 

OTSEP, Fyodor see OZEP, FEDOR 

OZEP, Fedor [alto, in USSR, Fyodor Ottep) 

dir USSR/Germany /France/USA. (Mos- 
cow Feb 9, 1895-Hollywood 1948) An 
active force in the Soviet cinema as 
scriptwriter and artistic supervisor of the 
Russ film cooperative (1918) who di- 
rected some interesting films, including 
The Yellow Pass. He made a somewhat 
pedantic adaptation of The Living Corpse 
in Berlin, remained there to make sound 
films, and later made a number of medi- 
ocre films in France and North America. 
[scen (notably): Protazanov's The 
Queen of Spades (16), Sanin's Poll- 
kushka (19), and his own Miss Mend 
(26). 



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MR (notably): Miss Mend (USSR26) 
(co-dir: B. Barnet), Zemlya v plenu/ 
Earth in Chains/The Yellow Pass (USSR 
28), Zhivoi trap/Der Lebende Leichman/ 
The Living Corpse (USSR/Ger29), 
M order Dimitri Karamasoff / Karamazov / 
Murder of Karamazov (Ger31), Amok 
(Fr34), Tarakanova (Fr37), (co-dir: 
M. Soldati), Gibraltar (Fr38), She Who 
Dares (USA44), La Forteresse /Whisper- 
ing City (Canada47). It is said that 
Brecht wrote, uncredited, the script of 
the latter film, whose plot resembles 
that of Hitchcock's later Stranger on a 
Train.] 



OZU, Yaîujiro dir Japan. (Tokyo Dec 15, 
1903-Tokyo Dec 15, 1963) One of the 
great artists of the cinema, a film maker 
the Japanese ^themselves consider the 
most Japanese but one whose work was 
until recently little known in the West. 
He joined Shochiku at the age of twenty 
and four years later made his first film. 
Apart from his early nonsense-comedy 
films he specialized throughout his 40- 
year film career and 54 films in shomin- 
geki, social comedies and dramas about 
the lower middle-class — especially office 
workers — their family life and the tra- 
ditional ways of life. He was much more 
interested in character and observation 
than in action or plot: "Pictures with 
obvious plots bore me now. Naturally, 
a film must have some kind of structure 
or else it is not a film, but I feel that a 
picture isn't good if it has too much 
drama or too much action.'* Donald 
Richie wrote: "With little or no interest 
in plot movement, Ozu concerns himself 
with character development, and all of 
his better films represent a leisurely dis- 
closure of character, the like of which 
is rare in the films of any director . . . 
Ozu's characters and his tempo are in 
perfect synchronization with this time 
system he has created. His is time as 
it actually is. It is psychological time 
and so clock time has no meaning. Critic 
Tsuneo Hazumi's remark that 'Ozu's 
world is one of stillness' is accurate only 
if one realizes that this stillness, this re- 
pose, is the surface which is presents and 
that, beneath this world, lies the thwarted 
yet potential violence found in the Jap- 
anese family system." His style is eco- 
nomic and sparse in the extreme yél 
completely rigorous. He eschewed most 
accepted cinematic and editing devices 



and almost never moved the camera 
during shooting. Continuing scenes were 
almost always shot in one take and from 
the same viewpoint, about three feet 
from floor level, the level of someone 
seated in traditional fashion on tatami: 
"It is the attitude of a haiku master 
(with whom Ozu shares much) who sits 
in utter silence and with an occasionally 
painful accuracy observes cause and ef- 
fect, reaching essence through an ex- 
treme simplification. Inextricable from 
Buddhist precepts, it puts the world at 
a distance and makes the spectator a 
recorder of impressions which do not 
personally involve him" (Donald Richie). 
He took great pains preparing his scripts 
(usually in collaboration with Kogo 
Noda), selecting the right actors for 
the roles he was evolving and choosing 
carefully the properties used on the 
sets so that they played a role in re- 
vealing the personalities of his charac- 
ters. "Ozu's attitude to the films has 
always been that of a perfectionist . . . 
In everything that Ozu does in films, 
the parts fit so perfectly that one is 
never conscious of the virtuosity with 
which it is done. His pictures are so 
subtle — the precise opposite of Kuro- 
sawa's (q.v.) that one never thinks to 
praise the skill with which his effects 
are achieved" (Donald Richie). 
dir: Zange no Yaiba/Sword of Penitence 

(27) , Wakodo no Y urne I Dreams of 
Youth (28), Nyobu Funshitsu/Wife Lost 

(28) , Kabocha/ 'Pumpkin (28), Hikkoshl 
Fufu/A Couple on the Move (28), Niku- 
taibi/Body Beautiful (28), Takara no 
Yama/Treasure Mountain (29), Waka- 
kihi/Days of Youth (29), Wasel Kenka 
Tomodachi/ Fighting Friends (29), Dai- 
gaku wa Deta Keredo/l Graduated, 
But . . . (29), Kaishain Seikatsu/Life of 
an Office Worker (30), Tokkan Kozof 
A Straightforward Boy (30), Kekkon- 
Gaku Nyumon I Introduction to Marriage 
(30), Hogaraka ni Ay urne /Walk Cheer- 
fully (30), Rakudai wa Shita Keredo/ 
I Failed, But . . . (30), Sono yo no 
Tsuma/That Night's Wife (30), Erogaml 
no Onryo/The Revengeful Spirit of Eros 
(30), A s hi ni Sawatta Koun/Luck 
Touched My Legs (30), Ojosan/Young 
Miss (30), Shukujo to Hige/The Lady 
and Her Favorites (30), Bijin Aishuf 
The Beauty's Sorrows (31), Tokyo no 
Gassho/The Chorus of Tokyo* (31), 
Ham wa Gofujin Kara/Spring Comes 
from the Ladies (32), Umarete wa Mita 



Copyrighted material 



Keredo/I Was Born, But . . .* (32), 
Seishun no Yume Ima Izuko/Where Art 
the Dreams of Youth? (32), Mata Au 
HI Made/Until the Day We Meet Again 

(32) , Tokyo no Onna/Woman of Tokyo 

(33) , Hifosen no Onna/ Women on the 
Firing Line (33), Dekigokoro/ Passing 
Fancy (33), H aha o Kowazuya/A 
Mother Ought to Be Loved (34), Ukt- 
gusa Monogatari/The Story of Floating 
Weeds (34), Hakoiri Musume/The 
Young Virgin (35), Tokyo Yoi Toko/ 
Tokyo's a Nice Place (35), Tokyo no 
Yada/An Inn in Tokyo (35), Daigaku 
Yoi Toko/College is a Nice Place (36), 
Hitori Musuko/The Only Son (36), 
Shukujo wa Nani o Wasuretaka/What 
Did the Lady Forget? (37), Toda-ke no 
Kyodai/The Toda Brothers (41), Chichi 



Arlki/There Is a Father (42), Nagaya 
Shlnshl Roku/Tht Record of a Tene- 
ment Gentleman (48), Kaze no Naka 
no Mendort/A Hen in the Wind (48). 
Banshun/Late Spring (49), M un a k at a 
Shi mai /The Munakata Sisters (50), 
Bakushu/Early Summer (51), O-chazukt 
no All/The Flavor of Green Tea over 
Rice (52), Tokyo Monogatarl/ Tokyo 
Story* (53), Soshunf Early Spring (56), 
Tokyo Boshoku/Tokyo Twilight (57), 
Hlganbana/ Equinox Flower (58), Ohayo/ 
Good Morning I Too Much Talk (59), 
Ukigusa/ Floating Weeds (59), Aklbh 
yort/Late Autumn (60), Kohayagawa-ke 
no Aki/The Autumn of the Kohayagawa 
Family /Early Autumn/The Last of Sum- 
mer (61), Somma no Aji/An Autumn 
Afternoon/ The Taste of Mackerel* (62). 



I 



192 



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PABST, G»org Wllhtlm dir Germany/ 
France/Austria. (Raudnitz, Bohemia 
Aug 27, 1885-Vienna May 30, 1967) A 
film maker who, during his best years 
(1925-32), brought a fresh vision to the 
German cinema with his naturalistic 
films that had much in common with 
Neue Sachlichkeit (New Objectivity). He 
began his career ( 1905) as a stage actor, 
began film acting in 1921, and the fol- 
lowing year was scriptwriter and as- 
sistant to Carl Froelich (g.v.) on Der 
Taugenichts and Luise Millerin. His first 
film was the somewhat expressionist 
Der Schatz (25) but he revealed his 
penchant for realism on the film that 
established his reputation: The Joyless 
Street (25), in which he forcefully por- 
trayed the tragic disarray of the Vien- 
nese middle classes after the war. Al- 
though he said in 1927, "What need is 
there for romantic treatment? Real life is 
too romantic, too ghastly," he himself 
used romanticism most pointedly in Pan- 
doras Box (29) (a paean to the fas- 
cinating beauty of Louise Brooks), 
Diary of a Lost Girl (29), and The Love 
of Jeanne Ney (27). "Isn't it in raising 
social and erotic questions," he said in 
1930, "that we will find the essential 
material for all our films? But public 
taste has been corrupted by the banal- 
ity of American stories. And the censor 
undertakes to shun intellectual concerns 
when considering themes. And yet we 
wo no longer children." His sound films, 
Westfront 1918, Threepenny Opera, and 
Kameradschaft, are part of an adult 
cinema, socially committed films that 
took him to the peak of the international 
cinema. Then came decline. After L'At- 
lantide (32) and Don Quichotte (33) in 
France and a brief sojourn (and one 
film) in the USA, he returned to France 
and made several mediocre films. [In 
1939 he returned to Austria to liquidate 



his property and settle his affairs but the 
outbreak of war prevented his departure 
for the USA. He made two uninteresting 
(and no apolitical) historical films dur- 
ing the war and after the war directed 
several, largely routine films.] He had 
only seven creative years before his de- 
cline but many directors would consider 
themselves favored by as much. 
dir: Der Schatz (23), Gràfin Donelll 
(24), Die Freudlose Gasse/The Joyless 
Street* (25), Geheimnisse einer Seele/ 
Secrets of a Soul (26), Man spielt nicht 
mit der Liebe.'/Don't Play with Love 
(26), Der Liebe de Jeanne Ney /The 
Love, of Jeanne Ney* (27), Abwege/ 
Crisis (28), Die Biichse der Pandora/ 
Pandora's Box* (28/29), Tagebuch 
einer Verlorenen/ Diary of a Lost Girl* 
(29), Die Weisse Halle vom Piz Palii/ 
The White Hell of Pitz Palu 29, sound 
version 35) (co-dir; Arnold Fanck), 
Westfront 1918/Four from the Infan- 
try* (30), Skandal urn Eva (30), Die 
Dreigroschenoper /Threepenny Opera* 
(31), Kameradschaft* (31), L'Atlantide/ 
Die Herrin von Atlantis* (Fr/Ger32), 
Don Quichotte* (Fr33), De haut en bas 
(Fr33), A Modem Hero (USA34), 
Mademoiselle Docteur /Spies from Salon- 
ika (Fr36), Le Drame de Shanghai 
(Fr38), Jeunes filles en détresse (Fr39), 
Komôdianten (Ger41), Paracelsus (Ger 
43), Der Fall Molander (Ger44, un- 
finished), Der Prozess/The Trial* (Aust 
47), Duell mit dem Tod (Aust49) (su- 
pervised only, dir: Paul May), Ge- 
heiminisvolle Tiefe (Aust51), Ruf aus 
dem Aether (Aust53) (supervised only, 
dir: Georg C. Klaren), La Voce del 
Silencio (It52), Cose da PazzH Droll 
Stories (It53), Dos Bekenntnis der Ina 
Kahr/ Afraid to Love (GFR54), Der 
Letzte Akt/Ten Days to Die (Aust55), 
Es geschah am 20. Juli/The Jackboot 
Mutiny (GFR55), Rosen fûr Bettlna 



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(GFR56), Dutch die Wâlder, dutch die 
Auen (GFR56). 

PAGE, louis photog France. (Lyon March 
16, 1905- ) French cameraman respon- 
sible for the exceptional and poetic pho- 
tography in Malraux's (q.v.) Espoir* 
and Grcmillon's {q.v.) Lumiète d'été* 
(43) and Le Ciel est à vous* (44) whose 
almost newsreel style was a precursor of 
Italian neorealism. 

PAG LIERO, Marcello {also, Marcel Pagliero) 

Dm Italy/France. (London Jan 15, 1907- 
) An actor (he played the Resistance 
leader in Rome, Open City*) who was 
also a talented director in the Forties 
with, at his best, a style derived from 
both Italian neorealism and French poetic 
realism: Roma, Città Libeta (It46), Un 
homme marche dans la ville* (Fr49), 
Les Amants de Btas-Mott (Fr50). [His 
later films, e.g., La P . . . respecteuse 
(Fr52), Vergine Modema (It54), Walk 
into Paradise (Austral56), are of little 
interest. Since 1964 he has worked for 
TV.] 

pagnol, Marcel scen/dir France. (Au- 
bagne Feb 25, 1895- ) Above all a 
playwright and theatrical producer who 
advocated in 1930 that the sound film 
become "canned theater" and had his 
Marins and Fanny directed by Alexander 
Korda {q.v.) and Marc Allégret (q.v.), 
respectively. He himself became a di- 
rector whose films were often extremely 
popular abroad. He brought to the 
French cinema in the Thirties a robust 
realism, not far from populism, that con- 
tributed to the style in which Renoir's 
Toni* (which he produced) is included. 
He had a special gift with actors — who 
most often came from the caf'conc' of 
Marseilles. 

scen (notably): for Korda, Marius* 
(31); for Marc Allégret, Fanny* (32); 
for Louis Gasnier, Topaze (32); for 
Raymond Bernard, Tartarin de Taras- 
con (34); for Bernard Deschamps, Le 
Rosier de Madame Husson (32); and for 
his own films. 

Dm (notably): Un direct au coeur (33), 
Joffroy (33), Angèle* (34), Merleusse 
(35), Cigalon (35), César* (36), Regain 
(37), La Femme du boulanger* (38), 
Le Schpountz (38), La Fille du puisatier 
(40), Nais (45), La Belle meunière 
(48), Topaze (51), (remake), Manon 



des sources (53), Lettres de mon moulin 
(54). 

PAINIEVE, Jean DiR France. (Paris Nov 
20, 1902- ) Scientist and documentary 
film maker whose research studies and 
popular science films (about 100, mostly 
on marine animals) over some forty 
years were major contributions to the 
field and influential on its development 
The rigorous scientific attitude of his 
films and their often striking visual 
beauty followed the path laid down by 
Jules Marey (q.v.), the inventor and 
founder of the scientific cinema. 
The son of the famous mathematician 
and politician, Paul Prudent Painlevé, 
he made his first film in 1922 as part of 
a scientific paper to the French Academy 
of Sciences. He aims to portray nature 
"from the scientific and photogenic view- 
point," avoiding as much as possible, 
"the twin blinkers of anthropomorphism 
and anthropocentrism." He said in 1930: 
"Whatever the chosen subject, the artis- 
tic aspect must always be shown to as 
much advantage as the scientific. This is 
considerably easier to achieve with a 
more abstract subject or when the magni- 
fications used or the manner of recording 
(high speed, time lapse) make the un- 
usual and wonderful aspects more evi- 
dent. Very pleasingly, in this way, one is 
undoubtedly moving toward a form of 
absolute cinema." He founded the Insti- 
tut de Cinéma Scientifique in 1930 and 
was co-founder of the International Sci- 
entific Film Association. 
DiR (notably): Oeuf d'épinoche (22), 
Bernard l'ermite (27), La Pieuvre (28), 
Les Oursins (28), La Daphnie (29), Le 
Hyas (29), Reviviscence dun chien 
(29), Les Crevettes (30), Caprelles et 
Pantopedes (30), Ruptures de fibres 
(31), Mouvements intraprotoplasmiques 
de l'elodea canadensis (31), Electro- 
phorèse du nitrate d'argent (32), L'Hip- 
pocampe* (34), Corethre (35), Micro- 
scopie à bord d'un bateau de pêche (36), 
Voyage dans le ciel (36), (co-dir: A.-P. 
Dufour), Culture des tissus (37), Barbe- 
Bleue (37), (cor-dir René Bertrand), 
Images mathématiques de la lutte pour 
la vie (38), Solutions Françaises (39- 
45), Le Vampire (45), Assassins d'eau 
douce (47), Notre planète la terre (47), 
l'Oeuvre scientifique de Pasteur (47) 
(co-dir: Rouquier), Ecriture de la danse 
(48), Les Oursins (53), Comment nai- 
sent les Méduses (60), Danseuses de la 



194 



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mer (62), Histoire de crevettes (64), 
Les Amours de la pieuvre (67). 

PAL, George ANIM Netherlands/Britain 

A N I M/D IB / PROD/SPECIAL EFFECTS USA. 

(Hungary Feb. 1, 1900- ) Former pup- 
peteer in the Netherlands and Britain, 
Aladdin (36), Sinbad (36), On Parade 
(36) What Ho, She Bumps (37)-, Sky 
Pirates (38) Love on the Range (39) 
(all using wooden marionettes), he 
moved to the USA in 1940, made a 
scries of "Puppetoons" and later be- 
came a special effects technician, pro- 
ducer, and occasionally director of films 
combining live action, animation, and 
trick work (for which he won six Os- 
cars), e.g.: Destination Moon (50) (dir: 
I. Pichel), When World Collide (51) 
(dir: Maté), War of the Worlds (53) 
(dir: B. Ha skin), The Conquest of 
Space (55) (dir: Haskin). He himself 
directed Tom Thumb (58), The Time 
Machine (60), Atlantis, the Lost Con- 
tinent* (61), The Wonderful World of 
the Brothers Grimm (62), The Seven 
Faces of Dr. Lao (64). 

PAlSBO, oie nm Denmark. (Copenhagen 
Aug 13, 1909-Copenhagen June 11, 
1952) Documentarist and film maker 
almost completely unknown outside his 
own country, who seems to have been, 
with the Henning-Jensens (q.v.), the best 
Danish director of the postwar period 
with liberal ideals and a racy, satiric 
style. 

Dm (notably): Spild er Penge (42), 
Kommunerne i vore dage (43), Vibringer 
en advarsel (44), Kartofier (45), Stop 
tyven (45), Uvsf are-Miner! (46), Dis- 
kret ophold (46) (fiction), Ta' hvad du 
vil ha' (47) (fiction), Kampen mod uret- 
ten (48) (fiction), Familien Schmidt 
(50), (fiction), Vi arme syndere (52) 
(fiction), Man hurde to" sig af det (52). 

pan ijel, J «que» Dm France. (Paris 1921- 
) Apart from La Peau et les os I The 
Mazur File (60) (co-dir: J.-P. Sassy) 

which won the Prix Jean Vigo, he has 

directed (anonymously) Octobre à Paris 
(62), on the demonstrations in Algeria 
and the repercussions in Paris, one of 
those films that Delluc said "go beyond 
art, being life itself." 

♦PASOLINI, Piero Poole dir/scen Italy. 
(Bologna 1922- ) Novelist, poet, the- 



the Sixties into one of the most potent 
forces of a new generation of Italian film 
makers; his films and articulate the- 
oretical writings have influenced both 
Bertolucci (?. v.) and Be Hoc h io (q.v.). 
His first contact with the cinema was 
as scriptwriter, notably as consultant on 
Fellini's Le Notti di Cabiria and col- 
laborator on Bolognini's La Notte Brava 
and // Bell' Antonio; he directed his first 
film, Accattone, in 1961. He is a con- 
vinced Marxist and humanist, attitudes 
evident in all his work, from the pitiless 
attack on materialism in Accattone, 
through the historical dialectic of The 
Gospel According to St. Matthew and 
the satirical comedy of The Hawks and 
the Sparrows and his sketch films, to the 
blend of myth and realism in Oedipus 
Rex and Teorema. His literary back- 
ground has contributed much to his work, 
but not at the expense of seeking an 
aesthetic peculiar to the cinema: "I made 
my first film simply in order to express 
myself in a different medium — a medium 
that I knew nothing about and whose 
technique I had to learn with that first 
film. And for each subsequent picture, 
I have had to learn a different tech- 
nique ... I am always trying out new 
means of expression." "I now find that 
the meaningfulness of images is analo- 
gous to the meaningfulness of words, that 
content achieves the same power of com- 
munication ... an image can have an 
allusive force equivalent to that of a 
word, since it represent the culmination 
of a series of analogies selected aestheti- 
cally." 

co-scen: for Soldati, La Donna del 
Fiume (54); for Luis Trenker, // Pri- 
gioniero delta Montagna (55); for Fel- 
lini, Le Notti di Cabiria* (56); for 
Bolognini, Marisa la Civet ta (57), Gio- 
vanni Mariti (58), La Notte Brava (59), 
7/ Bell' Antonio (59), La Giornata Ba- 
lorda (60); for Franco Rossi, Morte di 
un Amico (60); for Cecilia Mangini, La 
Canta della Marane (60) (short; com- 
mentary based on a chapter of his novel, 

Ragazza di Vita); for Florestano Van- 
cini, La Lunga Notte del '43 ( 60); for 
Gianni Puccini, // Carro Armato dell' 8 
Settembre (60); for Luciano Emmer, 
La Ragazza in Vetrina (61); for Berto- 
lucci La Commare Secca (62); and for 
all his own films. 

Dm: Accattone* (61), Mamma Roma 
(62), Rogopag (62) (one episode), La 
Rabbia (63) (one episode, not released), 



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Comizi d'Amore (64), Sopraluoghl in 
Palestina (64) (documentary), // Van- 
gelo Secondo Matteo/The Gospel Ac- 
cording to St. Matthew* (64), La 
Streghe/The Witches (66) (one episode), 
Uccellacci e Uccellini/The Hawks and 
the Sparrows (66), A more e Rabbin f 
Vangelo '70 (67, released 69) (one epi- 
side), Edipo Re /Oedipus Rex* (67), 
Teorema (68), Porcile/Pig Sty (69), 
Medea (70), // Decamerone (71). 

PASTRONE, Giovanni {also Piero Fo<co) DIR 

Italy. (Asti Sept 13, 1882-Turin June 29, 
1959) A pioneer film maker of rare skill 
and intelligence, originally a technician 
and founder of Itala Film, who was the 
first to launch himself into directing 
spectacular costume dramas — The Fall 
of Troy (10)— after making numerous 
comedies and dramas. His ambitions 
reached full fruition in Cabiria, a master- 
piece of the genre, a key film in the 
history of the cinema, and unquestion- 
ably an influence on D. W. Griffith 
(q.v.). He abandoned the cinema after 
1919. 

DiR (notably): La Caduta de Troia (10) 
(sets by Romagnon Borgnetto), Cabiria* 
(14), Maciste (15), // Fuco (15), Ma- 
ciste Alpino (16), Tigre reale (16), 
Maciste A tie ta (19), Hedda Gabier (19). 

PATHE, Charles prod France. (Chevry- 
Cossigny 1863-Monte-Carlo Dec 26, 
1957) The Napoleon of the film indus- 
try, a pioneer industrialist who started 
with a fun fair and erected, first from 
the phonograph then from the cinema, 
an empire that soon spread across the 
entire world and monopolized the indus- 
try from raw stock and cameras to pro- 
jectors, theaters and films themselves. In 
1909 he sold in the USA twice as many 
films as all the American companies 
combined and in 1913 the Germans said 
of him: "He has taken from our coun- 
try far more than the 5 billions paid by 
France after the Franco-Prussian war." 
The cameramen, producers, and distribu- 
tors of Pathé Frères were pioneers of 
the industry in Australia, Japan, Brazil, 
and the East Indies. After the First 
World War, amenable to the financiers 
who ruled him, he allowed his empire 
to be dismembered and the parts sold 
to the highest bidder. He retired after 
1930 and exploded the Nathan scandal 
around the French company he was leav- 



ing—but he chose Monaco rather than 
Elba for his last years. 

PAVIOT, Paul DiR France. (Paris March 
11, 1925- ) Originally a documentary 
film maker and director of parodie me- 
dium-length fiction films whose first fea- 
ture, Pantalaskas (59), was a robust and 
sensitive film. 

dir: Terreur en Oklahoma (50) (co- 
dir: A. Heinrich), Chicago Digest (51), 
Torticola contre Frankensberg (52), 
Saint-Tropez, devoir de vacances (52), 
Lumière (53), Pantomimes (54), Un 
jardin public (55), La Parade (55), 
Mam'zelle Souris (58) (TV series), 
Django Reinhardt (58), Pantalaskas 
(59) (feature), Portrait-robot (60) (fea- 
ture). 

*PECKINPAH, Sam dir USA. (Madera 
County, California 1926- ) Maker of 
westerns with a personal vision, a per- 
fectly controlled style, and a concern for 
using the form to explore moral conflicts. 
His work has continued that of Boetti- 
cher (q.v.) in rejuvenating the western. 
He studied drama at the University of 
Southern California and began film work 
as dialogue director with Don Siegel and 
later as writer/director on several TV 
western series. His first two features, 
The Deadly Companions and Ride the 
High Country, leisurely exposés of moral 
conflict and character, immediately es- 
tablished his reputation, but until the 
success of The Wild Bunch (69) he suf- 
fered extensively from producer inter- 
ference. He was replaced by Norman 
Jewison on The Cincinnati Kid (64) 
after only a few days shooting, and his 
Major Dundee, with its ironic use of 
western mythology, was re-edited by the 
producers. Many projects failed to ma- 
terialize and he returned to TV directing. 
He has said: "Most of my work has been 
concerned one way or another with out- 
siders, losers, loners, misfits, rounders — 
individuals looking for something be- 
sides security . . . (Pretentiousness) is 
what I really resent in a picture more 
than anything else, that fatal weakness 
of so many astonishingly good directors." 
Unfortunately, after the masterly The 
Wild Bunch, he himself fell prey to this 
weakness in The Ballad of Cable Hogue. 
Dm: Gunsmoke (57) (TV series, di- 
rected 13), The Riflemen (58) (TV 
series, wrote only), The Westerner (60- 
61) (TV series, directed most), The 



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Deadly Companions/Trigger Happy (61), 
Ride the High Country/Guns in the Af- 
ternoon* (61), Pericles on 34th Street 
(62) (TV), The Losers (63) (TV), 
Major Dundee (65), Moon Wine (67) 
(TV), The Wild Bunch* (69), The Bal- 
lad of Cable Hogue (70), Straw Dogs 
(Brit71). 

PEIXOTO, Mario DIR. Brazil. (Rio 1912- ) 
A strange character who made Limite* 
(30) when he was 18 years old, a film 
considered in his own country and in 
Europe as a masterpiece but which, since 
1940, he has not allowed anyone to see. 
He did not make any other contribu- 
tions to the cinema apart from two or 
three scripts. 

•PENN, Arthur DiR USA. (Philadelphia 
Sept 27, 1922- ) A talented film maker, 
former TV and stage producer, with a 
succession of individualistic films to his 
credit: The Left-Handed Gun, The 
Chase, Bonnie and Clyde, Little Big 
Man, films whose impulsive, instinctive 
characters try to cope, frustratedly, with 
destiny. He said: "I think that there is 
very little that one can do about one's 
fate. I mean in term of external reali- 
ties—how much effect one has upon 
what happens in one's life. How one 
lives with it is quite another matter." The 
penchant for excessive symbolism in his 
earlier work {The Left-Handed Gun, 
Mickey One) has matured into an elo- 
quent use of metaphorical imagery. 
Dm: The Left-Handed Gun* (58), The 
Miracle Worker (62), Mickey One (64), 
The Chase (65), Bonnie and Clyde* (67), 
Alice's Restaurant (69), Little Big Man 
(70). 

PEON, Ramon Dm Cuba/Mexico. (Cuba 
190?- ) His best work was in Cuba, 
where he made La Virgen de la Caridad* 
(30), a film of undeniable quality for 
his country at the time. He later settled 
in Mexico and made films that are un- 
distinguishable from those of other pro- 
lific directors of the 1935-60 period. 

PEREIRA DOS SANTOS, Nelson See SANTOS, 
NELSON PEREIRA DOS 

*PERIES, Ustor Jamas DIR Ceylon. (1921- 
) Excellent Sinhalese film maker, 
sometimes dubbed "Ceylon's Satyajit 
Ray," not only because of his intimate, 
elegaic style and sense of rhythm and 



characterization, but also because of his 
impact on the cinema in Ceylon and 
his giving it an international prominence. 
A former journalist and amateur film 
maker, he made several documentaries 
before achieving an immediate interna- 
tional reputation with his first feature, 
Rekava. 

DiR (shorts): Farewell to Childhood 

(50) , A Sinhalese Dance (51), Soliloquy 

(51) , Conquest of the Dry Zone (54), 
Be Safe or Be Sorry (55), Too Many, 
Too Soon (61), Home from the Sea (62), 
Forward into the Future (64), Steel 
(69), Forty Leagues from Paradise (70), 
A Dream of Kings (70). 

DiR (features) : Rekava/ Line of Destiny* 
(56), Sandesaya/The Message (60), 
Gamperilaya/The Changing Countryside 
(64), Delovak Athara/ Between Two 
Worlds (66), Ran Salu/The Yellow 
Robe/Golden Shawl (67), Golu Hada- 
watha/The Silence of the Heart (68), 
Akkara Paha/Two Acres of Land (69). 

PERINAL, Georges PHOTOG France/Britain. 
(Paris 1897-London April 1965) A bril- 
liant and talented cameraman who con- 
tributed much to the films of Grémillon 
(q.v.) and René Clair (q.v.) from 1927- 
33 and in London was one of the prin- 
cipal talents behind the success of 
Korda's The Private Life of Henry Vlll. 
However, he later rarely found a director 
to match his own talents. 
photoo (notably): for Grémillon, Mal- 
done* (27), Gardiens de phare* (29), 
Da'inah la métisse (31); for Clair, La 
Tour (28), Sous les toits de Paris* (30), 
Le Million* (31), A nous la liberté* 
(31), Quatorze juillet (32); for Feyder, 
Les Nouveaux messieurs* (28); for Coc- 
teau, Le Sang d'un poète* (30); for 
Alexander Korda, The Girl from Max- 
im's (Brit33); The Private Life of Henry 
VIII* (Brit33), Rembrandt (Brit36), 
Perfect Strangers (Brit45); for Duvivier, 
Maria Chapdelaine (Fr34); for Paul 
Czinner, Catherine the Great (Brit34); 
for William Cameron Menzies, Things 
to Come (Brit36); for Michael Powell, 
The Thief of Bagdad (Brit40), The Life 
and Death of Colonel Blimp (Brit43), 
Honeymoon (Brit58); for Leslie How- 
ard, The First of the Few/Spitfire (Brit 
42); for Cavalcanti, Nicholas Nickleby 
(Brit47); for Carol Reed, The Fallen 
Idol* (Brit48); for Marc Allégret, 
L'Amant de Lady Chatterley (Fr55); for 
Chaplin, A King in New York* (Brit 



Uopy riQhtod mstcnsl 



57); for Preminger, Saint Joan* (Brit 
57), Bonjour Tristesse (USA57); for 
Stanley Donen, Once More with Feeling 
(USA59); for Gregory Ratoff, Oscar 
Wilde (Brit60). 

PERRET, Uenee dir France/USA- (Niort 
May 13, 1880-Niort 1935) Unexacting 
in his choice of scripts and often accept- 
ing the worst melodramas and chauvin- 
istic propaganda, he had, nonetheless, 
a real narrative sense and a feeling for 
visual design. His Enfants de Paris (13), 
was a model of cinematic writing, much 
in advance of its time, and even better 
than Griffith's (q.v.) scripts at the time. 
He was originally an actor (notably for 
Feuillade), began directing in 1908 for 
Gaumont, and made over 200 films in 
his career. He was in the USA from 
1916-21. 

dir (notably) : Noël d'artiste, Le Rot de 
Thulé, Molière, Main de fer, Rival de 
Chérubin, La Dentellière, Les Blouses 
blanches, La Bonne Hôtesse, etc. (08- 
12), Léonce series (10-16), L'Enfant 
de Paris* (13), Le Roi de la Montagne 

(14) , Les Mystères de l'ombre (14), 
La Voix de la patrie (15), Le Héros de 
fYser (15), Les Poilus de la revanche 

(15) , The Silent Master (USA17), Lest 
We Forget (18), Million Dollar Dollies 
(18), The Thirteenth Chair (19), Soul 
Adrift (19), Ufting Shadows (19), Twin 
Pawns 20), Tarnished Reputations (20), 
A Modern Salome (20), The Money 
Maniac (USA21), Koenigsmark (Fr23), 
Madame Sans-Gêne (25), La Femme nue 
(26), Morgane la sirène (28), Quand 
nous étions deux (29), Après l'amour 
(31), Enlevez-moi (32), Sapho (34), 
Les Précieuses ridicules 35). 

♦pétri, Elie dir/scen Italy. (Rome Jan 
29, 1929- ) A member of the Pasolini- 
Bertolucci-Bellochio (all q.v.) genera- 
tion of Italian film makers who are 
dedicated to exploring the structure of 
society, he has evolved an individualistic, 
elliptical style, at his best in The Assassin 
(60), A Quiet Day in the Country (68), 
and Investigation of a Citizen Above 
Suspicion (69). He has been very active 
in left-wing politics, was film critic for 
the communist paper L'Unità, and began 
his film career as scriptwriter for De 
Santis, Lizzani, Casadio, etc. He made 
many documentaries, including / Sette 
Contadini (49) before his first film in 
1960. 



co-scen: for De Santis, Roma Ore 11* 
(51), Un Marito per Anna Zacheo (53), 
Giorni d' A more (54), Uomini e Lupi 
(56), La Strada Lunga un Anno/The 
Road a Year Long* (Yug/It59), La 
Garconière (60); for Amato, Donne 
Proibite (53); for G. Brignone, Quando 
Tramenta il Solle (56); for A. Casadio, 
Un Ettaro di Cielo (57); for E. Proven- 
çale, Vento del Sud (59); for Puccini, 
L'Impiegato (59); for Lizzani, // Gobbo 
(60); for Schott-Schôbinger, Le Notti dei 
Teddy Boys (60); for Risi, 1 Mostri 
(63). 

dir: L'Assassino/The Assassin (60); / 
Giorni Contatl (61), 11 Maestro di Vige- 
vano (63), Alta lnfedeltà (64) (one epi- 
sode), La Decima Vittima (65), A Cias- 
cuno il Suo/We Still Kill the Old Way 
66), Un Tranquillo Posto di Campagna/ 
A Quiet Day in the Country (68); Inda- 
gine su un Cittadino al di sopra di Ogni 
Sospetto/ Investigation of a Citizen Above 
Suspicion (70), // Premio delta Bontd 
(71), La Classe Operaia va in paradiso/ 
The Working Class Goes to Heaven (71). 

PETROV, Vbdimir dir USSR. (Saint Peters- 
burg 1896- ) Former theater director 
and routine Soviet film maker who made 
his film debut with an adaptation of 
Ostrovosky's 1859 play, Groza/The 
Thunderstorm (34). His best film is the 
two-part film, Pyotr Pervyi/Peter the 
Great (37 and 39), whose earthy good 
humor prevented it from merely reflect- 
ing the personality cult — as occurred 
in his grandiloquent portrait of Stalin 
in the two-part Stalingradskaya bitvaf 
The Battle of Stalingrad (50). 

PHAIKE, Dhundiraj Govind DIR/PROD India. 

(Trimbkeshwar 1870-Bombay Feb 16, 
1944) The father of the Indian cinema. 
Trained originally as a Sanskrit scholar, 
he became a skilled photographer and 
printer. In 1911 he developed a pas- 
sionate interest in the cinema and visited 
Pathé (q.v.) in Paris and Cecil Hep- 
worth (q.v.) and others in London to 
obtain guidance in film production. He 
completed his first film. Rajah Haris- 
chandra/ King Harischandra late in 1912 
and from its premiere in 1913 it was a 
phenomenal success. In 1913 he moved 
his company to Nasik, where he started 
what was later to be a highly developed 
film studio employing about 100 workers. 
[He delighted in magical trick effects in 
the Méliès (q.v.) manner and often ex- 



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plored their use as he did with models, 
animation, and color. His historical and 
mythical costume dramas were such a 
continuing success that in 1914, on a 
second visit to London, he was welcomed 
as a film maker of stature. In 1917, as 
productions became more costly, Phalke 
joined with five partners and in 1927 
withdrew from the company. He made 
two more films (including one with 
sound) but public taste had passed him 
by and they were not a success. As with 
so many of the cinema's pioneers, Phalke 
died a pauper and almost forgotten.] 
dir (notably): Rajah Harischandra (12), 
Bhasamur Mohini/The Legend of Bhasa- 
mur (13), Sav it ri (14), Chandraha, 
Tukaram Malvika, and 16 others (15- 
17), Lanka Dahan/The Burning of Lanka 
(18), Krishna Janma/The Birth of 
Krishna (18), Kaliya Mardan/The Slay- 
ing of the Serpent (19), Sati Manahanda 
(23), Setu Bandhan/ Bridge Across the 
Sea (31), Gangavataren/The Desert of 
Conga (32). 

Phillips, Alex photog Mexico/USA. (On- 
tario, Canada 190?- ) Excellent cam- 
eraman who has given some very beauti- 
ful images to the Mexican cinema, 
images that match those of Figueroa 
(q.v.) and that have contributed to the 
renaissance of the art of the Mexican 
cinema. He has worked notably with 
Bunuel (q.v.) t Fernandez (q.v.), Ro- 
berto Galvadon, and Yves Allégret and 
has occasionally shot Hollywood west- 
erns. He worked on the uncompleted 
Mexican sequence of Welles's It's All 
True. 

PICASSO, Pablo Ruiz y (Malaga 1881- ) 
It is commonly known that Picasso ap- 
peared in Clouzot's Mystère Picasso* 
(56) but it is far less commonly known 
that he made a 16mm color feature in 
the summer of 1950 that has never been 
released. 

PICK, Lupu (alto Lupu-Pick) Dm Germany. 

(Jassy, Romania Jan 2, 1886-Berlin 

March 7, 1931) An actor and director 
who made many mediocre films but was 
also responsible for two masterpieces, 
Scherben (21) and Sylvester (23), both 
of which he directed from Carl Mayer*s 
(q.v.) scripts. The esthetic of Kammer- 
spiel reached its apogee in these two 
modern tragedies in which ordinary 
people are trapped by destiny. 



Dm: Der Liebe des Van Royk (18), Die 
Tolle Heirat von Lalo (18), Der H err 
uber Leben und Tod (19), Kitsch (19), 
Misericordia (19), Seelenverkdufer (19), 
Marionetten der Leidenschaft (19), Mein 
Wille ist Gesetz (19), Der Dummkopf/ 
The Idiot* (20), Dos Lachende Grauen 
(20), Niemand weiss es (20), Oliver 
Twist (20), Tôtet nicht mehr (20), 
Grausige Ndchte (21), Scherben/ Shat- 
tered* (21), Zum Parodies der Damen 
(22), Sylvester/New Year's Eve* (23), 
Weltspiegel (23), Dos Haus der Luge/ 
Arme, kleine Hedwig (25), Dos Panzer- 
gewolbe/The Armored Vault (26), Eine 
Nacht in London (28), Napoleon auf St. 
Helena (29), Gassenhauer (31). 

PIERCE, Jack make-up USA. (New York 
1889-Hollywood 1968) Hollywood make- 
up artist who worked for Universal for 
many years as a specialist on horror 
films and who was responsible for the 
faces of Bela Lugosi in Dracula*, Boris 
Karloff in Frankenstein* and The 
Mummy, and Karloff and Eisa Lanches- 
ter in Bride of Frankenstein. 

* PIN ter, Harold SCEN Britain. (1930- ) 
Major modern English playwright whose 
social comedies are allied to the Theater 
of the Absurd and who has recently 
turned to scriptwriting, most brilliantly 
in his collaboration with Joseph Losey 
(q.v.) on The Servant* (65), Accident 
(67), The Go-Between (71). Also: for 
Jack Clayton, The Pumpkin Eater (63); 
for Michael Anderson, The Quiller 
Memorandum (66). His play, The Care- 
taker, was filmed as The Guest by Clive 
Donner in 1963 and The Birthday Party 
by William Friedkin in 1968. 

PINTOFF, Ernest anim/dir USA. (New 
York Dec 15, 1931- ) One of the best 
contemporary American cartoonists 
whose original style involves an extreme 
economy in graphic design and a rich, 
often satirical, use of sound. He lectured 
at the University of Syracuse before 
joining UPA in 1956 as scriptwriter, 
animator, and producer. In 1957 he cre- 
ated the delightful character of "Flebus M 
for Terrytoons. In 1959 he set up his 
own studios, where he made numerous 
TV commercials and the highly original 
and witty The Violinist, The Interview, 
and The Critic. He has since turned to 
directing live-action films. 



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ANiM (notably): The Wounded Bird 
(56), Aquarium (56), Good Ole Country 
Music (56), Fight on for Old (56), 
Martians Come Back (56), Performing 
Painter (56), Blues Pattern (56), The 
Haunted Night (57), Flebus (57), The 
Violinist (59), The Interview (61), The 
Critic (63), TA* Old Man and the Flower 
(63). 

Dm: The Shoes (61) (short), Harvey 
Middleman, Fireman (64) (feature). 
This is Marshall McLuhan: The Medium 
is the Massage (67) (documentary). 

PISCATOR, Er win dir. Germany/USA. (Ulm 
Dec 17, 1893-West Berlin 1966) A 
major figure in the German theater of 
the Twenties whose stage productions 
greatly influenced Brecht (q.v.). He of- 
ten used film in his productions and 
while director of the International Thea- 
ter in Moscow made an important ex- 
perimental film: Vostaniye rybakov/The 
Revolt of the Fishermen (34). He later 
went to New York as teacher and direc- 
tor and returned to Germany in 1951. 

pizzetti, lldebrando mus Italy. (Parma 
Sept 20, 1880- ) Musician of some 
repute who was interested in the cinema 
since 1914, when he wrote a score to 
accompany Cabiria*. He wrote several 
film scores after the introduction of 
sound, e.g., Camerini's / Promessi Spost 
(40), Lattuada's // Mulino del Po (49). 

PLATEAU, Joseph INVENTOR Belgium. 
(Brussels 1801-Gand 1883) The inven- 
tor of animated pictures — a credit he 
shares with Stampfer (?.v.) — who dem- 
onstrated that in a machine with two 
independently rotating discs it was pos- 
sible to produce the appearance of mo- 
tion in a sequence of drawings on the 
lower disc seen in succession through 
slots in the upper one. In his device, 
originally called Fantascope and later 
(1832) Phénakistiscope, the "moving 
pictures** were viewed through a rotating 
polygon of mirror faces in the center 
of a circular strip of drawings. This 
apparatus later became a well-known 
family toy and was described by Bau- 
delaire. Plateau began his work on the 
pre si st en ce of vision in 1829 and his 
imprudent viewing of the midsummer 
sun eventually cost him his eyesight in 
1843. In 1849 he planned to use photo- 
graphs in his device, but, already blind, 
he had to leave this work to others. 



POGACIC, Vladimir DR Yugoslavia. (Za- 
greb 1918- ) One of the best Serbo- 
Croatian directors whose work is of key 
importance in the postwar development 
of the Yugoslav cinema. He is also di- 
rector of the Yugoslav film archive, Jugo- 
slovenska Kinoteka. His greatest achieve- 
ment was on Big and Small. 
D» (notably): Prica o fabrica/ Story of 
a Factory (48), Poslednji dan/The Last 
Day (51), NevjeraJ 'Equinox (53), Ani- 
kina vremena I Legends about Anika 
(54), Nicola Tesla (56) (documentary), 
Veliki i mali/Big and Small (56), Subo- 
tom uvecef Saturday Evening (57), Sam/ 
Alone (59), Pukotina raja /Heaven with 
No Love (61), Covek sa fotografie/The 
Man from the Photography Department 
(63). 

poirier, Léon DiR France. (Paris 1876 or 
1884-1968) An academic who was orig- 
inally interested in the theater, he was 
nonetheless a dedicated film maker who 
established his reputation after the First 
World War and did his best work on 
documentaries after 1925. 
Dm (notably): Cadette (13), Le Nid 
(14), Ames d'Orient (19), Le Penseur 
(19), Narayana (20), L'Ombre déchirée 

(21) , Le Coffret de jade (21), Jocelyn 

(22) , Geneviève (23), L'Affaire de cour- 
rier de Lyon (23). La Brîère (24), 
Croisière noire (26) (documentary fea- 
ture), Amours exotiques (27) (docu- 
mentary), Verdun, visions d'histoire 
(28), Coin (30), Madagascar (30), 
Verdun, visions d'histoire (31) (sound 
version), La Folle Nuit (32), Chouchou 
poids plume (32), La Voie sans disque 
(33), L'Appel du silence (36), Soeurs 
d'armes (37), Brazza (40), Jannou (43), 
La Route inconnue (47). 

pojar, Bretiilav ANIM Czechoslovakia. 
(Sufice Oct 7, 1923- ) Excellent Czech 
animator who specializes in puppet films 
and is Trnka's (q.v.) best disciple. 
ANiM (notably) : The Gingerbread Cottage 
(51), A Drop Too Much (54), Speibl 
on the Trail (56), The Little Umbrella 
(57), The Lion and the Song (58), Bomb 
Mania (59), How to Furnish an Apart- 
ment (59), A Midnight Adventure (60), 
A Cat's Word of Honor (60), Cat School 

(61) , Painting for Cats (61), The Orator 

(62) , Billiards (62), Romance (63), 
Ideal (64), Come and Play, Sir (65-67) 
(three films), Hold onto Your Hats (67). 



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•POLANSKI, Roman DiR Poland/Britain/ 
USA. (Paris Sept 18, 1933- ) Volatile, 
original, Polish film maker whose ironic 
studies of sexual obsessions have roots 
in Kafka, Ionesco, and Samuel Beckett. 
He began his career (1947) as an actor 
in both plays and films and then studied 
for five years at the Lodz film school, 
where he assisted Munk (q.v.) on Bad 
Luck and made several shorts before 
directing his first feature, Knife in the 
Water (62). However, his short, wry 
fable about nonconformity, Two Men 
and a Wardrobe (58), had already won 
him an international reputation. He later 
left Poland and has since worked mainly 
in Britain. His best films, Repulsion, 
Cul-de-sac, and Rosemary's Baby (his 
first major commercial success) capture 
the perverse, the grotesque, and the sado- 
masochistic sides of human nature, but 
his acidulous vision is tempered by a gift 
for telling imagistic metaphors and a 
mischievous sense of irony and parody. 
Dre (shorts): Rozbijemy Zabawa/ Break 
Up the Party (57), Dwaj ludzie z szafa/ 
Two Men and a Wardrobe (58), Gdy 
spadaja anioly/When Angels Fall (59), 
Lampa/The Lamp (59), Le Gros et le 
maigre (Fr61), Ssaki/ 'Mammals (62). 
Dre (features) : Noz w Wodzie/The Knife 
in the Water (Pol62), Les Plus belles 
escroqueries du monde (Fr63) (one 
episode), Repulsion* (Brit65), Cul-de- 
sac* (Brit66), The Dance of the Vam- 
pires/The Fearless Vampire Killers 
(Brit67), Rosemary's Baby (USA68), 
Macbeth (Brit71). 

* pommer, Erich prod Germany /Britain/ 
USA. (Hildesheim July 20, 1889-HoUy- 
wood May 11, 1966) A key producer 
in the German silent cinema, he founded 
Decla in 1915 (later Decla-Bioscop, 
taken over by UFA in 1923) and played 
a role in encouraging the work of Lang 
(q.v.), Murnau (q.v.), and others, e.g., 
The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari*, Dr. Ma- 
buse der Spieler*, Die Nibelungen* , 
Variété*, Metropolis* , Der Letzte 
Mann*, The Blue Angel*, Liliom 
(France), Die Drei von der Tankstelle*, 
Der Kongress tanzt*. He worked in Hol- 
lywood 1934-37, Britain 1937-40, Holly- 
wood (for Paramount and RKO) 1940- 
46, Germany 1946-56, then returned to 
Hollywood. 

*PONTECORVO, Gille Dre Italy. (Pisa 1919- 
) Former documentary film maker 



and assistant to Ivens, Allégret, and 
Monicelli (all q.v.), his four fiction films 
reflect a continuing quest for the recon- 
struction of actuality using nonprofes- 
sional actors. He believes in spending 
considerable time on research and prep- 
aration in order to be able to build up 
a persuasive "reportage" atmosphere, 
seen at its best in Kapà, the story of a 
young Jewess in Auschwitz who col- 
laborates with the Nazis, and the strik- 
ing The Battle of Algiers. He is the 
brother of nuclear scientist, Bruno Pon- 
tecorvo. 

Dre (shorts): Missione Timiriazev (53), 
Porta Portese (54), Uomini di mar mo 
(55), Cani dietro le Sbarre (55), Pane 
e solfo (60). 

DiR (features): Die Windrose (GDR56) 
(Italian episode, supervised: Joris Ivens, 
Cavalcanti), La Grande Strada azzurra 
(58), Kapo (60), La Battaglia di Algeri/ 
Maarakat Madinat al Jazaer/The Battle 
of Algiers (Algeria/It65), Queimada!/ 
Burn! (70). 

PONTI, Carlo prod Italy. (Milan Dec 11, 
1913- ) Munificent Italian producer 
who once collaborated with De Lau- 
rentiis (q.v.) and has produced the films 
of Lattuada, Camerini, Comencini (all 
q.v.), Toto, etc. — and of his wife, Sophia 
Loren. 

*PONTING, Herbert George DIR/PHOTOG Bri- 
tain. (Wiltshire 1870-1935) The director 
and cameraman of the ancestor of all 
documentary films, With Captain Scott, 
R.N., to the South Pole/The Great White 
Silence*, which he made in 1910-11 as 
official photographer to the ill-fated Scott 
expedition to the Antarctic. He had been 
seriously interested in photography since 
about 1900 and although he then knew 
nothing of film making he was deter- 
mined to take motion pictures of the ex- 
pedition and bought two cameras before 
leaving. As he described it, filming under 
the conditions of extreme cold was very 
difficult: the camera had to be lubri- 
cated with graphite and even loading 
the camera made his fingers frostbitten. 
He processed his own film in the An- 
tarctic and often took great risks to get 
good shots. The results, even 60 years 
later, are impressive, with a real sense 
of composition that conveys the terrible 
beauty of that polar region. He did little 
photographic work after 1920 and spent 
his time re-editing versions of his film, 



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lecturing with it, and working on non- 
photographic inventions. 

POPESCU-GOPO, Ion anim/dir Romania. 
(Bucharest 1923- ) One of the greatest 
European animators, he established his 
international reputation with three shorts, 
A Short History, The Seven Arts and 
Homo Sapiens. All three were whimsical 
accounts of various historical or cultural 
events that featured a kind of nude, 
bald, Archetypal Adam and are full 
of gentle poetry and ingenious and inge- 
nuous gags. He has now largely aban- 
doned animation in favor of live-action 
fantasy and science-fiction films. 
anim (notably): The Naughty Duck 
(51), The Bee and the Dove (51), Two 
Rabbits (53), Marinica (54), Marinica's 
Bodkin (55), A Short History (56), The 
Seven Arts (58), Homo Sapiens (60), 
Alio! Hallo! Alo! (63, for UNESCO). 
dir: Fetita mincinoasa/The Little Liar 
(53), O Musca cu bani/A Fly with 
Money (54), S-a jurat o bomba/ A Bomb 
was Stolen (61), Pasi spre luna/ Steps 
to the Moon (63), De-as fi Harap Alb/ 
The White Moor (65), Faust XX/ 
Faustus XX (66), Orasul meu/My City 
(67), Sanaa Simplicitas (68). 

PORTER, Edwin StraMon DIR USA. (PittS- 

burg 1870-New York April 30, 1941) 
The most important pioneer of the Amer- 
ican cinema. He joined the Edison (q.v.) 
Company in 1896 as mechanic and 
handyman and by 1900 had become a 
cameraman and director, making short 
films from real life and comedy series. 
His first important film was The Life 
of an American Fireman (02), whose 
construction reveals that Porter had 
studied the work of British (e.g., Wil- 
liamson's Fire!, 1901) and other Euro- 
pean pioneers. The following year he 
made the first western, The Great Train 
Robbery, a film that marks the start of 
the rise of the American film. His Uncle 
Tom's Cabin (03) has the charm of 
primitive paintings, and The Dream of 
a Rarebit Fiend (06) makes delightful 
use of trick effects. In 1907, he gave 
D. W. Griffith {q.v.) his first film role 
in Rescued from an Eagle's Nest. [He 
left the Edison Company in 1909 and 
formed his own production company, 
Rex. He joined Adolph Zukor (q.v.) in 
1912 and as production manager helped 
establish Famous Players. He directed 
his last film (shot in Rome) in 1915 and 



retired, wealthy, from the industry only 
to have his investments wiped out in the 
crash of 1929.] 

dir (notably): The America's Cup Race 
(1899), The Life of an American Fire- 
man (03), Uncle Tom's Cabin (03), The 
Great Train Robbery* (03), The Ex- 
Convict (04), White Caps (04), The 
Miller's Daughter (04), Jack and the Bean- 
stalk (04), The Kleptomaniac (05), The 
Night Before Christmas (05), Dream of 
a Rarebit Fiend (06), The Seven Ages 
(06), A Tale of the Sea (06), Rescued 
from an Eagle's Nest (07), The Prisoner 
of Zenda (13), In the Bishop's Carriage 

(13) , Hearts Adrift (13), A Good Little 
Devil (13), Tess of the Storm Country 

(14) , Such a Little Queen (14) (co-dir: 
Hugh Ford), The Dictator (15), The 
Eternal City (15) (co-dir: Hugh Ford). 
Porter also photographed many of his 
own films. 

POTTER, H. C. dir USA. (New York Nov 
13, 1904- ) Routine Hollywood di- 
rector, mainly of comedies, who is cred- 
ited as director of the famous master- 
piece of zaniness, Hellzapoppin* (41). 

POUCTAL, H«nri dir France. (La Ferté- 
sous-Jouarre 1856-Paris Feb 3, 1922) 
Characterized by Louis Dclluc as "one 

of the best directors" of the prewar years 
for his "meritorious endeavors in which 
French taste, prudence, and briskness 
played a marvelous part." Travail and 
his episode film, Monte-Cristo, made 
him, with Feuillade (q.v.), the best French 
film maker of the time. As head of Film 
d'Art he gave the young Abel Gance 
(q.v.) his first creative opportunity 
(script of L'Infirmière) and was one of 
the influences on his development. He 
made some 50 films in his career. 
Dm (notably): Vitellius (11), Werther 
(11), Madame Sans-Gêne (11), La Dame 
aux camélias (12) (with Sarah Bern- 
hardt), Les Trois Mousquetaires (13), 
Un fil à la patte (14), La Fille du Boche 

(15) , Alsace (15), L'Infirmière (15), 
Chantecoq (16), Monte-Cristo (17-18) 
(episode film), Le Dieu au hasard (18), 
Travail (19), Gigolette (20), Le Crime 
du bouif (21), La Résurrection du bouif 
(22). 

POULENC, Francis mus France. (Paris Jan 
7, 1899-Paris March 1963) Distinguished 
French musician who wrote original 
scores for several features: Baroncelli's 



202 



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La Duchesse de Langeais (42), AnouiUYs 
Le Voyageur sans bagages (43), Lavorel's 
Le Voyage en Amérique (52). 

POW£LU Michael dir/prod/scen Britain. 
(Canterbury Sept 30, 1905- ) Former 
editor, assistant director, scriptwriter, and 
director of B-films (1931-37) whose first 
notable film, Edge of the World (37), 
visibly influenced by Flaherty's Man of 
Aran*, was part of the documentary 
movement. But, apart from The 49th 
Parallel (41), he quickly abandoned this 
approach in favor of sumptuous spec- 
taculars, first as co-director of The Thief 
of Bagdad (40), then in his long part- 
nership with Emeric Pressburger (<?.v.) 
from 1942-57: The Life and Death of 
Colonel Blimp (43), / Know Where I'm 
Going (45), A Matter of Life and Death 
(46). The Red Shoes* (48) was an imag- 
inative attempt to expand the bounds of 
the film-ballet form, but the occasional 
tastelessness of this film became domi- 
nant in The Tales of Hoffman (61). He 
has since made only mediocre films, 
apart from Peeping Tom (60). 

pozner, Vladimir SCEN USA /France/ Aus- 
tria/GDR. (Paris Jan 5, 1905- ) Well- 
known author who has contributed, as 
scriptwriter, his authentic talent and a 
robust sense of reality to several direc- 
tors, including Louis Daquin. 
scen (notably) : for Jean Negulesco, The 
Conspirators (USA44); for Siodmak, 
The Dark Mirror (USA46); for Bert 
Gordon, Another Part of the Forest 
(USA48); for Daquin, Le Point du jour* 
(Fr49), Bel Ami (Aust55); for Ivens, 
Lied der Strôme* (GDR54), Die Wind- 
rose (GDR56); for Cavalcanti, Herr 
Puntila und sein Knecht Matti* (Aust 
55) and his own Mein Kind (GDR56) 
(co-dir: Alfons Michalz, supervised by 
Joris Ivens). 

PREMINGER, Otto Ludwig Dm USA. (Vienna 
Dec 5, 1906- ) A skillful, engaging 
film maker who is more interested in 
revealing character than in comic sim- 
plification or visual jokes but who, like 
Lubitsch (q.v.), has worked successfully 
in a variety of genres: thrillers (Laura, 
his first successful film, The Thirteenth 
Letter), costume dramas (Forever Am- 
ber), musical comedy (Carmen Jones, 
Porgy and Bess), literary adaptations 
(Saint Joan, Bonjour tristesse), satiric 
comedies (A Royal Scandal, The Moon 



is Blue), westerns (The River of No 
Return). After his best film, The Man 
with a Golden Arm, he became interested 
in "social" themes and adapted three 
best-sellers: Anatomy of a Murder, 
Exodus, and Advise and Consent. [His 
work since has become increasingly me- 
diocre, portentously conceived and pre- 
tentiously executed. One French critic 
feels he has become "the man with the 
leaden arm." He was originally an actor 
and stage director for the Max Rein- 
hardt troupe in Vienna and was respon- 
sible for some fifty productions (and 
one film) before leaving for the USA 
in 1934. He was very active on Broad- 
way 1935-40, the period when he made 
his first Hollywood films. He has also ap- 
peared as an actor most often as a 
German officer or spy in several 1941-43 
films and as the camp commandant in 
Wilder's Stalag 17. He has disowned all 
his films before Laura (44) and has pro- 
duced most of his own films since then.] 
Considered by his colleague Cukor as 
principally "a very adroit and perspica- 
cious businessman," Preminger has said: 
"I like to have a basis, generally pro- 
vided by a novel or stage play. But if 
someone brought me a really good idea, 
I would buy it very willingly ... I 
don't seek out problems, but — it's my 
nature — they crop up in my path. And 
these problems are complex. It's from 
this that the ambiguity of my films 
comes." 

dir: Die Grosse Liebe (Aust32), Under 
Your Spell (USA36), Danger, Love at 
Work (36), Margin for Error (43), In 
the Meantime, Darling (44), Laura* 
(44), A Royal Scandal (45) (remake 
of Forbidden Paradise, replaced Ernst 
Lubitsch), Fallen Angel (45), Centen- 
nial Summer (46), Forever Amber (47), 
Daisy Kenyon (47), That Lady in Er- 
mine (48) (completed after Lubitsch's 
death), The Fan (49), Whirlpool (49), 
Where the Sidewalk Ends (50), The 
Thirteenth Letter* (51) (remake of Le 
Corbeau*), Angel Face (52), The Moon 
is Blue (53), River of No Return (54), 
Carmen Jones* (54), The Court Martial 
of Billy Mitchell/One Man Mutiny (55), 
The Man with the Golden Arm* (56), 
Saint Joan* (Brit57), Bonjour tristesse 
(57), Anatomy of a Murder (58), Porgy 
and Bess (59), Exodus* (60), Advise 
and Consent (62), The Cardinal (63), 
//: Harm's Way (65), Bunny Lake is 
Missing (Brit65), Hurry Sundown (67), 



203 



Uopy riQhtod matcnsl 



Skidoo (68), Tell Me that You Love 
Me, Junie Moon (69). 

PRESSBURGER, Emeric DIR/SCEN Britain. 

(Hungary Dec 5, 1902- ) Former 
scriptwriter for UFA in Berlin who has 
worked since 1935 in Britain, first as a 
scriptwriter then in partnership with 
Michael Powell (q.v.) 1942-57 as The 
Archers production company. His only 
solo film as director is Twice Upon a 
Time (53). 

PR evert, Jocqtras SCEN France. (Paris 
Feb 4, 1900- ) Poet and at one time a 
surrealist, he was one of the creative 
forces behind the development of French 
poetic realism of the Thirties; his films 
collectively form a metaphorical but 
realistic portrait of France and its con- 
cerns 1935-47. His forceful personality 
is imprinted on the films he wrote for 
Renoir (Le Crime de Monsieur Lange, 
Une partie de campagne), Grémillon 
(Lumière d'été), Grimault (La Bergère 
et le Ramoneur), his brother, Pierre 
Prévert (L'Affaire est dans le sac, Adieu 
Léonard, Voyage surprise), and, above 
all, on his long and fruitful collabora- 
tion with Marcel Carné (q.v.): Jenny, 
Drôle de drame, Quai des brumes, Le 
Jour se lève, Les Visiteurs du soir, Les 
Enfants du Paradis, Les Portes de la nuit. 
In these films are the elements of his 
poetry — the lyricism, the delight in 
words, the obsession with fate, and the 
use of the absurd to develop social criti- 
cism. In the Prévcrtian universe, good- 
ness struggles against evil, honest people 
against black villains and it is "evil, evil 
with a gold watch that wins almost every 
trick. Almost." His sources might be 
found in his youthful admirations: 
Hawks, Sternberg, King Vidor (all q.v), 
and German Kammerspiel, but he also 
drew greatly on his native Paris. "The 
brilliance of his film dialogue," noted 
Roger Leenhardt in 1935, "is composed 
of a thousand pearls of the human lan- 
guage: its words are commonplaces." 
Above all, he was a moralist who con- 
ceived his fables for the moral they sug- 
gested. 

scen: for Marc Allégret and Eli Lotar, 
Téneriff (32) (commentary only); for 
Pierre Prévert, L'Affaire est dans le sac* 
(32), Adieu Léonard (43) (co-scen: 
Pierre Prévert), Voyage surprise* (46), 
Paris mange son pain (58) (commen- 
tary), Paris la belle (60) (commentary); 



for Autant-Lara, Ciboulette (33) (adap- 
tation of opera and dialogue), The Mys- 
terious Mr. Davis (Brit37), L'Affaire 
du Courrier de Lyon (37) (dialogue, not 
credited); for Marc Allégret, L'Hôtel du 
libre échange (34); for Richard Portier, 
Un oiseau rare /L'Éternel enfant /Les 
Deux gagnants (35); for Jean Stelli, 
Jeunesse d'abord (35); for Renoir, Le 
Crime de Monsieur Lange* (36), Une 
partie de campagne* (36); for René Sti, 
Moutonnet (36); for Carné, Jenny (36), 
Drôle de drame (37), Quai des brumes* 
(38), Le Jour se lève* (39), Les Visi- 
teurs du soir* (41), Les Enfants du 
paradis* (43-45), Les Portes de la nuit* 
(46), La Fleur de l'âge (47) (unfinished), 
La Marie du port (50) (uncredited); for 
Léo Joannon, Vous n'avez rien à déclarer 
(36); for Christian-Jaque, Les Disparus 
de St-Agil (38) (uncredited), Ernest le 
rebelle (38), Sortilèges (45), Souvenirs 
perdus (50) (dialogue on first two epi- 
sodes); for Grémillon, Remorques* (39) 
(uncredited), Lumière d'été* (42); for 
E. T. G ré ville, Une femme dans la nuit 
(41); for Pierre Billon, Le Soleil a tou- 
jours raison (41); for Eli Lotar, Auber- 
villiers (45) (documentary, commen- 
tary); for Henry Jacques, L'Arche de 
Noé (46); for André Cayatte, Les 
Amants de Vérone (48); for Grimault, 
Le Petit soldat (49), La Bergère et le 
Ramoneur* (released 53) (both ani- 
mated films); for Albert Lamorisse, Bim 
le petit âne (51), (documentary, com- 
mentary); for Delannoy, Notre-Dame de 
Paris (56); for Joris Ivens, La Seine a 
rencontré Paris* (57) (documentary, 
commentary); for Pierre Guilbaud, Les 
Primitifs de Xlll* (58) (documentary). 
The short, Les Feuilles mortes (50), is 
based on his famous song, with music by 
Joseph Kosma. 

PREYERT, Pi«rr» DiR France. (Paris May 
26, 1906- ) Originally assistant to 
Cavalcanti (q.v.) and Renoir (q.v.), he 
collaborated with his brother, Jacques, 
on his first fiction film, L'Affaire est dans 
le sac, a masterful film in which he cre- 
ated a new comic style but one that only 
reached cinéphiles and not the general 
public. He was mistrusted by the pro- 
ducers and had to wait some years be- 
fore being allowed to direct features. 
dir: Souvenirs de Paris /Paris Express 
(28) (documentary; co-dir: Marcel Du- 
hamel; supervision: Cavalcanti; photog: 
Mann Ray, etc.), L'Affaire est dans le 



204 



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sac* (32); Le Commissaire est bon en- 
fant (34) (short; co-dir: Jacques Bec- 
ker), Adieu Léonard (43), Voyage sur- 
prise* (46), Paris mange son pain (58) 
(short), Paris, la Belle (59) (documen- 
tary using material from Souvenirs de 
Paris, 1928, and new 1959 footage). 

PROKOFIEV, S«r S *i mus USSR. (Sontskova 
Aug 23, 1891-Moscow March 8, 1953) 
Major Soviet composer who collaborated 
with Eisenstein (q.v.) in creating a kind 
of cinematographic opera with the au- 
ral-visual counterpoint of Alexander 
Nevsky* (38) and Ivan the Terrible* 
(44-46). He had anticipated this de- 
velopment in an interview with Nino 
Frank in 1932: "I imagine a collabora- 
tion with the author of lyrical moving 
pictures. For a film with actors, a close 
collaboration with the composer will be 
necessary, timing the length of scenes, 
the dialogue, and, as with ballet, the 
music will describe the action or accom- 
pany it in counterpoint." [Also, notably: 
Alexander Feinzimmer's Poruchik Kizhe/ 
Lieutenant Kije/The Tsar Wants to Sleep 
(34), A. Gendelstein's Lermontov (43), 
Leo Arnstam's and L. Lavrosky's Romeo 
and Juliet (55) (from his ballet). His 
Lieutenant Kije music was used in 
Neame's The Horse's Mouth (Brit59).] 

PROMIO, Alexandre PHOTOG France, (c. 
1870-Paris 1927) The principal camera- 
man trained by Louis Lumière (q.v.), 
he seems to have been the first to take 
"moving camera" shots— from a gondola 
in Venice in 1896. 

PROTAZANOV, Yakov (afso, In Franc*, Jac- 
ques Protozanoff) DiR USSR/France. (Mos- 
cow 1881-Moscow 1945) Pioneer Soviet 
director who began his career before 
the Revolution directing period dramas 
and melodramas that often featured Ivan 
Mozhukhin. He left Russia after the 
Revolution in 1917 and directed in Paris 
until 1923, when he accepted an invita- 
tion to return. He made the science-fic- 
tion film, Aeltta, notable for its con- 
structivist sets, and directed numerous 
lively and well-acted films in a sound 
but somewhat old-fashioned style. 
Dm (notably): Pesnya katorzhanina/The 
Prisoner's Song (11), Anfisa (12), Uk- 
hod velikovo startza/The Departure of 
a Grand Old Men/The Life of Tolstoy 
(12), Kak khoroshi, kak svezhi byli rozi/ 
How Fine, How Fresh the Roses Were 



(13), Razbitaya vaza/The Shattered Vase 
(13), Klyuchi shchastya/Keys to Hap- 
piness (13) (co-dir: Vladimir Gardin), 
Drama by Telephone (14), Voina i mir/ 
War and Peace* (15) (co-dir: Gardin), 
Peterburgskiye trushchobi/ Petersburg 
Slums (15) (co-dir: Gardin), Plebei/ 
Plebeian (15) (from Strindberg's Frôken 
Julie*), Nikolai Stavrogin (15), Piko- 
vaya dama /The Queen of Spades (16), 
Grekh/Sin (16) (co-dir: G. Azagarov), 
Prokuror /Public Prosecutor (17), Andrei 
Kozhukhov (17), Ne nado krovi/ Blood 
Need Not Be Spilled (17), Prokliatiye 
millioni I Cursed Millions (17), Satana 
likuyushchii/ Satan Triumphant (17), 
Otets Sergii/ Father Sergius (18), Taina 
korolevy/The Queen's Secret (19), Une 
nuit d'amour (Frl9), Justice d'abord 
(Frl9), Le Sens de la Mort (Fr22), 
L'Ombre du péché (Fr22), L'Angoissante 
aventure (Fr23), Aelita* (USSR24), 
Yevo prizyv/His Call/Broken Chains 
(25), Protsess o troyokh millyonakh/ 
The Three Million Case (26), Sorok 
pervyi/The Forty-First* (27), The Man 
from the Restaurant (27), Don Diego 
and Pelageya (27), Byeli orel/The White 
Eagle (28), Chiny i liudi/ Ranks and 
People (29), Prazdnik svyatovo Iorgene/ 
The Holiday of St. Jurgen (30), Tommy 
(31), Marionettes (34), Bespridannitsa/ 
Without Dowry (36), Salavat Yalayev 
(41), Nasreddin v Bukhare/Nasreddin 
in Bukhara (43). 

PTUSHKO, Afoxancfer ANIM/DIR USSR. 
(Ukraine 1900- ) Former puppet film 
maker, 1927-32, whose films have some- 
times had the Méliès (q.v.) touch, espe- 
cially in Novyi Gulliver/ A New Gulli- 
ver* (35), a film whose main actors are 
puppets. He later turned to directing 
films with large numbers of extras: Ka- 
mennl tsvetok/The Stone Flower (46), 
Sad ko (53), llya Murometz (56), Sampo 
(59), The Tale of the Tsar Sultan (66), 
etc. 

PUDOVKIN, Vwvolod llarionovich DIR USSR. 
(Penza, Saratov Feb 6, 1893-Riga June 
30, 1953) One of the four masters of the 
Soviet silent cinema, along with Eisen- 
stein, Dovzhenko, and Vertov (all q.v.). 
Trained as a chemist, he abandoned his 
profession in 1920 after seeing Intoler- 
ance* and joined the State Film Sqhool, 
where two years later he was a member 
of the Kulcshov (q.v.) Workshop. He 
was originally an actor, scriptwriter, and 



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assistant before making his first solo fea- 
ture, Mother (26), which was an im- 
mediate success in the USSR and 
abroad. Thereafter, his romanesque films 
were marked by an approach at once 
lyrical, psychological, and social, show- 
ing the evolution of characters in a so- 
cial environment, characters who were 
individualistic yet selected for their value 
as social types. It was with this style, 
using carefully detailed scripts and 
strictly directed actors, that he made his 
trilogy on the theme of a "crisis of 
conscience": of an old worker-mother 
(Mother), of a young peasant who be- 
came a worker and soldier (The End 
of St. Petersburg), of an Asiatic nomad 
(Storm Over Asia). At the same time, 
drawing on the teachings of Kuleshov, 
he developed and published a series of 
principles on the art of the cinema (Film 
Technique, Film Acting) that his friend 
Léon Moussinac summarized: "Editing 
is the foundation of cinematic art, the 
creative element of this new reality. 
Cinematic space and cinematic time, 
which have nothing to do with the real 
time and space of the action, are deter- 
mined by the photography and the edit- 
ing. A film is not 'shot,' it is built up 
from images. The isolated shot has only 
an analogous significance to that of the 
word for the poet." "A take is not the 
simple recording of a piece of action, 
but a representation of a particular, se- 
lected, form of that action. Whence the 
difference between the action in itself 
and the form one gives it on the screen, 
a difference that makes the cinema an 
art." Dominant both in the theory and 
practice of the silent film, he met a 
crisis with the advent of sound. He was 
not able to apply in A Simple Case the 
theory of audio-visual counterpoint that 
he and Eisenstein had propounded and 
though Deserter was more successful, it 
did not come close to matching his 
silent classics. After a long illness from 
1934-38 he was forced to work in the 
then fashionable historical recreations: 
Minin and Pozharsky, Suvorov, Joukov- 
sky, a genre for which he had no gift. 
Just before his death and during a de- 
pressed period in the Soviet cinema, he 
was able to return to something of his 
old form in The Return of Vassili Bort- 
nikov (53) which, though not a master- 
piece, is a very worthwhile achievement. 
scen/assist: Serp t molot /Sickle and 
Hammer (dir: V. Gardin), Slesar I 



kantzlerf Locksmith and Chancellor (23) 
(dir: V. Gardin), The Extraordinary Ad» 
ventures of Mr. West in the Land of the 
Bolsheviks* (24) (dir: Kuleshov; also 
acted), Luch smerti/The Death Ray 
(25) (dir: Kuleshov; also art dir). 
dir: Golod . . . golod . . . golod/Hun- 
ger, Hunger Hunger (co-dir/scen: V. 
Gardin), Shakhmatnaya goryachka/Chess 
Fever (25) (short: co-dir: N. Shpikov- 
sky), Mat/Mother* (26), Mekhanikha 
golovnovo mozga/The Mechanics of the 
Brain (26) (documentary), Konyets 
Sankt-Peterburga/The End of St. Peters' 
burg* (27), Potomok Chingis-Khan/ 
Storm Over Asia/The Heir to Genghis 
Khan* (28), Prostoi sluchai/A Simple 
Case /Life is Very Good (32), Deserter 
(33), Pobeda/Victory (38), Minin i 
Pozharsky /Minin and Pozharsky (39), 
Twenty Years of Cinema (40) (docu- 
mentary; co-dir: E. Shub), Pir v Zhir- 
munke/Feast at Zhirmunka (Fighting 
Film Album, No. 6) (41) (co-dir: Mik- 
hail Doller), Suvorov (41) (co-dir: 
M. Doller), Ubitzi vykhodyat na dorogu/ 
Murderers are on Their Way (42) (co- 
dir: Yuri Tarich; unreleased), Vo imya 
rodint/ln the Name of the Fatherland 
(43) (co-dir: Dmitri Vasiliev), Admiral 
Nakhimov (46), Tri vstrechi /Three En- 
counters (48) (co-dir: Yutkevich and 
Ptushko). Joukovsky (50), Vozvrash- 
chenie Vassiliya Bortnikova/The Return 
of Vassili Bortnikov/The Harvest* (53). 
Pudovkin acted in several films, notably 
in Perestiani's V dni borbi/In the Days 
of the Struggle (20), Kozintsev's and 
Trauberg's New Babylon* (29), Otsep's 
A Living Corpse (29), Eisenstein's Ivan 
the Terrible, Part 1* (44). 

purkine, Jan Evangilista inventor Czecho- 
slovakia. (1787-1869) Distinguished 
Czech physiologist who projected ani- 
mated drawings, first in the laboratory 
(1852) then in public (1865), with an 
apparatus called Forolyt and later Kine- 
s is cop. Around 1850-60 he also set in 
motion a sequence of photographs taken 
in successive poses. 

PYRÏEV, Ivan dir USSR. (Kamen 1901- 
1968) Originally an actor in experi- 
mental theater (notably for Eisenstein at 
the Prole t kul t Theater, 1923) and as- 
sistant to Yuri Tarich (e.g., Krylya 
kholopal/Ivan the Terrible*, (26), he 
had a particular talent for directing live- 



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ly, appealing musical comedies: Strange 
Woman, The Rich Bride, They Met in 
Moscow, Song of Siberia, Kuban Cos- 
sacks, films that made him a popular 
director in the USSR. He also specialized 
in naturalistic dramas about contempo- 
rary Soviet life, such as Party Card, 
Tractor Drivers, and Secretary of the 
District Committee, though these are 
largely unknown outside the USSR. 
Later, after spending some years as head 
of production at Mosfilm, he returned to 
directing with a series of literary adapta- 
tions, notably from Dostoyevsky: The 
Idiot, White Nights, The Brothers Kara- 
mazov. 

DiR (notably): Strange Woman (29), 
State Official (30), Conveyor of Death 
(34), Party Card (36), Bogataya nev- 
esta/the Rich Bride (38), Trakoristi/ 



Tractor Drivers (39), Svinyarka I pas- 
tukhf Swineherd and Shepherd/They Met 
in Moscow (41), Sckretar raikon/ Secre- 
tary of the District Committee (42), V 
shest chasov vechera posle voiny/At 
6 p.m. after the War (44), Skazaniye 
o zemlye Sibirskoi/ Tales of Siberian 
Land/ Songs of Siberia (47), Kubanskie 
Kazaki/ Kuban Cossacks (49), My za 
mir/We Are for Peace /Friendship Tri- 
umphs (USSR/GDR52) (co-dir: Joris 
Ivens), Ispystanie vernosti/Test of Fidel- 
ity (54), N astasia Filipovna/The Idiot, 
Part I* (58), Belye nochi /White Nights* 
(59), Nash obschii drug/ Our Mutual 
Friend (61), Svev dalekoi zvesdy/ Light 
of a Distant Star (65), Bratya Kara- 
mazovy/The Brothers Karamazov (68) 
(completed by Mikhail Ulyanov after 
Pyriev's death). 



207 



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QUEENY, Mary PROD Egypt (190?- ) 

Former actress who played an important 
role as producer in the commercial de- 
velopment of the Egyptian cinema after 
1930. 



QUENEAU, Raymond scen France. (Le 
Havre Feb 21, 1903- ) French poet 
and novelist who, since his days as a 
surrealist, has been deeply interested in 
the cinema — which in turn has influ- 
enced his writings. He has collaborated 
in several films, including the dialogue 
for the French version of Clement's 
Knave of Hearts* (Brit53) and a com- 
mentary in verse for Resnais's docu- 
mentary, Le Chant du Styrène (58). His 
novel, Zazte dans le Métro*, was the 
basis of a film by Malle (60) and Le 
Dimanche de la vie of a film by J. Her- 
man (67). [Also, commentary for Kast's 
Arithmétique; Théron's and Carènes, 
Champs-Elysées; Pagliero's Paradis ter- 
restres, Saint Germain-des-Près; Tabély's 
Teuf-Teuf; dialogue for Bunuel's La 



Mort en ce jardin; and script for Mocky*s 
Un Couple.) 

QUILICI, Fotc» dir Italy. (Ferrara April 
9, 1930- ) The director of "documen- 
tary" features using the most outrageous 
trick effects and the originator of a de- 
testable genre of pseudo-educational 
travelogues whose natural heir was 
Mondo Cane: Sesto Continente (54), 
L'Ultimo Paradiso (57), Dagli Appen- 
nini aile Ande (59). Also directed the 
fictional Tico e il suo Pescecane (62) 
and many shorts, including an interesting 
Gauguin (57). 

QUINE, Richard DIR USA. (Detroit Nov 
12, 1920- ) Second rank Hollywood 
director, former actor and scriptwriter, 
at his best with light comedy and musi- 
cals— My Sister Eileen (55), The Solid 
Gold Cadillac (56), Full of Ufe (57), 
Bell, Book, and Candle (58) — rather 
than with dramatic comedies or melo- 
dramas such as The World of Suzie 
Wong (60), Strangers When We Meet 
(61), Hotel (67). 



208 



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m 



RABENALT, Arthur Maria DIR Germany/ 
German Federal Republic. (Vienna May 
17, 1905- ) Routine commercial di- 
rector whose work is characterized by 
the titles of his films alone: Ein Kind, 
ein Hund, ein Vagabond/ A Child, a 
Dog, a Vagabond (34), Die Liebe des 
Maharadscha/The Maharaja's Love (36), 
Liebespremier I Love's Premiere (43), 
Zirkus Renz/The Renz Circus (43), 
Chemie und Liebe /Chemistry and Love 
(48), Der Zigeunerbaron/ Gypsy Baron 
(54), Fiir zwei Groschen Zartlichkeit / 
Call Girls (57), Der Held meiner 
Traume/The Hero of My Dreams (60). 

*RADOK, Alfred DiR Czechoslovakia. 
(Kolodeje Dec 17, 1914- ) Although 
he has directed only three films, he is 
one of the most influential figures in 
the modern Czechoslovak cinema, par- 
ticularly as mentor to the younger di- 
rectors such as Milos Forman (q.v.). 
His original and poetic portrait of a 
Jewish family in an extermination camp, 
Distant Journey (49), has only increased 
in stature with the years. His major 
activity has been in the theater, before, 
during and after his three films as di- 
rector. He is also the creator of the 
famous "Magic Lantern" show, com- 
bining film, slide, and live action, which 
was an outstanding success at the Brus- 
sels (58) and Montreal (67) World's 
Fairs. 

Dm: Daleka cesta/ Distant Journey* (49), 
Divotvorny klobouk/The Magic Hat 
(52), Dedecek automobil/Old Man Mo- 
torcar (56). 

RADVANYI, Geza (von) DiR Hungary /Ger- 
man Federal Republic/France. (Hun- 
gary Sept 26, 1907- ) He has directed 
only one worthwhile film, Valahol Euro- 
paban /Somewhere in Europe* (47), de- 
picting the aftermath of the recent war. 



He later directed routine commercial 
films in Paris, Rome, and Munich, com- 
parable to the "lemonade films" he had 
directed in Budapest before 1945. 

RAIK, Eti*nn* ANiM France. (Hungary 
July 14, 1904- ) An excellent animator 
specializing in pixilation who has had to 
confine himself mainly to commercials, 
ingeniously concentrating gags and lyri- 
cism into 90 seconds. 

RAIZMAN, Yuli Yakovlevich Dm USSR. 
(Moscow Dec 15, 1903- ) One of the 
best Soviet directors, too little known 
outside his own country, he is, with 
Frank Borzage (q.v.), one of those rare 
film makers who have been able to com- 
municate effectively and movingly the 
warmth and empathy of human love. 
His heroes were everyday people whose 
characters and role in Soviet society he 
portrayed with a certain freedom. Since 
he avoided fashionable effects it is per- 
haps his restrained, economical style that 
led to his being underestimated. However, 
one of his first films, the semidocu- 
mentary, The Earth Thirsts (30), which 
describes the changes in a central Asian 
Soviet republic, was noted outside the 
USSR. He has continued to make docu- 
mentaries, most notably his feature-length 
Berlin on the Red Army's capture of 
that city. For the 20th anniversary of 
the Russian Revolution he made the 
sensitive, gentle The Last Night, a melan- 
choly love story about a modern Romeo 
and Juliet set in the romantic frame- 
work of an October night. During the 
war his touching Mashenka was warmly 
human, without any of the usual stereo- 
typed heroics. In the entertaining post- 
war comedy, The Train Goes East (based 
on the // Happened One Night* for- 
mula), he portrayed the Soviet Union 
from Vladivostok to Moscow, And, 



209 



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though he was forced to adapt a novel 
strongly influenced by the cult of per- 
sonality in Cavalier of the Golden Star, 
his very beautiful imagery gave it a cer- 
tain sensitivity. Later, his Lesson of Life 
was one of the first films to offer criti- 
cism of some aspects of Soviet society, 
though in the end the film's attitude is 
positive. He was Protazanov's (cj.v.) 
assistant on, e.g., The Three Million 
Case (26), The Forty-First* (27). 
dir: Circle (27), Katorga/ Penal Servi- 
tude/Convict Labor (28), Zemlya zha- 
zhdyot/The Earth Thirsts (30, sound 
version 31), Rasskaz oh Umare Hap- 
soko (32), Lyotchiki/ Flyers (35), Po- 
slednaya noch/The Last Night* (37), 
Podnyataya tzelina/ Virgin Soil Upturned 
(40) (from Sholokhov's novel), Ma- 
shenka (42) (co-dir: Dmitri Vasiliev), 
Nebo Moskvy/ Moscow Sky (44), Ber- 
lin* (45), Poezd idet na Vostok/The 
Train Goes East (47), Rainis (49), 
Kavaler zolotoi zvezdy/The Cavalier of 
the Golden Star /Dream of a Cossack* 
(50), Urok zhiznif Lesson of Life (55), 
Kommunist/The Communist (58), A 
esli eto lyubov/lf This Be Love (61), 
Tvoi sovremennik/Your Contemporary 
(67). 

RAMNOTH, K. dir/photog/prod India. 
(Trivandrum 1912- ) Director, camera- 
man, and producer from the Madras re- 
gion who was artistic director of Gemini 
Studios, owned by S. S. Vasan (<?.v\), 
during its period of growth from 1942- 
48. In 1950 he directed a Tamil language 
version of Les Misérables*, Ezai padam 
padu. 

RANK, J. Arthur (later, Lord Rank) PROD 
Britain. (Hull Dec 23, 1888- ) A dom- 
inant figure in the British film industry 
after the Second World War, he formed 
or took over companies in all branches of 
the industry, from equipment, studios, 
and production to distribution and ex- 
hibition, and is principally responsible 
for the industry's artistic stagnation. A 
former flour magnate and a Presbyterian, 
he became interested in films in 1933 
as a means of religious education. He 
founded British National Pictures in 1935 
and purchased a 25% interest in Uni- 
versal; he set up a distribution outlet 
and founded a newsreel. In 1936 he cre- 
ated General Finance Cinema Corpora- 
tion and in 1941 purchased Gaumont 
British and Odeon Theatres, thus gaining 



control of 750 first-run theaters, the 
largest single unit in Britain. In 1944 
he owned or controlled a major share 
of British film studios. He purchased 
the Odeon theater chain in Canada in 
1945 and set up Eagle Lion Distributors 
in the USA and Canada. In 1947 he 
compelled the major Hollywood com- 
panies to agree to distribute his films 
in their 3,000 theaters; he acquired Uni- 
versal, bringing to 70 the number of 
companies under his control. He owned 
distribution agencies in 60 countries, all 
under the aegis of the Rank Organiza- 
tion, which he had set up in 1946. In the 
Fifties he was forced to abandon his 
conquest of the USA and relinquish 
Universal. [As attendances dropped, he 
retrenched his interests, closed many the- 
aters and invested in bowling alleys, ho- 
tels, bingo, dance halls, and Xerox. The 
film interests of the Rank Organization 
are now of less importance than these 
other interests, but Odeon and Gaumont 
theaters still monopolize (with Associ- 
ated-British Theatres) commercial film 
exhibition in Britain.] 

RAY, Man photog/dir France. (Phila- 
delphia 1890- ) Famous dadaist then 
surrealist painter, inventor of "objects," 
photographer, "memorialist," and creator 
of Rayograms (photographs taken with- 
out a lens) who also used film as a means 
of continuing his visual experiments and 
made a series of notable avant-garde films 
in the Twenties. 

dir. Le Retour à la raison (23), Emak 
Bakia (27), L'Étoile de mer (28), Les 
Mystères du Château du Dé (29), and 
one episode in Hans Richter's feature, 
Dreams That Money Can Buy (USA46). 
Also photographed Souvenirs de Paris 
(29) (dir: Pierre Prévert, Marcel Du- 
hamel), reused in Pierre Prévert's Paris, 
la Belle (59). 

RAY, Nicholas (Raymond Nicholas Kiemle) 

dir USA. (La Crosse, Wisconsin Aug 7, 
1911- ) At his best, he is a true artist 
(though his work is of variable quality) 
whose films are most often concerned 
with socially maladjusted, sometimes 
doomed characters, misfits, and rebels. 
This concern is seen at its best in his 
dramatic, compassionate portrait of a 
confused youth and society, Rebel with- 
out a Cause, a film in which he drew 
from that quintessential rebel, James 
Dean, his best characterization. He was 



L/opynyr 



a student of architecture, a radio pro- 
ducer, and an assistant to John House- 
man on Broadway productions before 
directing his first film, the remarkable 
They Live by Night, a film whose stark 
conflict, violence, and probing of human 
behavior served as a kind of preface to 
his later brilliant work. Unfortunately, 
its qualities were not to be found in such 
films as his studio-assigned Born to Be 
Bad and Flying Leathernecks. He fully 
recovered himself in the intellectual west- 
tern Johnny Guitar, and in Rebel with- 
out a Cause, but Bigger Than Life and 
Wind across the Everglades were far 
from equaling them. Despite some weak- 
nesses, Bitter Victory is a major work 
in which Ray expressed his distaste for 
war and his feeling for environment and 
human behavior. Some scenes of The 
Savage Innocents (in which Eskimos 
were played by American and Japanese 
actors) are effective and moving, but he 
collapsed under the weight of the multi- 
million dollar remake of King of Kings 
and the spectacular 55 Days at Peking. 
Since then, none of his projects (in Lon- 
don or Paris) have reached fruition. 
dir: They Live by Night (47, released 
49), A Woman's Secret (48), Knock on 
Any Door (48), In a Lonely Place (50), 
Born To Be Bad (50), On Dangerous 
Ground (50), Flying Leathernecks (51), 
The Lusty Men (52), Johnny Guitar* 
(54), Run for Cover (54), Rebel with- 
out a Cause* (55), Hot Blood (55), 
Bigger Than Life (56), The True Story 
of Jessie James/The James Brothers 
(56), Amère victoire /Bitter Victory* 
(Fr57), Wind across the Everglades 
(58), Party Girl (58), The Savage In- 
nocents (59), King of Kings (61), 55 
Days at Peking (63). 
co-scen: Hathaway's Circus World (63), 
and his own They Live By Night, Rebel 
without a Came, Amère victoire, The 
Savage Innocents. 

RAY, Sotyopt dir India. (Calcutta May 2, 
1921- ) The greatest contemporary In- 
dian director whose most important work 
is the trilogy Father Panchali, Aparijito, 
The World of Apu (adapted from an 
autobiographical novel), films that must 
be included among the world's best films 
in the Fifties. Originally a commercial 
artist much interested in the cinema, he 
dedicated himself to it after watching 
Jean Renoir shoot The River* in Bengal. 
Following the traditions of the Bengali 



cinema (the best in India), his films 
have a perfect visual style and an un- 
usual warmth that fulfill his own state- 
ment: M Art wedded to truth must in the 
end have its reward." His characters are 
always integrated into their social back- 
ground, whether that of a modern me- 
tropolis or a traditional village. Using a 
story by the Nobel Prize-winning author 
Rabindranath Tagore, he delivered a bold 
attack on religious superstition in Devi, 
a film whose noble beauty and classic, 
spare style (like that of The Music 
Room) perhaps surpass the qualities of 
the trilogy. 

Dm: Father Panchali* (55), Aparajito* 
(56), Parash Pathar/The Philosopher's 
Stone (57), Apur Sansar/The World 
of Apu* (58) Jalshagar/The Music 
Room (58), Rabindranath Tagore (60) 
(documentary), Portrait of a City (61) 
(short), Devi/The Goddess (61), Teen 
Kany a/ Two Daughters (61), Kanchen~ 
jungha (62), Abhijan/ Expedition (62), 
Mahanagar/The Big City (63), Charu- 
lata /The Lonely Wife (64), Kapurush o 
Mahapurush/The Coward and the Holy 
Man (65), Nayak/The Hero (66). 
Chidiakhana/The Zoo (67), Goopi Gyne 
o Baghi Byne/The Adventures of Goopi 
and Baghi (69), Aranyer Din Raatri/ 
Days and Nights in the Forest (70), 
Sikkim (70) documentary), Pratiwandi/ 
The Rival (71). 

mus: James Ivory's Shakespeare Wallah 
(65) and all his own films from Teen 
Kanya. 

REED, (Sir) Carol dir Britain. (Putney, Dec 
30, 1906- ) Former actor, stage man- 
ager, and assistant to Basil Dean, he 
established his reputation in the late 
Thirties and early Forties, notably with 
The Stars Look Down (39) and The 
Way Ahead (44), and later achieved 
justified international renown with Odd 
Man Out (47), a film that recalls the 
themes of Quai des brumes* and Pépé 
le Moko*. His best film is the drama of 
a solitary child, The Fallen Idol (48). 
After the worldwide commercial success 
of The Third Man (49), he directed in- 
creasingly mediocre films, at his worst 
when he tried to be "poetic" in A Kid 
for Two Farthings. His musical Oliver! 
won an Academy Award. 
dir: Midshipman Easy (34), Laburnum 
Grove (36), Talk of the Devil (36), 
Who's Your Lady Friend (37), Bank 
Holiday (38), Penny Paradise (38), 



Copyrighted material 



Climbing High (38), A Girl Must Live 
(39), The Stars Look Down* (39), Night 
Train to Munich (40), The Girl in the 
News (40), Kipps (41), A Letter from 
Home (41) (short), The Young Mr. 
Pitt (41), The New Lot (43) (docu- 
mentary), The Way Ahead (44), The 
True Glory (45) (documentary; co-dir: 
Garson Kanin), Odd Man Out /Gang 
War* (47), The Fallen Idol* (48), The 
Third Man* (49), Outcast of the Islands 
(51), The Man Between (53), A Kid 
for Two Farthings (55), Trapeze (USA 
56), The Key (58), Our Man in Havana 
(59), The Running Man (63), The 
Agony and the Ecstasy (USA65), Oliver! 
(68), The Last Warrior (USA70). 

REICH EN BACH, François DIR France. (Paris 

July 3, 1922- ) A human "camera- 
eye" with the ability to search out, espe- 
cially in the USA, numerous unusual, 
unknown, and curious aspects of life, 
but not always with the commensurate 
ability to develop and build up a story. 
He often photographs his own films. 
dir: (shorts): Impressions de New York 

(55) , New York ballade (55), Visages de 
Paris (55), Houston-Texas (56), No- 
vembre à Paris (56), Le Grand Sud 

(56) , Au pays de Porgy and Bess (57), 
L'Américain se détend (57), Les Marines 

(57) , Carnaval à la Nouvelle-Orléans 
(57), L'Eté indien (57), Weekend en 
mer (62), Retour à New York (62), A 
la mémoire du rock (62), L'Amérique 
lunaire (62), Le Paris des photographes 

(62) , Le Paris des mannequins (62), 
Jeux (63), Histoire d'un petit garçon 
devenu grand (63), La Douceur du vil- 
lage (63), L'Enterrement de Kennedy 

(63) (TV), Les Chevaux d'Hollywood/ 
Hollywood through a Key Hole (64), 
Mexico nuevo (64), L'Oeil neuf (64) 
(12 TV films), Bardot en Amérique 

(65) (TV), Mireille Mathieu (66) (TV), 
Orson Welles (66) (TV), Von Karajan 

(66) (TV), El Cordobes (66) (TV), 
Manilas de Plata (66) (TV), Olivier 
Gcndebien (66) (TV), Aurora (66), 
Impressions de Paris (67), Brigitte Bar- 
dot (67) (TV show). 

dir (features): L'Amérique insolite/ 
L'Amérique vu par un Français (60), 
Un coeur gros comme ça (61), Les 
Amoreux du "France" (63) (co-dir: 
P. Grimblat), Tout reste à découvrir 

(64) , Mexico, Mexico (67) (co-dir: 
C. Fuentos), 13 jours en France (68) 
(co-dir: C. Lelouch), Arthur Ruben- 



stein: l'Amour de la vie (68) (co-dir: 
S. Gérard Patris), L'Indiscret (69), La 
Caravane d'amour (71). 

REINH ARDT, Max (Maximilian Goldmann) DIR 

Germany/USA. (Baden, Austria Sept 8, 
1873-New York Oct 31, 1943) The most 
important name in the 20th-century Ger- 
man theater and the single most signifi- 
cant influence on the classic German 
silent cinema. Many of the actors 
(Krauss, Veidt, Jennings, etc.) and di- 
rectors (Murnau, Leni, Lubitsch, Weg- 
ener, etc., all q.v.) were trained by him 
at the Deutsches Theater, Berlin; ex- 
pressionism, Kammerspiel, and the UFA 
period dramas were in large measure de- 
rived from his theatrical experiences. 
dir: Sumurun (08), Das Mirakel (12), 
Die Insel der Seligen (13), Veneziani- 
sche Nacht (14), A Midsummer Night's 
Dream* (USA35) (co-dir: W. Dieterle). 
note: Gottfried Reinhardt (1911- ), 
the Hollywood and German producer/ 
director, is his son. 

rei Niger, Lotte ANiM Germany/Britain. 
(Berlin June 2, 1899- ) The director of 
marvelously imaginative black and white 
silhouette films in an almost 18th-century 
rococo style. Unfortunately, no one has 
followed up her pioneering work. [Her 
first silhouette work was for the titles 
of Wegener and Gliese's The Pied Piper 
of Hamelin (18). She then made a series 
of shorts before making, in 1926, her 
first and only feature, the delightful The 
Adventures of Prince Achmet. Her work 
came to a halt at the end of the Thirties 
(she was in London 1936-39 and Rome 
during the war) until she moved to 
Britain in 1949 and was able to take up 
her experiments again, mostly for tele- 
vision. Her latest two films were in 
color.] 

anim: Das Ornament des verliebten Her- 
zens (20), Der Amor und das standhafte 
Liebespaar (22), Der Fliegende Koffer 
(22), Der Stern von Bethlehem (22), 
A schenputte / Cinderella (22), Die Aben- 
teuer des Prinzen Achmed (23-26), Dr. 
Dolittle (27-28) (3 shorts), Die Jagd 
nach dem Gliick (30) (silhouette film as 
part of feature; dir: Rochus Gliese, Karl 
Koch), Zehn Minuten Mozart (30), 
Harlekin (31), Sissy (32), Carmen* 
(33), Das Rollende Rad (34), Das 
Gestohlene Herz (34), Der Graf von 
Carabas/Puss in Boots (Switz34), Papa- 
geno (Switz35), Galathea (Switz35), 



L/opyriyr 



Der Kleine Schornsteinfeger (Switz35), 
La Marseillaise* (Fr37) (silhouette film 
as part of feature; dir: Jean Renoir), 
[The King's Breakfast (Brit37), The 
Daughter (Brit49), Mary's Birthday 
(49), The Frog Prince (50), Snow 
White and Rose Red (53), Aladdin 
(53), Puss in Boots (53), The Gallant 
little Tailor (55), The Star of Bethle- 
hem (56), Jack the Giant Killer (56), 
La Belle Hélène (58), Seraglio (58).] 

REISZ, Karl dir/prod Britain. (Czecho- 
slovakia 1926- ) Former film critic and 
one of the most brilliant film makers of 
the Free Cinema group who demon- 
strated in his two documentaries his 
ability to capture the essential aspects of 
everyday acts and behavior. [He made 
a notable first feature, Saturday Night 
and Sunday Morning, but, apart from 
Morgan, his infrequent work has not ful- 
filled his early promise.] 
dir: Momma Don't Allow (55) (docu- 
mentary; co-dir: Tony Richardson), We 
Are the Lambeth Boys (58) (docu- 
mentary), March to Aldermaston (59) 
(documentary in collaboration), Satur- 
day Night and Sunday Morning* (60), 
Night Must Fall (64), Morgan, a Suit- 
able Case for Treatment (66), Isadora 
(67). 

prod: Lindsay Anderson's Every Day 
Except Christmas (57), This Sporting 
Life* (63). 

RENOIR, Claud* PHOTOO France. (Paris 
Dec 4, 1914- ) Exceptionally talented 
and cultured cameraman in the great 
French tradition of his grandfather 
Auguste Renoir and his uncle Jean Re- 
noir. His color work is especially re- 
markable. He is the son of actor Pierre 
Renoir and began his career as as- 
sistant to Boris Kaufman (q.v.). 
PHOTOO (notably): for Jean Renoir, 
Toni* (34), Une partie de campagne* 
(36), La Grande Illusion* (37), The 
River* (50), Le Carosse d'or* (52), 
Elena et les hommes (56); for M. Cloche, 
Monsieur Vincent (47); for Clément, 
Le Père tranquille (46); for Becker, 
Rendez-vous de juillet* (49); for Dré- 
ville, Prélude à la gloire (50); for G. Le- 
franc, Knock (50); for Diamant-Berger, 
Monsieur Fabre (51); for Rouleau, Les 
Sorcières de Salem (56), Les Amants 
de Teruel (62); for Clouzot, Le Mystère 
Picasso* (56); for Marcel Carné, Les 
Tricheurs (58), Terrain vague (60); for 



Astruc, Une vie* (58); for Vadim, Et 
mourir de plaisir (60), La Curée (66), 
Bar bare lia (67); for J. Deray, Sym- 
phonie pour un massacre (63); for Alain 
Cavalier, L'Insoumis (64); for Bryan 
Forbes, The Madwoman of Chaillot 
(Brit69). 

RENOIR, Jean DIR France/USA. (Paris 
Sept 15, 1894- ) The most French of 
prewar film makers, the greatest creator 
of poetic realism, who in 1938 said 
of his first films: "Naively and labor- 
iously, I did my best to imitate my 
American teachers; I had not under- 
stood that a Frenchman living in France, 
drinking red wine and eating Brie cheese 
in front of a grisaille of Paris, could 
only create works of quality by following 
the traditions of people like himself." 
The younger son of impressionist painter 
Auguste Renoir, his first interest was in 
ceramics, but he soon fell in love with 
the cinema. He wrote the script for 
Albert Dieudonné's Catherine/Une vie 
sans joie (24) before directing his first 
features, La Fille de Veau (24), a work 
full of nostalgic poetry, and Nana (26), 
the best silent adaptation from Zola, 
a writer who exercised a profound in- 
fluence on him. The financial failures of 
these films forced him to accept routine 
commercial assignments: Le Tournoi 
dans la cité, Le Bled, and his little ap- 
preciated Tir e-au- flanc. Apart from La 
Petite Marchande d'allumettes, he could 
have been classed among the commer- 
cial directors of the time. But in the 
sound period, he began with the brilliant 
La Chienne, which, like Boudu sauvé 
des eaux, La Nuit de carrefour, and 
Madame Bovary, was an unmerited finan- 
cial failure. Toni (34) marked the start 
of his greatest period, followed by Le 
Crime de Monsieur Lange and the re- 
markable, enthusiastic contribution to 
the success of the Front populaire, La 
Vie est à nous. Though he was unable 
to complete his vibrant homage to 
Maupassant and impressionism, Une 
partie de campagne, and though he fal- 
tered with Les Bas-Fonds, he achieved 
international face with La Grande Il- 
lusion. He was then at "the peak of his 
artistry," according to Alexandre Arnoux, 
who also said of him: "When he is 
working, he opens himself out, he eats 
nothing, he gives of himself unstintingly. 
I give myself up to the marvelous image 
of a masterful man, without cleverness, 



Uopy riQhtod mstcnsl 



who has ideas and convictions, who has 
forged a language that fits his expression 
and who is not 'social* because it's 
fashionable but because a social ap- 
proach is the inevitable outcome of his 
reflective, stubborn, and patient nature." 
After La Marseillaise, which was at- 
tacked by partisan critics, he created a 
remarkable Zola adaptation, La Bête 
humaine, then launched his corrosive 
satire of the French ruling classes in 
La Règle du jeu. "Now I am beginning 
to be aware of how I must work. I know 
that I am French and that I must work 
in an absolutely national sense. I know 
also that, by doing this, and only by do- 
ing this, I can reach the people of other 
countries and create works of interna- 
tional standing." But La Règle du jeu 
was a commercial disaster (see Diction- 
ary of Films for an account of its mutila- 
tion and reconstruction) and this and 
the outbreak of war shattered his de- 
velopment. He was forced into exile in 
Hollywood, where he twice attempted 
to re-create his country in the studio: 
This Land Is Mine and The Diary of a 
Chambermaid. But in Swamp Water and 
especially in The Southerner he touched 
the heart of American realities. On his 
return to the Old World, his work con- 
tinued to evidence his belief in universal 
good will but a certain acerbity was in- 
troduced. He took above all as pictorial 
"motifs," India in The River, Commedia 
dell'Arte in The Golden Coach, and 
turn-of-the-century Paris in French Can- 
can. Though his later work is not exempt 
from serious failures, as in Le Testament 
du Dr. Cordelier, he has nonetheless 
remained one of the great masters of 
world cinema, justly admired and ven- 
erated. 

dir: La Fille de l'eau (24), Nana* (26), 
Charleston (27), Mar quitta (27), La 
Petite Marchande d'allumettes* (28), 
Tire-au-flanc* (28), Le Tournoi dans la 
cité (29), Le Bled (29), On purge bébé 

(31) , La Chienne* (31), La Nuit de 
carrefour (32), Boudu sauvé des eaux* 

(32) , Chotard et Cie (33), Madame 
Bovary (34), Toni* (34), Le Crime de 
Monsieur Lange* (36), La Vie est à 
nous* (36), Une partie de campagne* 
(36, released 46), Les Bas-Fonds* (36), 
La Grande Illusion* (37), La Marseil- 
laise* (38), La Bête humaine* (38), La 
Règle du jeu* (39), La Tosca (It40) 
(unfinished), Swamp Water (USA41), 
This Land Is Mine (USA43), Salute to 



France (USA44) (in collaboration), The 
Southerner* (USA45), The Diary of a 
Chambermaid* (USA46), The Woman 
on the Beach (USA47), The River* (In- 
dia51), Le Carosse d'or (Fr/It52), 
French Cancan* (54), Elena et les hom- 
mes (56), Le Déjeuner sur l'herbe (59), 
Le Testament du Dr. Cordelier/Experi- 
ment in Evil (TV, 59, released 63), Le 
Caporal épinglé (62), Le Petit théâtre 
de Jean Renoir (71) (TV drama scries). 

RESNAIS, Alain dir France. (Vannes June 
3, 1922- ) The best film maker of the 
former nouvelle vague, exacting, thor- 
ough, obsessed with the themes of time 
and memory who, despite his sometimes 
excessive respect for his scriptwriters, 
imprints his own style on every film he 
makes. He spent a year at IDHEC, was a 
stage actor, and from 1946-48 made a 
number of short 16mm films, some of 
which were silent. He began his career 
as a director of 35mm shorts in 1948. 
The condition of the French film in- 
dustry obliged him to restrict his activi- 
ties for some ten years to the short film 
field — with occasional work as an edi- 
tor for other directors. One might have 
taken him as a specialist in films on art 
after the success of the somewhat anec- 
dotal Van Gogh (48) and Gauguin (50), 
but Guernica (50) was something else 
again, a kind of opera that blended the 
work of Picasso, the lyricism of Paul 
Eluard, the music of Guy Bernard, and 
the reality of Spain. Since then the art 
of the cinema has been for him princi- 
pally one of construction - the choice 
of images, their framing and rhythm, 
the organization from sometimes dis- 
parate elements — of an audio-visual 
counterpoint that is as taut as a vibrat- 
ing string and that treats time and space 
as physical matter and uses them as ob- 
jects in his creation. Ever since his short 
film days he has had a keen sense of 
"contemporaneity" — which brought cen- 
sorship interference with Night and Fog 
and the banning of Les Statues meurent 
aussi for its indictment of colonialism. 
His first feature, Hiroshima mon amour, 
centers on the most important of modern 
problems, the atomic bomb and war and 
peace, and is dominated by the cry, 
"How could anyone do that to people!" 
Though his particular intellectualism 
places him among the modern cinema's 
avant-garde, he constantly draws on the 
popular traditions of novelettes, serials, 



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and strip cartoons that are scorned by 
the elite. Perhaps this is why Hiroshima 
and Marienbad, films one might have 
thought would appeal only to cinéphiles, 
reached an extremely wide public in 
many countries. His universe is far from 
being as closed in as the baroque palace 
of Marienbad. Even this apparently atcm- 
poral film was ultimately a reflection of 
contemporary French reality as were 
later, more openly, Muriel and La Guerre 
est finie. 

[ed Nicole Védrès' Paris 1900* (47) (assist 
to Myriam), Aux frontières de l'homme 
(56); Paul Paviot's Saint-Tropez, Devoir 
de vacances (52); Agnes Varda's La 
Pointe Courte* (55); Reichenbach's No- 
vembre à Paris (56); Jacques Doniol- 
Valcroze's L'Oeil du maître (57); Wil- 
liam Klein's Broadway by Light (57); 
and most of his own shorts.] 
dir (shorts): Schéma d'une identification 
(46), Ouvert pour cause d'inventaire 
(46), Visite à Lucien Coutaud (47), 
Visite à Félix Labisse (47); Visite à 
Hans Hartnung (47), Visite à Oscar Do- 
minguez (47) (unfinished), Visite à 
César Domela (47), Portrait d'Henri 
Goetz (47), La Bague (47) (Marcel 
Marceau mime), Journée naturelle/Visite 
à Max Ernst (47), L'Alcool tue (47, 
released 50), Les Jardins de Paris (48), 
Châteaux de France (48), Malfray (48), 
Van Gogh (48) (first in 16mm, then re- 
made in 35mm), Gauguin (50), Guer- 
nica* (50), Les Statues meurent aussi 
(50-53) (co-dir: Chris Marker), Nuit 
et Brouillard* (55), Toute la mémoire 
du monde (56), Le Mystère de l'atelier 
15 (57) (co-dir: André Heinrich), Le 
Chant du Styrène (58). 
dir (features): Hiroshima mon amour* 
(59), L'Année dernière à Marienbad* 
(61), Muriel ou le Temps d'un retour* 
(63), La Guerre est finie* (66), Loin 
de Vietnam (67) (episode, in collabora- 
tion), Je t'aime, je t'aime (68). 

RE Y, Flerian dir Spain. (1897-1961) The 
best of the Spanish directors during the 
silent period; his best film, La A Idea 
Maldita (29), was much admired in 
France, where it was presented by Juan 
Piqueras, "the Spanish Delluc." 

REYNAUD, Emile inventor/anim. France. 
(Montreuil Dec 8, 1844-Ivry Jan 8, 
1918) Imaginative creator of precinema 
animated cartoons who was the first to 
organize regular showings of animated 



images (in color and with sound accom- 
paniment) at the Musée G re vin in Paris 
in 1892. An artisan of genius and a mar- 
velous "painter on film," which he drew 
and painted in gouache frame by frame, 
he died in poverty after destroying most 
of his film reels. Luckily, Pauvre Pierrot 
and Autour d'une cabine have been pre- 
served. The first of these pantomimes 
lumineuses, still quite theatrical, abounds 
in tricks and gags, while the second 
moves into nature, showing the waves 
of the sea, birds in flight, and bathers 
on the beach as acutely observed as 
Jacques Tati later observed them in Les 
Vacances de M. Hulot*. His progenitive 
cartoons reveal a marvelous ability to 
capture typical human behavior, a talent 
that his successors in the "eighth art" 
have never quite been able to match. 
1876 — Praxinoscope, a toy with sequen- 
tial drawings animated by rotating mir- 
rors. 1 878 — Projecting Praxinoscope. 
1889 -Patent for his "optical theater" 
using perforated film, presented at the 
Exposition Universelle. 1892-1900- 
Many thousands of performances of his 
pantomimes lumineuses at the Musée 
Grcvin, with the reels: Un bon bock 
(1891), Clown et ses chiens (1891), 
Pauvre Pierrot* (1891), Rêve au coin 
du feu (1894), Autour d'une cabine* 
(1894), Guillaume Tell (1896), Le Pre- 
mier Cigare (1896). These last two were 
photos-scènes, drawings based on photo- 
graphs, the first featuring Footit and 
Chocolat, the second Galipaux. 1903 — 
Attempts at stereoscopic cinema using 
sets of praxinoscopic mirrors. 

RICHARDSON, Tony (Cecil Antonio Richardson) 

dir Britain. (Shipley, Yorkshire 1928- 
) With Lindsay Anderson (q.v.) and 
Karel Reisz (q.v.) he entered films via 
the Free Cinema movement and the re- 
vival of British drama in the Fifties (he 
was a stage and TV producer from 1949) 
and was one of the hopes for the British 
cinema in the Sixties. But his work has 
been extremely uneven: Sanctuary was 
a disastrous American experience, but 
he brilliantly and sensitively portrayed 
the realities of certain aspects of En- 
glish life in Look Back in Anger and 
the excellent A Taste of Honey, films 
with a certain touch of poetry. [After 
The Loneliness of the Long Distance 
Runner he abandoned provincial drama 
in favor of the witty, ironic, and stylish 
Tom Jones. Its enormous commercial 



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success led to his being given a com- 
pletely free hand for the adaptation of 
The Loved One in the USA, but he 
turned out one of the most disappoint- 
ing and disastrous films of the Sixties. 
He seems never to have recovered fully 
from this experience, for his subsequent 
films have hovered between the preten- 
tious and the pointless — though The 
Charge of the Light Brigade stands out 
in comparison to the surrounding me- 
diocrity.] 

Dm: Momma Don't Allow (55) (docu- 
mentary; co-dir: Karel Reisz), Look 
Back in Anger (59), The Entertainer 
(60), Sanctuary (USA60), A Taste of 
Honey* (61), The Loneliness of the 
Long-Distance Runner (62) Tom Jones* 
(63), The Loved One (USA64), Made- 
moiselle (Brit/Fr65), The Sailor from 
Gibraltar (66), Red and Blue (67), The 
Charge of the Light Brigade (68), 
Laughter in the Dark (Brit/Fr69), Ham- 
let* (69), Ned Kelly (70). 

RICHTER, Ham d» Germany /US A/Swit- 
zerland. (Berlin 1888- ) Important 
film maker of the European avant-garde 
of the Twenties and a theoretician on 
abstract films. He joined the dada move- 
ment in Zurich in 1916; his friendship 
with Viking Eggeling (q.v.) led to his 
making his first "Rollenbild" (scroll 
painting) in 1919 and eventually to his 
first abstract films in 1921. He later 
made surrealist essays, e.g., Ghosts Be- 
fore Breakfast, and social studies, In- 
flation and Rennsymphonie. [He worked 
throughout Europe on industrial shorts 
and commercials until 1941, when he 
moved to the USA and was film profes- 
sor at the City College of New York. 
He returned to Europe in 1952 and 
settled in Switzerland, where he has con- 
tinued to collaborate with Duchamp, 
Caldcr, Ernest, etc. on experimental 
films. He has continued to work also as 
a painter.] 

dir: Rhythmus 21 (21), Rhythmus 23 
(23), Rhythmus 25 (25), Filmstudie 
(25), Inflation (27) (originally intended 
as prelude to W. Thiele's Die Dame 
mit der Maske), Vormittagspuk/Ghosts 
Before Breakfast (28), Rennsymphonie 
(29) (prelude to Robert Dinesen's Ari- 
adne in Hoppegarten), Zwischengro- 
schenzauber (29), Ailes drecht sich, 
ailes bewegt sich (29), Everyday (Brit 
29), Neues Leben (Switz30), Europa 
Radio (Switz31), Hallo Everybody 



(Neth33), Metall (31-33) (unfinished), 
Vom Blitz zum Fernsehbild (Neth36), 
Eine kUine Welt im Dunkeln (Switz38), 
Die Enstehung der Farbe (Switz38), Die 
Eroberung des Himmels (Switz38), Hans 
im Gliick (Switz38), Die Bôrse (Switz 
39), The Movies Take a Holiday (USA 
44) (compilation), Dreams That Money 
Can Buy (USA44-46) (sequences in 
collaboration with Léger, Ernst, Man 
Ray, Duchamp, Calder, etc.), Thirty 
Years of Experiments (USA51) (an- 
thology of his own films and those of 
Eggeling and Ruttmann, Dadascope I 
(Switz56), Chesscetera/ Passionate Pas- 
time (Switz57), Acht mal acht/8 x 8 
(Switz57), Forty Years of Experiment, 
Parts 1 and 11 (61) (reworking and up- 
dating of earlier anthology), Alexander 
Calder: From the Circus to the Moon 
(63) (episodes from Dreams That Money 
Can Buy and 8x8), Dadascope II 
(Switz67). 

RIEFENSTAHl, Leni (Bertha Amalis Helens R.) 

DIR Germany. (Berlin Aug 22, 1902- ) 
An actress in the mountain films of 
Fanck (q.v.) and Pabst (q.v.) who di- 
rected the mammoth documentary to the 
glory of Hitler and the Nazis, The 
Triumph of the Will, a film that often 
reveals, in spite of itself, the vainglory 

and cruelty of the Fascists. She was 
given almost unlimited technical re- 
sources and financial backing to create 
an epic propaganda film of the Olympic 
Games in Berlin in 1936. [She was ac- 
cused of Nazi collaboration after the 
war but was cleared of all charges in 
1952. She has since made various at- 
tempts to complete a documentary on 
Africa, Schwarze Fracht, but has largely 
abandoned the cinema.] 
dir: Das Blaue Licht (32), Der Sieg des 
Glaubens (33) (documentary). Triumph 
des Willens* (34), Tag der Freiheit- 
unsere Wehrmacht (35) (documentary), 
Olympische Spiele 1936/The Olympiad* 
(38) (in two parts: F est der Vôlker, 
Fest der Schonheit), Tiefland (45) (prep- 
aration began 1934, released 1954). She 
also acted in Fanck's Der Heilige Berg 
(26), Der Grosse Sprung (27), The 
White Hell of Pitz Palu (29), Sturme 
iiber dem Montblanc (30), Der Weisse 
Rausch (31), S.O.S. Eisberg (33), and 
her own The Blue Light and Tiefland, 

RIM, Carle see CARLO-RIM 



216 



RISKIN, Robert scen USA. (New York 
1897-New York 1955) Hollywood script- 
writer, famous mainly for his scripts in 
the Thirties for Frank Capra's (g.v.) 
best films. 

[scen (notably) : for Capra, The Miracle 
Woman (31), Platinum Blond (31), 
American Madness (32), Lady for a 
Day* (33), // Happened One Night* 

(34) , Broadway Bill (34), Mr. Deeds 
Goes to Town* (36), Lost Horizon 

(37) , You Can't Take It With You* 

(38) , Meet John Doe (41), Riding High 
(51) (remake of Broadway Bill); for 
John Ford, The Whole Town's Talking* 

(35) . His other work is uninteresting.] 

RITT, Martin DiR USA. (New York March 
2, 1920- ) Like Delbert Mann (q.v.) 
and others, he graduated from TV-pro- 
ducing to film-making and began with 
two interesting low-budget films, Edge 
of the City and No Down Payment. 
Later, recognized by Hollywood as a 
"quality" director, he made only me- 
diocre, craftsmanlike films, though Hud, 
The Spy Who Came in from the Cold, 
and Hombre stand out above the rest. 
dir.- Edge of the City /A Man is Ten 
Feet Tall* (56), No Down Payment 
(57), The Long Hot Summer (57), The 
Sound and the Fury (58), The Black 
Orchid (59), Five Branded Women (60), 
Paris Blues (61), Adventures of a Young 
Man (62), Hud (63), The Outrage* 
(64) (remake of Rashomon*), The Spy 
Who Came in from the Cold (65), 
Hombre (67), The Brotherhood (68), 
The Molly Maguires (69), The Great 
White Hope (70). 

RITTAU, Giinther photog Germany/Ger- 
man Federal Republic. (Kônigshùtte 
1893-Aug 1971) Major cameraman dur- 
ing the classic German silent period, who 
began his career working on scientific 
documentaries before collaborating on the 
photography of Lang's Die Nihelungen* 
and Metropolis*, Joe May's Heimkehr 
and Asphalt*, and Sternberg's The Blue 
Angel*. He photographed numerous me- 
diocre films during and after the Nazi 
period and himself directed several me- 
diocre films: U-Boote westwdrts (41), 
Der Strom (42), Der Ewige Klang (43), 
Vor uns liegt das Leben (48), etc. 

RIVETTE, Jacques DiR France. (Rouen 
March 1, 1928- ) Former film critic 
and editor, a film maker of high intel- 



lectual sensibility, who, despite the im- 
portance of Paris nous appartient, has 
had difficulty establishing himself and 
has had little commercial success with 
any of his films. 

[dir: Aux quatre coins (50) (16mm 
short), Le Quadrille (50) (16mm short), 
Le Divertissement (52) (16mm short), 
Le Coup de berger (56) (short), Paris 
nous appartient* (60), Suzanne Simonin, 
la religieuse de Diderot/La Religieuse 
(65), Jean Renoir, le patron (66) (TV), 
L'Amour fou (68), Out One (71 ). 

ROACH, Hal prod USA. (Elmira Jan 14, 
1892- ) Mack Sennett's {q.v.) nearest 
rival as a producer of comedy films, 
less creatively involved with his films 
but a better businessman than Sennett. 
He launched Harold Lloyd {q.v.), Laurel 
and Hardy, and Our Gang. A former 
truck driver and cowboy actor, he pro- 
duced for Pathé the profitable series 
of Lonesome Luke comedies (14-22) 
with Harold Lloyd; in 1919 he estab- 
lished his own studios; in 1921 made the 
first of the Our Gang film with a group 
of children (which changed with the 
years); in 1925 he formed the team of 
Laurel and Hardy; in 1937 he produced 
the first of the Topper series (dir: Nor- 
man Z. McLeod). Also produced, nota- 
bly, Milestone's Of Mice and Men (39), 
One Million B.C. /Man and His Mate 
(40) (also dir). 

robbe-GaILLet, Alain scen/dir France. 
(Brest Aug 18, 1922- ) Famous author 
of the French nouveau roman who wrote 
the script of L'Année dernière à Marien- 
bad* (61) and later developed his lite- 
rary approach as director of L'Immor- 
telle (62), Trans-Europ Express (66), 
L'Homme qui ment/Muz ktory luze 
(Fr/Czech67), L'Eden et l'après (69). 

ROBERT, Yve$ dir France. (Saumur June 
19, 1920- ) One-time cabaret (La Rose 
rouge) and stage actor who turned film 
maker and achieved great success with 
La Guerre des boutons (62), followed 
by Bébert et l'omnibus (63), Copains 
(64), Monnaie de singe (Fr/Sp65), Alex- 
andre le bienheureux (67), and Cléram- 
bard (69). 

ROBISON, Arthur (a/so A. Robinson) DIR 

Germany. (Chicago June 25 1888-Ber- 
lin? 1935) Born in the USA of German 
parents, he was a stage actor early in 



217 



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his career and directed only one memo- 
rable film, Schatten/ Warning Shadows* 
(22), a curious blend of the theatrical, 
expressionism, and Kammerspiel. [Other 
films include: Natch des Grauens (16), 
Pietro der Korsa (24), Manon Lescaut 
(26), Der Letzte Walzer (27), The In- 
former* (Brit29), Des Jungen Dessauers 
grosse Liebe (33), Fiirst Woronzeff (34), 
Der Student von Prag (35) (remake).] 

robson, Mark Dm USA/Britain. (Mon- 
treal, Canada Dec 4, 1913- ) In a 
standard commercial career he has had 
the good fortune to direct several good 
scripts: Champion (49), Home of the 
Brave (49), Phfft (54), The Harder 
They Fall (56). [Like Robert Wise (q.v.), 
he began his career (1933) as an editor 
at RKO (Wise's Cat People*) and di- 
rected several films for Val Lewton 
(q.v.) -The Seventh Victim (43), The 
Ghost Ship (43), Youth Runs Wild 
(44), Isle of the Dead (45), Bedlam 
(46) — before joining Stanley Kramer 
(q.v.) for the boxing film, Champion, 
and the antiracist war film, Home of the 
Brave. His work since has been increas- 
ingly facile: My Foolish Heart (50), 
Edge of Doom (50), Bright Victory 
(51), / Want You (51), Return to Para- 
dise (53), Hell below Zero (Brit54), The 
Bridges of Toko-Ri (54), A Prize of 
Gold (55), Trial (55) (a mixture of 
antiracism and anticommunism), The 
Utile Hut (57), Peyton Place (58), The 
Inn of the Sixth Happiness (Brit58), 
From the Terrace (59), Nine Hours to 
Rama (Brit63), The Prize (63), Von 
Ryan's Express (65), Lost Command 
(66), Valley of the Dolls (67), Daddy's 
Gone A-hunting (69).] 

•ROCHA, Glauber DiR Brazil. (Bahia 1938- 
) Young Brazilian film maker, one of 
the most powerful forces behind the de- 
velopment of Brazilian cinema novo, 
first as journalist and film critic in the 
late Fifties, then as film maker, spokes- 
man, and theorist for the movement. At 
the age of 23 he made his first feature, 
Barravento, and since then his work, like 
that of other members of the group, has 
turned away from European influences 
to return to the roots of his country, 
its tradition, conflicts and violence, its 
mysticism and primitivism. His The Black 
God and the White Devil (64), with its 
violent, lyrical, almost baroque style 
and its concern for Brazilian social reali- 



ties, introduced cinema novo to the out- 
side world; Terra em transe analyzed the 
urban political situation and the role of 
the Brazilian intellectuals, while the more 
conventional Antonio das Mortes re- 
turned to mythology and the agrarian 
situation. 

dir: O Patio (58) (short), A Cruz na 
Praca (59) (short), Barravento* (61), 
Dcus e o Diabo na terra do sol/The 
Black God and the White Devil* (64), 
Amazonas (65) (short), Maranhao (66) 
(short), Terra em transe* (66), Antonio 
das Mortes/O Dragâo da Naldada con- 
tra o Santo Guerreiro (69), Cabezas 
cortadas (Sp70), Der Leone Have Sept 
Cabecas (Fr/It/Brazil70). 

ROCHEMONT, Louis de see DE ROCHEMONT, 
LOUIS 

•ROEG, Nicholas photog/dir Britain. 
(1928- ) One of the most brilliant of 
the new generation of cameramen, seen 
at his best in the fluent images of Far 
from the Madding Crowd, Petulia, and 
Fahrenheit 451, who made a striking 
debut as director of Performance, a "dif- 
ficult" film whose release was held up 
for two years by its distributor. 
photoo (notably): Clive Donner's The 
Caretaker (63), Nothing But the Best 
(63); Robert Lynn's Dr. Crippen (64), 
Victim 5 (GFR/Brit64); Roger Cor- 
man's Masque of the Red Death (64); 
Daniel Mann's Judith ( Israel /USA65); 
Richard Lester's A Funny Thing Hap- 
pened on the Way to the Forum (66), 
Petulia* (67); Truffaut's Fahrenheit 451 
(66); John Schlesinger's Far from the 
Madding Crowd (67), and his own 
films. 

Dm: Performance (68, released 70) (co- 
dir: Donald Cammel), Walkabout (71), 
The Strange Voyage of Donald Crow- 
hurst (project). Also scenario for Cliff 
Owen's A Prize of Arms (61) and Law- 
rence Huntington's Death Drums along 
the River (64). 

ROGOSIN, Lionel Dm USA. (New York 
1924- ) One of the best of the inde- 
pendent New York film makers who has 
used the "camera eye" to make two cou- 
rageous and brilliant feature documen- 
taries, On the Bowery (55) and Come 
Back Africa* (59), the second shot in 
secret in South Africa. Also: Good 
Times, Wonderful Times (65). 



218 



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ROHRIO. Waft«r ART DIR Germany. (189?- 
) Major set designer of German ex- 
pressionist films, a style that he helped 
establish by his collaboration (with 
Warm and Reimann) on The Cabinet of 
Dr. Caligari. [He was originally a painter 
and stage designer. From 1920-36 he 
usually worked in collaboration with 
Robert Herlth (q.v.). His later work 
is typical of the heavy decorative UFA 
style of the Nazi regime.] 
art DIR (notably): for Wiene, Das Cabi- 
net des Dr. Caligari* (19); for Otto Rip- 
pert, Die Pest in Florent (19); for We- 
gener and Boese, Der Golem, Wie er in 
die Welt kam* (20); for Lang, Der Miide 
Tod* (20); for Murnau, Der Lettte 
Mann* (24), Tartiiff 25), Faust* (26); 
for Arthur von Gerlach, Zur Chronik 
von Crieshuus (25); for Erik Charrell, 
Der Kongress tanzt* (31); for Gustav 
Ucicky, Hokuspokus (31), Morgenrot 
(33), Heimkehr (41); for Karl Ritter, 
Unternehmen Michael (37), Patrioten 
(37), Pour le mérite (38), Capriccio 

(39) , Die Hochzeitsreise (39), Bal paré 

(40) , Ueber ailes in der Welt (41); for 
Hans Steinhoif, Rembrandt (42). 

ROMM, Mikhail Myeh DiR USSA. (Irkutsk 
Jan 24, 1901-Oct 1971) Veteran Soviet 
director who began his directorial career 
with the remarkable Boule de suif, the 
best film adaptation ever made of a Mau- 
passant story. His two lively biographical 
portraits of the great revolutionary, 
Lenin in October and Lenin in 1918, 
were well-merited successes, and his Girl 
No. 217 was a moving tableau of the 
suffering endured by Russian women 
deported to Germany. But later, in The 
Russian Question and Murder on the 
Rue Dante, he tried unsuccessfully to 
re-create a foreign atmosphere that he 
understood poorly; and he was hampered 
by an excessive budget and the dictates 
of the "cult of personality" in Admiral 
Ushakov. However, his work returned 
to its original power in the personal and 
courageous Nine Days of One Year and 
Ordinary Fascism. Both as film maker 
and professor at the Moscow film school, 
(VGIK) he has contributed to the train- 
ing of many contemporary Soviet direc- 
tors, particularly Grigori Chukrai (q.v.). 
He began his film career (1930) as script- 
writer and was assistant to Alexander 
Macheret on Delà y lyudi/Men and Jobs 
(32). 

DDL: Pyshka/ Boule de suif* (34), Trinad- 



stat I The Thirteen (37), Lenin v Oktya- 
bre/ Lenin in October* (37), Lenin v 
191 8/ Lenin in 1918* (39), Dream 

(43) , Chelovek No. 2 17 1 Girl No. 217* 

(44) , Ruskii vopros/Tlie Russian Ques- 
tion 47), Lenin* (48) (documentary; 
co-dir: V. Belyaev), Sekretnaya missiya/ 
Secret Mission (50), Admiral Ushakov 
(53), Korabli shturmuyut bastiony/The 
Ships Storm the Bastions (53), Ubiistvo 
na utilitze Dante/Murder on the Rue 
Dante (56), Devyat' dney odnogo goda/ 
Nine Days of One Year* (61). Obik- 
novennii Fashizm/ Ordinary Fascism 
(65), Lost Letters (66) (short), A Night 
of Thought (66). 

ROOM, Abram DIR USSR. (Vil no 1 894- 
) Good Soviet film maker, at his best 
in the silent period, he has an excellent 
visual sense and a feeling for psycho- 
logical characterizations. He is most 
famous for Bed and Sofa (27), which 
depicts the daily life of a Moscow fam- 
ily and their lodger during the New 
Economic Policy (NEP), but directed 
at least one other worthwhile film, The 
Ghost That Will Not Return (30). He 
originally worked in the theater and 
was later a pupil of Kuleshov (q.v.) and 
an assistant director. 

DiR (notably) : Bukhta smerti/Death Bay 
(26), Predatel /Traitor (26), Tretya 
Meshchanskaya/Bed and Sofa/Third 
Meshchanskaya (27), Ruts (28), Privi- 
deniye, kotoroye ne vozvrashchayetsa/ 
The Ghost That Will Not Return (30), 
Plan velikh rabot/Plan of Great Works 
(30) (documentary), A Stern Young 
Man (36), Wind from the East (41), 
Nashestiviye/ Invasion (45) (co-dir: Oleg 
Zhakov), In the Mountains of Yugo- 
slavia (46), Court of Honor (50). 

ROOS, J«srg 9n Dm /photog Denmark. (GU- 
leleje Aug 14, 1922- ) The best Danish 
documentait and one of the best in 
Europe: sharp, perceptive, and often 
humorous, he has retained from his in- 
terest in surrealism a taste for poetic 
parody and curious interrelationships. 
He was a cameraman 1939-47, occa- 
sionally for his brother, Karl Johannes 
Roos (April 14, 1914-April 7, 1951); 
1942-47 he co-directed several shorts 
with Albert Mertz, including Flugten 
(42), Historien om en mand (44), God- 
dag Dyrl (47). 

dir: Isen brydes (47) (co-dir: Poul 
Bang), Opus I (Fr48), Mikkel (48). 



219 



uopyrigr 



Paris pa to mader (49), Jean Cocteau 
(Fr49), Tristan Tzara, père du dadaïsme 
(Fr49), Det Definitiv afslag pa anmod- 
ningen om et kys (49) (co-dir: W. Fred- 
die), Spiste horisonter (50) (co-dir: 
W. Freddie), Shakespeare og Kronborg 
(50), Historien om et slot (51), /. F. 
Willumsen (51), Den Stromlinjede gris 

(52) , Slum (52), Ferieborn (52), Lyset 
i natten (53), Spaedbarnet (53), God- 
dag B0rn (53), Skyldig-lkke Skyldig 

(53) , Kalkmalerier (54), Inge bliver 
voksen (54), Avisen (54), Martin An- 
dersen Nex0s sidste rejse (54), Mit live 
eventyr (55), Soit (56), Ellehammer/ 
The Flying Dane (57), Johannes Larsen 
(57), Magie du diamant (Belg58), 6- 
Dageslobet (58), Friluft (59), Den Sidste 
Vinter (60), En by ved navn Kpbenhavn 
(60), [Danish Design (60), Staphylokok- 
faren (60), Forayar-Faeroerne (61), Fi 
haenger i en trad (62), Jprgen Roos 
zeigt Hamburg (62), Oslo (63), Nlfcfta 
Krustjev (64), Sfo; (65), Car/ 77i. Dr<?y<r 
(66), Knud (66), Sisimilut (66), Kaer- 
ligheden varer laengt (67), E/i fanger- 
familie i Thuledistriktet (66), Cr^/i- 
landske dialektoptagelser og tromme- 
danse fra Thuledistriktet (67), Sytten 
minutter GrQnland (67), £f ar med 
Henry (67), /*« skal ha' briller (68), 
l/Wwa Thule (68), Cw*tav Vigeland 
(68). 

PHOTOG (notably): for Karl Roos, Co- 
penhagen Calling (47); for Dreyer, De 
Naede Faergen (48), Krogen og Kron- 
borg (52); and many of his own films.] 

ROSAS, Enrique and COS, Joachim DIR. Mex- 
ico. The authors in 1919 of an admirable 
Mexican episode film, El Automovil 
gris*, which re-created a series of crimes 
during the Mexican Revolution. 

roshal, Grigori DiR USSR. (Ukraine 
1898- ) Good Soviet director who has 
worked in many genres and has made 
many films of an appealing vitality, most 
memorably, Petersburg Night (34) and 
one of the most interesting films during 
the low period of the Soviet cinema, 
1946-54, Academician Ivan Pavlov (49). 
DiR (notably): Gospoda Skotinini (26), 
Yevo prevoshoditielstvo/Your Excellency 
(27), Salamandra (28), Chelovek 12 
mestietka (30), Petersburgskaya noch/ 
Petersburg Night (34) (co-dir: V. Stro- 
yeva), Zori Parischa/Dawn in Paris 
(37), Semla Openheim/The Oppenheim 
Family (38), Delo Avtamonovich/The 



Artamanov Affair (41), Pesni Abaya/ 
Song of Abaya (45), Akademik Ivan 
Pavlov /Academician Ivan Pavlov* (49), 
Musorgsky (50), Rimsky-Korsakov (52), 
Aleko (53), Volnitsa (55), Sestri I, 11, 
III (57, 59, 60) (from Tolstoy), Karl 
Marx (63). Also co-scripted Ptushko's 
A New Gulliver* (35). 

*ROSI, Francesco Dm Italy. (Naples Nov 
15, 1922- ) Excellent film maker of 
the younger generation whose aggressive, 
rigorous films concentrate on social prob- 
lems. More than any other Italian film 
maker he has remained faithful to the 
challenges of neorealism and gave the 
movement a new impetus with, notably, 
Salvatore Giuliano, Le Mani sulla Città, 
an // Momento délia Verità. After a brief 
spell in radio he served his apprentice- 
ship under Visconti (q.v.) and Antonioni 
(q.v.) and co-wrote several scripts be- 
fore directing his first feature. 
assist (notably): to Visconti, La Terra 
trema* (48), Bellissima (51), Senso* 
(54); to Luciano Emmer, Domenica 
d'Agosto (50), Parigi è sempre Parigi 
(51); to Antonioni / Vinti (52). 
co-scen (notably): Zampa's Processo 
alla Città (52); Monicelli's Proibito (54); 
Risi's // Sorpasso (62); and all his own 
films. 

dir: Camicie Rosse (51) (completed 
only; begun by G. Allessandrini), Kean 
(54) (technical dir only: dir: V. Gass- 
man), La Sfida (58), / Magliari (59), 
Salvatore Giuliano* (61), Le Mani sulla 
Città* (63), // Momento del la Verità 
(65), Cera una volta/More Than a 
Miracle /Happily Ever After/Cinderella 
Italian Style (67), Uomini contro (70). 

'Rossellini, Renzo mus Italy. (Rome 
1908- ) Italian composer partial to 
impressive symphonic themes, his best 
work has been for his elder brother, 
Roberto: Un Pilota Ritorna, Roma, Città 
Aperta*. Paisà, Francesco Guiliare di 
Dio, Stromboli, Europa 51*, Viaggio in 
Italia*, Angst, Il Générale della Rovere. 

ROSSELLINI, Roberto dir Italy. (Rome June 
8, 1906- ) For many, he is the best of 
the postwar Italian film makers. His 
Rome, Open City, made at the end of 
the war and based on the experiences of 
the Italian underground, established neo- 
realism as the most important and in- 
fluential postwar style and won him a 



220 



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worldwide reputation. His work, espe- 
cially that in the Fifties, considerably 
influenced many of the French new- 
wave film makers. He was originally a 
technician, editor, and scriptwriter and 
made several short films before turning, 
in collaboration with F. De Robertis 
(who had preceded him in this approach), 
to the quasi-documentary fiction of La 
Nave Bianca (41), a film that didn't 
show "novelettish characters but real 
people." However, "documentary ob- 
jectivity" was a pipe dream under fas- 
cism in wartime and he was forced into 
the worst propaganda with L'Uomo delta 
Croce. But he quickly took hold of him- 
self, and his involvement with the Italian 
underground led him to become the 
spokesman for the Italian people after 
the war. His second postwar film, Paisà, 
was an expensive production in which 
he was able to exploit freely the new 
approach of having people live out their 
actual experiences for the camera. With 
his scriptwriters, Fellini (q.v.) and Ami- 
dei (q.v.), he built up a fresco of various 
episodes in the liberation of Italy. Ger- 
many, Year Zero was another attempt 
at lyrical reportage but its near-failure 
commercially made him doubt his 
methods and the role he had played 
since the war. He tried new themes — 
the fantastic in La Macchina ammazza- 
cattivi and Christian mythology in Flow- 
ers of St. Francis — before Ingrid Berg- 
man came into his life. The attendant 
scandal marked a turning point in his 
work. During his "Bergman period" he 
depicted his beliefs and concern in the 
sincere Stendhalian, but little known 
Europa 51, better even than Viaggia in 
Italia. Though his work gained him 
many admirers in certain film circles, 
commercial success escaped him. After 
an absence of some years from the cin- 
ema, he visited India to recapture his 
documentary roots and made the bril- 
liant, provocative India, of which he 
said: "What matters to me is man. I 
have tried to express the soul, the light 
that shines inside people, their reality, 
which is an absolutely personal, unique 
reality, secured by an individual, with a 
sense of the things around them. These 
things have a meaning since there is 
someone observing them." This state- 
ment could also be a summation of the 
best of his work and of the methods of 
filming that he has continued to advo- 
cate: "Begin by an investigation, a docu- 



mentation, and then pass to dramatic 
motives, but in such a way as will repre- 
sent things as they are, as will retain 
their integrity. Yes, it is necessary for 
the cinema to teach men to know them- 
selves, to recognize themselves in others 
instead of always telling the sa